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D E0D7 lEDb3Sb S 

California Slate Library 




lilnraia. 



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fVf/m an Act prf^crOiimj Ritltit for the Gi/vtrnmr.nt of thr State Librari/^ pass'd 
Miirek Slh, 1801. 



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Volume IX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1875. 



[Number i. 



Where is Your Garden? 

This question has special reference to your 
▼egetable garden. Farming proper has been 
recognized in all ages as the most ennobling of 
all callings, and the refining influence of the 
flower garden has never failed to be appreci- 
ated; but the domestic and even social benefits 
derived from the more prosaic vegetable garden 
— benefits aside from and altogether above those 
of a pecuniary nature— have not, we are sorry 
to say, received the consider- 
ation they deserve. Farmers, 
as we all know, detect a good 
deal of "bosh" in what is 
said in praise of their call- 
ing, and are properly disgust- 
ed with the same; while the 
most zealous toilers iu the 
flower garden are diffident 
about deolaring thi ir prefer- 
ences for fear of subjecting 
themselves to the ridicule 
bestowed upon Ihe sickly 
sentimentality which is for- 
ever trying to excite our ad- 
miration on the score of a 
passionate lover for flowers. 
But bosh and sentimenlalism 
])^ve not yet invaded the 
vegetable garden, though 
these parasites might flud 
here a sufficiency of nutri- 
ment. 

Earnest efibrts have been 
made on the part of the well 
wishers of Ameiican rural 
life, to attach people to their 
homes. These efforts are 
made, principally, in behalf 
of the youth of the country; 
but the short sightedness of 
this view is palpaiJo to aoy 
one who is at all acquainted 
with the American character. 
The proverbial discontent 
which is so deplorable in thei 
youth of the rural distiicts, 
will never show itself or never 
exist, where contentment and 
satisfaction are unmistakably 
manifested by the heads of 
families, and by the older 
members of the community 
generally. We shall, on some 
future occasion, take in hand 
this subject of rural discontent, endeavoring to 
trace out its real sources, and attaching the 
blame where it belongs; but our present pur- 
pose is to ©O'er a bit of advice which we are 
confident will, if thoroughly applied, exert a 
strong curative influence iu this really serious 
case. 

This simple remedy is vegetable gardening. 
If the reader has ever owned a good vegetable 
garden, one that was mainly dependent upon 
his own labor and attention, we are willing to 
leave the decision of the question with him, 
whether it is not one of the hardest links to 
sever in "roakiog a move." We know full well 
how the farmer feels on leaving, forever, the 
orchard he planted, the fields that he subdued, 
and, in fact, the farm which he may almost 
justly claim to have made; and we can sympa- 
thize with the men or women who are com- 
pelled to leave their nursling flowers and 
shrubs, but in neither case is the afi'eclion 
stronger or purer, or the regrets at parting 
more keen than in the case of a complete vege- 
table garden. This, in fact, is even move a 
family affair thau either of the other ties. The 
woman of the household takes to the garden.in- 
stiuctively, and finds in it healthful exercise, 
pleasant recreation, and important aid in do- 
mestic eoonomv . She is followed thither by the 
youthful members of the familj'. The yuuth 
who is juBt merging into manhood will find no 
readier or pleasanter means of showing his 
willingness to do something for his mother than 
by atsisting in ker liltl« garden enterprises, 
and the little one who persists in cliuging to 
h«r skirt in all places can do so here and enjoy 
at the saute time, tke needed sunskine and Airt. 



On the male head of the family the influence 
of the garden is quite as beneficial; the social 
and domestic effects being particularly health- 
ful. In the case of the regular farmer this in- 
fluence is perhaps not needed except as form- 
incf an additional incentive to contentment and 
stability of purpose; but there are so many men, 
even in farming; neighborhoods — mechanics, 
merchants and professional men — who would, 
in various ways derive benefit from garden 
culture. But it is in the villages and cities 
that the best results of gardening are seen; 
forming an attraction which is more strongly 



Pickling and Preserving. 

A correspondent writes to us from a distant 
State concerning the prospects for the pickling 
and preserving business in California, with in- 
quiries as to the facilities for obtaining the ra v 
material; and asks if "vines will grow well 
here." As far as the supply of material is con- 
cerned, we can assure him that there is no por- 
tion of the world that surpasses California in 
variety or abundance, both of vegetables and 




Bee-Hunting. 

The large illustration which we give en the 
first page of this, our holiday sheet, is decrip- 
tive of one of the notable incidents of coun- 
try life, namely, bee-hunting. Although bee- 
hunters in their reports of these adventures 
generally report satisfactory returns in honey, 
they almost invariably dwell most on the 
pleasurable excitement attending the hunt. 
The programme of thebee hunt varies some- 
what in different localities. 
A very common mode, and 
one which we will suppose is 
being UFed by the parties in 
the accompanying picture is 
as follows: The hunters re- 
sort in the daytime to locali- 
ses where these wild swarms 
are supposed to exist, and 
endeavor to entice the bees 
away from their tree-hives, 
A common method to accom- 
plish this purpose is to cre- 
ate a strong but agreeable 
odor, by filling the cells of 
ol.l honey comlis with anise- 
set d and burning it between 
heated iron or stones. This 
ntlraets the bees, and in the 
vicinity of these enticing 
fumes, honey or some other 
lieefood is pLiced. The bees 
feed on this. 



BEE HUNTING. 



coun'er to that of the dram shop or bar room, 
than any with which wo are acquainted. 

We trust our readers will forgive us for thus 
dwelliug on the domestic and social aspect of 
gardening. In a succeeding number we shall 
speak ol it in connection with some local 
characteristics that demand special attention, 
and will endeavor to exhibit the pecuniary 
profits to be derived from gardening, while the 
strictly practical points will receive due atten- 
tion. 



The Dkmand Foe JKRSKTS.^Among the rep 
resentative agriculturists whom we have had 
the satisfaction of interviewing lately is Mr. A. 
Maillard, of San Rafael, Marin county. Mr. 
M. is known as the leading importer and 
breeder of Jersey and Alderney cattle iu Cali- 
fornia. He informs us that tho demand for 
this stock is steadily increasing, and that ho is 
tilling orders from parties in other states and 
territories. The fine stock of Mr. Maillard has 
been duly noticed through the columns of our 
paper in connection with our fairs and we ate 
pleased to be assured of its popularity. lie is 
an ardent admirer of these I reeds of cattle, 
and is still strong in the faith that they are des- 
tined to form the basis of California's butter 
dairy; and one of the strongest efforts made by 
him to bring about this result is offering his 
choice stock at reasonable prices. 

A COMPANY has been organized for conhtrnct- 
ing a new hall at Monterey. 



fruits. If our correspondent desires to locate 
in San Francisco, he would have all the ad- 
vantages to be derived from the great commer- 
cial center of the Pacific coast, and the great 
receiving point of the horticultural products of 
California; and if more pickling and preserving 
establishments were in operation here the pro- 
ducers would be benefitted thereby, as much 
fruit that 13 now unsaleable for table and other 
purposes, could be used to advantage in the 
above manner, and could be procured at ex- 
tremely low rates. But should ho prefer to es- 
tablish himself in some great prodacAwj center, 
ho could receive his supplies according to his 
needs, and at still lower rates than in San 
Francisco. If ho would locate at Los Angeles, 
for instauco— an immense fruit and vegetable 
garden— his supply would embrace an almosi 
eridUss variety — including olives, limes and 
citrons — with scarcely any interruption 
throughout the year. lie would undoulitedly 
receive tho encouragemdit of tho produceis 
an<l the community at large; and if he is a 
Cir.in'.;er he could probably secure the co-oper- 
atiou of the Order in just such an enterprise as 
he wishes to engage iu. 

In answer to his inquiry concerning the pro- 
ductive ness of vines, cucumbers and melons, 
etc., we will simply state that they bear very 
abundantly in California. 

TliK San Jose woolen mill company is making 
weeklv shipments of goods to St. Jjouis, Chi- 
cago and Boston. The shipments of late have 
•ousisted vf doeskins, gassimeres and blankets. 



■AVhicli piilftpe. tlicy witli merry 

march tii Ink tiome 
'I'o tbe tent regjtlot their Emperor." 

The hunters follow them 
in their flight and thus ascer- 
tain their retreats. At night 
I hey repair to the detected 
hiding place, provided with 
axes, torches and vessels for 
transporting tlieir.sweet treas- 
ures to the>r hon;e8. 

Wo see tliem in tbe picture 
after the tree has been 
"felled," removing the honey 
from the mammoth hive, or 
rude city of hives. The full 
moon is affording all the as- 
sistance she can under— or 
rather over — the circum- 
stances, but the additional 
light of their pine torches is 
meded. Two or three 'hun- 
dred pounds of honey is not 
an unusual jield from one of 
the bee trees. It happens 
sometimes that there is a 
large amount of old comb in the tree; the quality 
of the honey being injured thereby, and some- 
times too tho honey is badly broken up by the 
breaking or jarring of the falling tree; but in 
many oases the stock is equal in every resjiect 
to the best hive honey, and is removed in good 
marketable condition. 



TnK Japanese Pkesimivion: — This tree is be 
ginning to attract the attention of our fruit- 
growers. Those who have seen the fruit in 
Japan pronounce it very flue, unlike anything 
grown in this country. General Capron, for- 
mer Commissioner of Agriculture, and since 
for several years residing in Japan, states: 
"That the persimmon is tho best of all the na- 
tive fruits of that country, and well «rorthy of 
introduction in California." Tho tree is de- 
scribed as finely shaped, having a rich, dark 
green foliage, and is an ornament anywhere. 
It produces fruit in Jaoan in from six to eight 
years from the seed. It would not be surpris- 
ing if it came into bearing earlii r with us. The 
experiments of Messrs. Shiun k Co., nursery- 
men, at Niles, Alameda county, thow conclu- 
sively that our soil and climate is well-suited 
to this loreigi.er. They hove several thousand 
successfully grown, large enough f t orchard 
planting. We gladly notice any effort on the 
l)art of our cuiturists to introduce valuable 
fruit and other trees. The successful intro- 
duction of one choice variety will repay for 
muDf failures. 



l^<^5LQJo! 



..A% PRSSI 



[January 2, 1875. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



[The Rural Press, m openinc the oolumas of this de- 
partment to its correspomlents, does not desire to lav be- 
fore its readers anything which is not in keeping with its 
character and position as an agricultural and family paper. 
Facta are alwiys th inkfulty received : and suggestions and 
mat era of opinion on subjects connected with ugricalture 
are also aooeptable; though correspondents are to be uii- 
deratoodaaspeaktng for themselves and not for the Press. ] 



Our Up-Land^. 

Editors Press: — Our uplands doniHud some 
attention. The Lind-hnuti-'rs, buyers of homes, 
seem to pay no attention to any but inigible 
lands. In fact, most of our own pooplo seem 
to think that our uplands are only tit for shi-oi). 
Some, however, are of a dilToreut opinion, a'ld 
have tested the capicity of these lands fur 
many different produefious, with good results. 

There are some two or three thousand acres 
of uplands adji^pont tj Loi Ni^tos, which with 
proper cultivation, will, without doubt, pro- 
duce remunerative crop i .ilmast every season. 
Take into consideration the superior health ful- 
ness of upland situations, and there certainly 
can be no good reason why these lauds should 
not be in demand. 

As an example of the beautiful homes that 
might dot all those plains ovur, the homo of 
Dr. Pulton, also that of Mr. Strong m:iy be 
cited. It may be safely assert'^d without fear 
of contradiction, that nowhere on the lowlands 
here, can a more beautiful front yird be found 
than that of Dr.Fubon. On the Strong place 
there will, in a few years, be an abundance of 
fruits, especially oranges. 

It may be urg"d by the advocates of the low- 
lands that these two places have enjoyed the 
benefits of irrigation. Le,t it be known, that 
the trees on the Strong place have not beeu 
irrigated during the last two years; and that uo 
more irrigation has been done until this season 
on Dr. Fulton's place than can be done any- 
where with a good well and winihu II. Bro. 
Sorrenson's place this year yit Ided sixty 
bushels of barley to the acre, and promises full 
as good a yield of corn, without irri:;ation. 
The uplands of Mr. Sanford have never been 
irrigated, neither has that of Seiior Ramirez, 
both of which places have given abundaut 
yields of small grain. 

There is no reasonable doubt that when 
these lands once come into notice, tbere will 
suddenly arise a great demand for them ; and 
they will exhibit their susceptibilities in a pan- 
orama of the most beautiful homes in the 
vicinity of Old Los Nietos. "P." 



The Bfi^if^Y, 



the milk-room, so that the chemical changes 
which take place in the milk may be natural, 
and there be no absorption, of extraneous mat- 
ter. 

"Gilt-edged" butter is worth from fifty to 
seventy cents per pound, and the market never 
canbe qluiled; while "good" butter, costing 
just as much to make, commands from nothing 
up to perhaps thirty or even forty cents. Now 
I assume tosay.that just as good "gill-edged" 
bntter can be made hero in Ohio as elsewhere, 
if we observe the same conditions. Will it 
pay? I contend it will, both in money and rep- 
utation; and with the present experience of 
another State carrying off our premium, shall 
hope and trust the lesson may not be lhior,n 
away. — P. B, in Ohio Fanner 



Premium Butter. 

If it be a fact, as reporti d, that thH butter 
which received the premium at the Northern 
Ohio Fair, was made in Delaware county, New 
York, what may be the inferences? Thit the 
conimiltee acted impartially is not <£ue8tioned. 
But was our best butter there? Was our but- 
ter interest faiily represented? I must assume 
it was not, for, aside (rum pnjudice of home, 
I conleud that we have just as jjood cows, just 
as nutritious gra.sses, just as clear water, just 
as equitable a climate, just as c\- an pins and 
bands, and just as earnest butter-makers, here 
in Ohio, as in any other locality, no matter 
howespeoiiilly favored. 

There is only one point on which a doubt 
oan be raised, and this is tis to the charac'er 
of the milk-room and the care taken in keeping 
it at the right temperature. It has been de- 
monstiared that if milk is kept as nearly as 
possible at a given temperature, more cream, 
and better, will bo obt lined than at a higher or 
lower tempi rature. It has also been d<mon- 
i-trated that a clean dry room is preferable to a 
foul and wet cue. The purer the atmosphere, 
the purer the butter. Milk is a powerful ab- 
sorbent, and no one who h is not carefully ex- 
amined would imagine the impurity taken up 
by milk and cream. 

Now if our friends in New York have auy 
new processes by which they are enabled to 
make better butter than we do, we debire to 
know it. If it be a fact, as claiiur d, that re- 
frigerators or coolina; rooms are a necessity, 
and that tbey are in advance of us on this 
point, I say, lot us remedy this difect, and 
the sooner the better. The expi rieuc^- of those 
who make "gilt-;dged" butter is, that the 
temperature of the milk-room should be as 
nearly at sisty-two degrees as possible, and 
that the room must be perfeclli/ dry and free 
from every impurity. Spdug-houses, with 
pans partly immersud in water, have bi en 
found to be objectionable on accouut of the 
dampness, and yet so much preferable to the 
best cellars. So, to remedy these otjections, 
ice-houses or refrigerators are used, which are 
now so constructed that all these objections 
are removed, giving always a pure, dry atmos- 
phere. The houses are tilled with ice in win- 
ter, which lasts until the next winter. 

''Gilt-ed'ged" butter requires no change of 
tows; no increase of cream, no increase ol 
labor — but does require care of cows, in food, 
drink and shelter; care in milking; setting the 
milk; in chuiniug and working and beasouiug; 
iiud, just as important as all other points com- 
bined, the proper condition and temperature of 



Abortion in Cows. 

As this serious malady has hitherto b.iffljd 
the skill of the best experts in the country, woo 
have failed to discover ciuse or sug'^est remedy, 
facts bearing on it will be of interest to farmers. 
By carefully collecting tho^o and collating them, 
something practical may in time be deduced, 
even from their apparent inconsistencies. 

One of our prominent dairymen in this sectio', 
who keeps on a average through the year about 
80 cows, gives us some facts in his s veral years 
experience, at variance with what we have 
always heard and understood. To keep up a 
regular supply of butter, ha very frequently 
duiing the season buys ten or twelve co'.v8 at a 
time, selling the dry ones or those nearly dry, 
off to the butcher. Contrary to the receiveci 
opinion, that a cow that aborts once is liable 
to do it continuously for several yeirs,aiid is on 
this account often sold, he finds that whi'euiue 
out of every ten cows newly purchased, abort on 
his place with their first calves after arrival, 
hardly one in ten of them aborts with their 
second or subs' qtient calves. Abortions among 
his cows are confined to those frt-shly purchased, 
and ho always expects it with them the first 
season, and does not have it among the rest. 
The epidemic character of the disease seems 
thus refuted. 

Such a result would most naturally be ex- 
pected in the old stock and not in new, the 
reverse being the fact. As to how this slate of 
things c lU be explaind, we have but one sup- 
position. The cows our friend usually pur- 
chase s, are the bust cows which can be seleet'd 
out of the droves. His system of feeding is 
high pressure, considering it true economy to 
give them all they can be induced to eat, and 
of the kind most calculated to produce the 
mo-t mik and butter. They may be considered 
aso^ once put under draining /or the pnU, as soon 
as they come on to the place. All that is in 
them is sure to be developed. We c m suppost 
this management to bo a speedy and radical 
change from their previous condit'ou. Hence 
abortion, which is usually considered as liable 
to result from such cases. Alter the auimal 
system, at the end of twelve months becomes 
accustomed to their new management, abortion 
ceases . 




Bees. 



Good Advice to Settlers. 

At a late celebration of Queen Victoria's 
birthday in Virginia, Mr. St. Andrews is re- 
ported to have given his countrymen the follow- 
ing sensible adviee, which is equally applicable 
to the . Canadians intending to migrate. He 
said : 

1. Come in colonies, or go to colonies. 

2. Bring money in your purses. 

3. Leave your prejudices behind. 
■1. Don't expect too much. 

5. For land or bu-iness pay cash. 
G. Keep two-thirds, at least of your money 
for a working capital. 

7. Avoid land sharks. You can easily find 
out the reliable lau'l agents. 

8. In buying land don't gel too much of a 
good thing. 

0. Adhere to the old fashionod principle of 
Britii-h honor. Don't attempt "smartness;" 
better class Americans don't admire it; but 
they can beat you at the game if you challenge 
th'm to it. 

10. Kemember that success is more in the 
man than in the country. 

German Emiobation. — It appears from stat- 
istics recently published, that the emigration 
from Hamburg and Bremen during the last five 
years has amounted to 7U0, 000 persons > early. 
In the more thinly-peopled districts of Prussia 
serious disadvantages have arisen from this 
exodus of the people, and the attonuon of the 
Government has been called to it. Amongst 
the causes to which it is attributed are the great 
increase in the number of emigration ai^ents in 
all parts of the empire; the disiucliu ition of 
young men to serve in the army; the improve- 
menis which have been made in the cour.so of 
the last ten years in the means of communica- 
tion between the interior and the seaports; the 
comparative comfort and cheapuevs of the voy- 
age 10 transatlantic countries; and the knowl- 
edge of the fact that greater protection, advice, 
and assistance now than formerly are afforded 
by the emiijration offices to the emigrants at 
the ports of embarkation. The Eng ish Consul 
at Hamburg, writing on the subject, says that 
there has beeu a gener^ improvement in the 
condition of the optative and agricultural 
classes in Germany; but the emigration goes 
on increasing, and the proportion of emigrants 
who are forwarded by Way of England is also at 
an augmented ratio from year toyear.— CunacJa 
Fartntr, 



Clyde and Frencli Draft Horses 

I notioeed in the November number of your 
paper, a communication signed by C. T. Doug- 
lass, upon Clyde and French draft horses. I 
c.»n fully endorse his comparison, hiving been 
engaged in the horse business for the past 25 
years, and having during that time been thrown 
in almost constant contact with importers and 
dealers in draft horses. I have also been en- 
giged in selling half and three-quarter blood 
English and Ciydesdale horses, alongside of 
French half and three-quarter blood horses, 
and I have never kuown it to fail that the Eng- 
lish and Clydosdile were considered far supe- 
rior in every particular to the French horses. 

The points of difiVrenoe between the Clydes- 
dale and the French are : 

1. The former has more bone than the latter. 

2. They are better backed. 

3. They are n it so shirt-ribbed. 

4. They are better footed. 

5. They have more w<?ight for their bight. 

6. Nine out of every ten can trot away from 
any French horse I ever saw. 

The speed of the French horses has been the 
hobby of their owners; and comparing them 
with the Clydesdale, I claim that the speed is 
not there. I have never been a newspaper cor- 
respondent, and do not write now for any pe- 
cuniary interest whatever, but I only write to 
correct the very erroneous statements made by 
persons interested in the French horses. I have 
given my reasons for preferring the Clydesd ilo 
to the French horse, and those riasous can, 
and will be substantiated by any honest horse- 
dealer who knows anything of the merits of the 
difforout breeds. 

I will give a partial measurement of a Clydes- 
dale three-year old colt; the same, or anything 
Uko the same measurement, I claim, cannot be 
given of any French horse of any age : 

The front leg b^low the knee, 11% inches. 

The front leg above the knee (thickest part 
between knee and body). 2'J% inches. 

Hind leg below the knee (smallest place), 
13,'i inches; the hind leg above the knee, mid- 
way between knee and stifle, 23% inches. 

Hight, 17 hands, standard measure; weight, 
2,240 pounds. 

Now, Mr. Frenchman, if you have any slock 
on hand that can come up to the imaseurement 
or weight of the Clydesdale colt above named, 
I would be glad to hear from you in the next 
issue of the Journal. 

At present, I fail to see the propriety of up- 
holding the French hoises as being superior to 
the Clydesdale; for any sane man, with a 
knowledge of both breeds of horses, knows, 
Ih it to even think of it is absurd, let alone to 
write about it. 

I wish to state that I am not governed by 
prejudices whutever. I am an American citi- 
zen, and therefore it is only from practical ob- 
servation of the different breeds of horses that 
I form my opinion as to the superiority of the 
Clydesdale horse over the French horse, and 
not from any love to a country from which a 
hori-e may be imported. 

Besides buying and selling for quite a num- 
ber of years, I have also been breeding horses 
for 2.3 years, and I here state, emphatically, 
that I know whereof I speak. 

Not desiring, nor yet fearing, a controversy 
on the subject before us, but merely wishing to 
bring before your readers the right side of the 
ciueation.-^C'or. NidioiMl Live Stock Journal, 



Qdiddino Horse. — The habit of "quidding," 
or dropping the food after chewing it, is due 
to i^everal reasons. The horse may suffer from 
a sore throat or diiBculty of swallowing from 
othec causes; some of the teeth may be carious 
or diseased, or they may be worn sharp npon 
their edges and cut the mouth. It will be nec- 
essary to examine the mouth and throat as far 
as ) ossible, both by sight and by pressure. If 
tbere is a hollow or diseased tooth it should be 
extracted; if any are sharp upon thiir edges 
they should be filed down with a flat flle; if the 
throat is sore or any part of the mouth, a w ish 
of chlorate of potash should be used with a 
sponge fastened to a piece of whalebone or rat- 
tan ; or embrocations of mustard should be ap- 
plied to the throat outwardly. It might be well 
to cut the feed fine and scald it, feeding it when 
only slightly warm.— iV. Y. Tribune, 



Bees in Market. 

[In response to an inquiry in regard to ob- 
taining swarms of bees, which appeared in the 
Press recently, a correspondent communicates 
the following to the party requesting the in- 
formation.— Editors Press.] 

G. N. Haoadorn, Esq., Contra Costa, Dear 
Sir:— I noticed in the Rural Press, of the 
19th instant, that you desired to purchase bees, 
and enquiring the cost, etc. I have about ten 
or twelve stands or hives that I will sell. My 
stock is of the Italian variety, and probably as 
strong as any in the State. There has never 
been any ditease among my bees, which is so 
common in this State, and I have not lost a 
hive by sickness or "foul brood." My hives 
are now full of bees and honey. My time be- 
ing occupied constantly I cannot attend to them 
properly, consequently I will sell. 

The price will depend on how many hives a 
p rson wants. The time in which they will 
pay for them -elves depends on tjie amount of 
feed tbere is in the vicinity where the bees are 
kept, the handling, etc., and the price of honey. 
But in a good locality they will pay a hundred 
per cent, on the money iuvesttd the first season, 
not taking into account the increase, which 
will always be large in a good season, if left to 
swarm naturally, especially if the hives are 
strong and healthy which you start from. Any 
information on the subject will be cheerfully 
given by yours respectfully, 

W. G. Phelps. 

Stockton, Cal., December 20, 1874. 

Communication Between Bees. 

I was staying in the house of a gentleman 
who is fond of trying experiments, and who 
was a bee-keeper. Having read in some book 
on bees that the best and most humane way of 
taking the honey without destroying the beei 
was to immerse the hive for a few minutes in a 
tub of cold water, when the bees being half 
drowned, could not stiug, while the honey was 
uninjured, since the water could not penetrate 
the closely waxed cells, he resolved on trying 
the plan. I saw the experiment tried. The 
bees, according to the recipe, were fished out 
of the water alter the hive had been immersed 
a few minutes, and with those remaining in 
the hive laid on a seive in the sun to dry. But, 
by bad management, the experiment had been 
tried too late in the day, and on the sun gcjing 
down they were removed into the kitchen, to 
the great indignation of the cook, on whom 
they revenged their sufferings as boon as the 
warm rays of the fire, before which they were 
placed, revived them. As she insisted on their 
being taken away, they were put back into their 
old hive, which had been dried, together with 
a portion of their honey, and placed on a shelf 
of the apiary, on which were fave or six other 
strong hives full of bees, and left for the night. 
Early the next morning my friend went to look 
at the iiive on which he experimented the night 
before, but, to his amazement, not only the 
bees from that hive were gone, but the other 
hives were also dessrted — not a bee remained 
in any of them. The half drowned bees must, 
therefore, in some way or other, have made the 
other bees understand the fate that awaited 
them. — London Spectator. 



TuK Horse fob Farm Wobk.— The head of a 
horse for farm work should be comely, but not 
so small as that of the running horse, as it en- 
ab es the animal to tlirow more weight into the 
collar. He should be broad and flat in the 
forehead, have neat well set on ears, prominent 
placid eyes, thin eye-lids, large nostrils, neat 
neck, and deep toward the chest, notjvery high 
in the withers, with upright shoulders, forearm 
broad, flat bono below the knee, rather short 
pasterns, good round feet — and not too flat or 
tipright, plenty of hoof, clean leg, straight 
back, with plenty of loin, and ribs well arched. 
For a breeder no animal should be used that is 
not free from curb, bog or bone spavin, splint 
or side bones. Horses with well developed 
muscles and a good constitution are easy to 
keep. — Ex. 

Blood Drinhinq. — Inquiries made at the 
slaughter-houses in New York have brought out 
the fact that some two hundred persons in that 
city are in the habit of drinking blood warm 
from the ox for strengthing purposes and for 
cure of diseases. 



The Codlino Moth. — As to the moth ob- 
jci'tion, a little explanation will suffice to silence 
that, f We often cultivate and raise ten thous- 
and of these things uuwiittngly, by throwing 
old comb about the apiariesin old empty hives, 
boxes, shelves or tables, as the case may be, 
not knowing that we are sowing the seeds of 
destruction in our own apiaries. A few days 
ago I saw an old box hive sitting in a small 
apiary filled with old comb, and remarked to 
the proprietor that "he was raising a good crop 
of worms" He replied, "No danger.'' I then 
inquired how long it bad been there? He 
replied, "About twenty days." whereupon I 
tore up the comb and exhibited to him about 
half a bushel of worms, webs, cocoons, etc. 
Now the truth is, if old combs are kept away, 
buried up, or melted into wax, we will have 
nothing to fear f.om the moth particularly if 
colonies are kept strong.— C'or. Beekeepers' 
Maijatine. 

Honey should be allowed to stand for two 
days after being extracted to allow all the 
panicles of Tax to rise to the surface. This 
should be skimmed ofl' carefully, and the honey 
drawn out from the bottom. Wax induces 
crystallizatiou, and buyers will not pay as 
much for crystallized honey. 



Fasteniso Iron in Stone. — A writer strongly 
rccomm>nds the use of zinc instead of lead for 
fastening iron railings into stone. It is well 
known that iron cemented with lead is con- 
sumed by rust very rapidly and destroyed. The 
zinc, however, establishes a galvanic circuit 
with the iron, and being positive to the iron, 
constrains all the chemical action and becomes 
oxydized, while no rust forms upon the iron. 
With lead the opposite takes place. It makes 
also with iron a galvanic comldnation, but the 
iron b. ing positive compared with the lead, it 
undergoes the chemical action, is oxalized, and 
protects the lead at its own expense. 



January 2, 1875.] 



|p(lEvEbQ 



Decrease of Farm Laborers in England. 

AccordiDg to recently published statistics the 
agricultural workers in Eoglaud are steadily 
diminishing. The harvest is great, but the 
laborers are becoming fewer and fewer. In the 
census persons "working the land" are grouped 
under the seven heads given in the table below, 
which shows the number in each class, accord- 
ing to the last three of these decennial enume- 
rations: 

IS.-;!. 1861. 1871. 

Farmer, grazier •. 249,431 24a,735 249,907 

Farmbailiff 10,5C1 15,698 16,476 

Farmer's son, grandson, brother, 

nephew 111,704 92,323 76,466 

Farmer's daughter, granddaugh- 
ter, sister, niece 105,147 83,830 92,187 

Agricultural laborer (out-door) . .962,997 958 262 708,987 

Farm servant (in-door) 288,272 i04,962 158,756 

Shepherd (•ut.door) 12,517 25,659 23,323 

The "farmer-grazier" section has remained 
reuirtrkiibly steady at each census, showin;^ 
very slight increase. Farm bailiffs increas'il 
about fifty per cent, in the first decade, and a 
Hmall addition was made to their number in 
the second decade. The farmers' sons, daugh 
ters, etc., are placed in the class because tliey 
almost invariably work (we are told) on the 
farm, or engage in some farm operation. The 
sons, etc., have exhi cited a staady decline, 
while the daughters, etc., diminished largely 
between 1851 and 1801, but during the last de- 
cade have increased upwards by 8,000. The 
most noticeable change is that apparent in the 
two next sections. The out-door agricultural 
laborers have decreased since 1861 by 1G(),000; 
the decrease of the in-door farm servants was 
great, both in 1861 and 1871. There seems to 
be nearly 130,000 less in this section than 20 
years ago. The shepherds, who doubled their 
numbers between 1851 and 1861, fell ofi' be- 
tween 1861 and 1871 by more than 2,2U0. 
Counting all below the farm bailiffs as supply- 
ing ordinary farm labor of one kind or the 
other, it will be found that the working force 
in 1861 was 1,365,000, and that in 1871 it 
amounted to 1,149,000 hands; hence the de- 
crease in the latter year was nearly 16 per 
cent. — Boston Jour. Chem. 



Short Weight in Lard. 

In our issue of December gth we referred to 
complaints that had been made to us as to short 
weight in caddy Lard. We have since investi- 
gated the matter, and found that the complain t 
was not without foundation. In one instance a 
caddy was shown us which was sold as containing 
5 pounds of good Lard, but the caddy, wood and 
all barely weighed hve pounds. Had the caddy 

been an honest one this would have been but a 
trifling loss to the purchaser, but examination 
showed that fully an inch in the bottom and half 
an inch in the top (to all outward appearance 
Lard) was nothing but good solid wood. Going 
into a well known grocery store we were shown a 
caddy which we were assured contained lo 
pounds, but on being tested package and all only 
weighed 9% pounds, while there was, as in the 
former instance, wood where there ought to have 
been Lard. In this case of course the loss falls 
entirely on the consumer, but the practice of pul- 
ing up Lard in this manner is, to our understand- 
ing, none the less reprehensible. We would ad- 
vise packers for their own sake to remedy the 
evil complained of. Short weight and short 
measure are among the crying evils of the day — a 
reform is badly wanted, and it could not be better 
inaugurated than by those interested in the matter 

complained of. — Journal of Commerce. 



Does Cooking Injdbe the Health op Stock? 
The world will never quite get rid of its old 
fogies-those who want to be natural, but have 
never studied nature. When fodder shall be 
cooked so as to be softer and more succulent 
than grass, which nature ha^ furnished for the 
animal, then it will do to inquire whether 
nature is not violated in cooking food ''or cattle. 
Nature furnishes grass, not dried fodder. The 
dried fodder is man's work of preserving food 
while grass does not grow, and if he cooks this 
soft and sncculent in imitation of grass, does 
he run atilt at mature or is he imitating her? 

A farmer always looks forward to the new 
growth of grass in spring as affording an oppor- 
tunity for his cattle to improve in condition 
and health, and when he cooks thoroughly his 
winter food, his cattle are simply kept upon 
grass the year round. We have kept the same 
cows upon cooked food for fifteen winters, and 
found them vigorous at nineteen and twenty 
yeari old.— iwe Stock Journal. 



To Break up a Hkn.— Take the hen and shut 
her up; after a few days she will forget her de- 
sire to sit, and commence laying again. Some- 
times dipping fowls into water will prevent 
their returning to the nest, but where they are 
persistent the cooping plan is the quickest, 
and makes the least trouble. The coop should 
be large and airy, and the fowls supplied with 
plenty of appropriate food.— O/tio Farmer. 

Stove luster when mixed with turpentine 
and apphed in the usual manner, is blacker, 
more glossy, and more durable than when 
mixed with any other liquid. The turpentine 
prevents rust, and when put on an old rusty 
stove, will make it look as well as new. 

Steel kails appear to be everywhere exclud- 
ing those of iron. All of the contracts lately 
given out by the Belgian Government for the 
State lines are steel. It is stated that steel 
rails are about as cheap now as iron rails were 
two or three years ago. 



Agricultural Settlers on Mineral Lands. 

The Washington correspondent of the Bul- 
letin says that an important question affecting 
agricultural lands in the mineral regions, has 
unexpectedly arisen in the General Land Offtce 
in the pre-emption ease appealed from the Sac- 
ramento district, of Samuel Freeman vs. John 
Jones, involving a small tract in El Dorado 
county. Without going into details of no gen- 
eral interest, it may be stated that the question 
is now to be decided whether any mineral lands 
included in the 29 townships which were with- 
drawn as presumptively " mineral " by the or- 
der of the Interior Department, in December, 
1871, have been or are now subject to such set- 
tlement in good faith (as agricultural) as will 
enable the settler to claim priority of pre-emp- 
tion over all other persons who may endeavor 
to pre-empt the same tract after it is proved to 
be non-mineral. Tue department has several 
times held that a homestead entry, though in- 
correct or fraudulent, does actually wiihdraw 
the land, and that no bona fide settler can ac- 
quire any initiatory rights until the previous 
entry is canceled. Following this and similar 
rulings a decision has lately been prepared, ap- 
plying the same jjrinciple to the lands reserved 
as .above stat-d. by the order of 1871, and 
holding that this reservation had the effect of 
a withdrawal of the lands from settlement, and 
that, therefore, no infeaaible rights could be 
acquired by any settlement upon them prior to 
the legal establishment of their agricultural 
staius. 

In other words, an agricultural settler upon 
land within this reserved "mineral belt," 
whether before or since the date of the order of 
7181, would be required not only to prove that 
his lands are more valuable for agricultural 
than for mining purposes, but would then have 
to make his pre-emption or homestead filing de 
nouo. Thns the advantage of years of home- 
stead occupation--commenced, perhaps, long 
before the so-called "withdrawal" ot the 29 
townships — or the cost of humifide improve- 
ments and the labor of years, might be utterly 
lost to an inattentive or unsuspecting settler 
by the sharp practice of some watchful specu- 
lator ready to come in and enter the tract the 
moment that the settler had, by formal proof, 
established its agricultural character. The 
decision to this effect, though prepared, as 
above stated, for the signature of the commis- 
sioner, has not been signed by him; and al- 
though it is manifestly in the legal precedents 
it will not probably receive his approval unless 
materially modified in the interests of equity. 

Senator Sargent and Representative Page, 
having had their attention directed to the mat- 
ter, have hastened to advise Commissioner 
Burdett'of the magnitude of the question in- 
volved in this apparently unimportant case, 
and it is now probable that the decision, when 
rendered, will announce as the rule of the De- 
partment, that in cases where tbe settler makes 
application to file upon these withdrawn lands, 
trial may be had to determine their non-mineral 
character, and thereupon his application shall 
be received and accorded priority. 

The IFoWdsays: "Knowledge of machinery 
is becoming one of the most important requi- 
sites in a farmer or a farmer's help. No machine 
should go upon any farm without the farmer 
comprehending it in all its parts, the require- 
ment and relation of each part to the other, 
how to adjust and care for it, how to remedy 
difficulties that may arise, and keep the whole 
machine in proper working condition without 
the aid of a machinist, unless in exceptional 
circumstances. It should be the first duty of 
the hired help to learn the same lesson, if he 
is to be intrusted with the machine's use. 
This is urged as a matter of economy. It is 
frequently the case thit a non-observant 
farmer loses the time of his men and his own, 
besides making a bill at the blacksmith's or 
machinist's, when a little gumption and ten 
minntes' time properly applied would have 
saved all loss." 



Thick and Thin Saws — It is said that the 
manufacture of mortar, beton, and concrete, 
from the waste lime of gas purifiers— a dis- 
covery or invention announced only a short 
time ago — has already commenced on an exten- 
sive scale in England. The method of thus 
utilizing what has hitherto been considered an 
almost worthless refuse, consists, in this case, 
of simply grinding it up in an ordinary mortar 
mill, or mixing it as common lime with sand, 
ashes and similar material. The addtion of 
Portland cement to the miyturo is found to 
render the product— brick, slabs, etc., — much 
harder. 

Wooden Nest Eooa. — A correspondent write s 
us, says an exchange, that he has been trying 
wooden nest eggs, and finds them preferable to 
glass or china, in that they are lighter and 
there is no danger of them breaking the eggs 
that may be laid in the n- st. There is no dan- 
ger of sending bad eggs to market if all real 
eggs are gathered often; and no danger from 
chickens or hens learning to eat eggs, which 
they are apt to do if an egg gets broken by free- 
zing, or by collision with a china egg. 

.To extract ink from cotton, silk and woolen 
goods, saturate the spots with spirits of tur- 
pentine, and let it remain several hours; then 
rub it between the hands. It will crumble 
away without injuring cither the color or tex- 
ture of the fabric. 



Soft Shelled Eggs. 

The ideas concerning the ovaries and repro- 
ductive apparatus of poultry, are rather loofe 
and ucphilosophical. From a close observa- 
tion of quite an extensive lot of poultry lor a 
series of years, we are of opinion that the cause 
of soft shell eggs may be looked for in two di- 
rections. The one is hereditary influence, 
through which there is an inherent weakness 
in the secretory surface of the lower portions 
of the oviduct, on account of which the lime 
secretion is interfered with; the second is !;n 
inflammatory or other condition of the oviduct, 
on account of which the egg either passes 
through the lower portion too rapidly to secure 
the proper coating, so the secretory surface 
cannot perform its usual functions. 'There can 
be no question but that the lime present in tbe 
ordinary mixed food of poultry is amply suffi- 
cient for their needs. The ifeeding of lime 
dust is healhty without doubt, but we can see 
no evidence of any specific good therefrom, (or 
from the feeding of lime,)on the egg covering, 
tbe shell. Give your hens flat roosts, at h ast 
six inches broad, or preferably a wider board, 
and report the result, after a sufficient time has 
elapsed to note whether improvement has fol- 
lowed the change. — Massachusetts Plougliman 

Cjmputing the Speed op Gkarino and Pul- 
lets. — The following simple rule for calculat- 
ing the speed or gearing of pulleys is, doubt- 
less, in familiar use by u-any mechanics. We 
give it, however, for the convenience of those 
of our readers who may not happen to be ac- 
quainted with it, and who have found the need 
in practice of a uniform rule, applying to all 
cases To find the speed of a driven wheel, 
when the number of teeth of both wheels and 
the number of revolutions of the driving wheel 
are given: Multiply the number of teeth of the 
driving wheel by the number of its revolutions; 
divide the product by the number of teeth of 
the driven wheel, and the quotient will be the 
number of revolutions of the driven wheel. 



Removing Hair from Hides. — A canny Scot 
has discovered that if a hide is immersed f jr 
four or five days in a mixture of vegetable or 
animal charcoal and water, of the consistency 
of a thin pa.^te, the hair is entirely removed, 
and the leather made from a hide thus treated 
is of superior quality. 



Reduction of Obesity. 

An exchinge says: "Obesity is made the 
f-ul)ject of an interesting article in the Journal 
des Connaissances Medicales, by Dr. Corlieu. 
Dr. Banting's system of cure consists, as is 
pretiy generally known, in abstaining from 
bread, butter, milk, sugar and potatoes; taking 
about five ounces of beef, mutton, fish, or 
bacon, for breakfast, with a large cup of tea 
without either milk or sugar, and with an 
ounce of biscuit or toast; for dinner, about six 
ounces of any fish except salmon; of any kind 
of meat exclusive of pork, and of any vegetables 
save potatoes. Game, fowls, pudding, cham- 
pagne, port and beer, forbidded. 

Another method is described in the article 
before us as tried by a physician, Dr. Philbert, 
who was himself the patient. At the age of 
twenty-six he weighed three hundred and ten 
pounds, and measured four feet ten inches 
around the abdomen. His sleep was heavy, 
his pulse irregular at seventy-two per minute, 
his appetite and digestion were good. Having 
placed himself under the care of Dr. Schindhr, 
at Marinbad, Bohemia, he treated him as fol- 
lows: Get up at six in the morning; from half- 
past six to seven take three glasses (six 
ounces each) of the Kreutzbunn spring; from 
half past seven to eight, two boiled eggs and a 
cup of tea, and a small roll; from nine to ten, a 
vapor bath daily, the firat per.-piration being 
followed by friction with a gloved hand and a 
cold douche; the second by rubbing with a soft 
flesh-brush; the third by flagellation with a 
bundle of poplar twigs with their leavts on, 
then a second douche of cold water. On leav- 
ing the bath rubbing the body with vinegar. 
After the bath, a walk. At eleven a. m, two 
dish98 of meat or fish, one of vegetables, boiicd 
fruit without sugar, half a bottle of wine, and 
two small rolls. From noon to six a perm i- 
nent stay in the forest surrounding the town, 
walking as much as possible without fatigue. 
At six, a dish of cold meat, boiled fruit as 
above, half a b(.tlle of wine and a roll of bread. 
A walk after this dinner. At eight, shampoo- 
ing with soap; half an hour later to bed. Morn- 
ing and evening, five alkaline pills. 

T'he treatment lasted six weeks, at the end of 
which he had lost thirty-five pounds. He then 
continued the cure at homo, with the Marien- 
bad waters for a fortnight, and afterward went 
to Font.ainebleau in order to eat two pounds of 
grapes gathered on the spot, every morning 
fasting. At the end of two months he had re- 
duced his weight to two hundred and fifty-six 
pounds, and has since come down to one hun- 
ilred and eighty pounds, enjoying excellent 
health. 

Natural Antiscorbutics.— General Sherman 
says that the agava iniericaiut, or Spanish baj'- 
onet, the fruit of the common prickly pear, 
and the succulent leaves of some of the varie- 
ties of the cactus that abounds on the deserts 
of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, furnish ex- 
cellent specifics for that horrible disease, the 
scurvy. 




Structure of a Cow's Horn. 

It is very freqnently the case that in the 
commonest, most uninviting of objects, we 
may see (if we like) beautiful examples of 
engineering skill. A few days since, says Mr. 
Frank Buckland in Land and Water. 1 was in- 
sf)( cting the large tanneries of the Messrs. 
Hamlyn at Buckfastleigh, on the River Dart, 
Devonshire. In one of the back yards was a 
mountain of the skulls and horns of cows of all 
sorts and kinds. Here there was a treasure 
worthy of investigation; so I got on to the 
mountain of horns and skulls, and picked out 
some beautiful specimens whieh Mr. Hamlyn 
kindly gave me, in order to make sections, etc. 
I find that over the brain of the cow a strong 
roef of bone is thrown in the shape of an arch, 
so as to form a substantial foundation for the 
horns. This roof is not solid, but is again 
strengthened below by a series of bony arenes, 
that are so distributed as to form a series of 
hollow chambers, thus forming a structure 
uniting strength with li^jhtuess. 

The problem now is, how to fasten the horn 
on each side on to this buttress. The horn 
itself must of course be foimed of horn proper, 
i e., hardened hair. In the rhinoceros, we find 
a horn composed entirely of a solid mass of 
what is really a buueh of hair agijlutinated 
together; but this kind of horn would have 
lieen much too heavy for the cow's convenient 
u-e. What is to be done? Why, hollow out 
the center of the horn of course; "but stay— this 
will not do, because how is the horn to be sup- 
plied with blood-vessels?— in fact; how is it to 
grow? Let us see how it is done by the great 
Designer. 

Cut the horn right across with a saw, and you 
will find inside another horn, only made of 
bone. If the section is made about one third 
of the way down the length of the horn, you 
will be able to pick out a piece of bone in the 
shape of a cone, on which, or rather round 
which, the horn proper has shaped itself. This 
bono fits the cavity with the greattst accuracy; 
it is as light as the tbinnest paper, and yet as 
strong as a cone of tin. It is everywhere per- 
forated with holes, which in life coitained the 
nerves, the veins and arteries, and we know a 
cow has all these in hr horns; nerves proved 
by the fact that cows do not like their boms 
touched, and that they can scratch a fly off heir 
hides with the top of the horn; artiries and 
veins, proved by the fact that a horn when 
broken will bleed, and that the horn of a living 
cow feels quite warm when held in the hand, 
besi les whieh the nerves and arteries form a 
union between the internal core of bone and 
the f xternal covering of horn proper. 

If we now cut the rest of the horn into sec- 
tions we shall find that the inside of the bony 
part is really hollow, but that very strong but- 
tresses of bone are thrown about every inch or 
so, across the cavity of the horn in such a man- 
ner as to give it the greatest possible support 
and strength. I have cut a cow's horn and 
skull into several sections to show these but- 
tresses of bone, and now that ttie preparation 
is finished I have another specimen to show 
that there is design and beauty in all created 
objects. 

Chinese India Ink. 

Although the Chinese prepare their ink from 
the kernel of some amygdalaceous fruit, yet, by 
the aid of our present chemical appliances we 
are able to produce a composition in no way in- 
ferior to the best Chinese ink, by the adoption 
of a formula which is given in Riffault's 
treatise on the "Manufacture of Colors." The 
following is the formula: 

• Calcined lampblack, 100 parts; hogshead 
shale black, in impalpable powder, 50 parts; 
indigo carmine, in cakes, 10 parts; carmine 
lake, 5 parts; gum arable (first quality), 10 
parts; purified oxgall, 20 parts; alcoholic ex- 
tract of musk, 5 parts. 

The gum is dissolved in 50 to GO parts pure 
water, and the solution filtered throuj^h a cloth. 
The indigo carmine, lake, lampblack and shale 
black are incorporated with this liquor, and 
the whole ground upon a slab with a niuller, in 
the same manner as ordinary colors; but in 
this case the grinding takes much longer. 
When the paste is thoroughly homogeneous 
the oxgall is gradually added, and then the 
alcoholic extract of musk. Tbe more the black 
is ground the finer it is. The black is then 
allowed to dry in the air until it has acquired 
Hullioient consistency to be molded into cakes, 
wlii(!h in their turn are still further dried in the 
air, out of the reach of dust. When quite 
firm these cakes are . compressed in bronze 
molds, having appropriate designs engraved 
upon them. The molded ink is then wrapped 
in tinfoil, with a second envelope of gilt paper. 
The ink which has been prepared in this man- 
ner po.ssesses all the properties of the real Chi- 
nes 1 article. Its grain is smooth; it flows very 
well, mixes perfectly with many other colors, 
and becomes so firmly fixed to the j)apor tliat 
other colors may be spread over it without 
washing it out. 

Useful Information. — It is sometimes UBe- 
f 111 to know how to dissolve silver without at- 
tacking copper, brass or German silver, so as 
to remove the silver from silvered objects, 
platid ware, etc. A liquid for the purpose is 
simply a mixture of nitric acid with six parts 
of suljihuric, heated in a water bath to lOUdeg. 
Fall., at which temperature it operates best. 
By this means the old silver attached to plated 
ware, old daguerreotype plates, etc., may be 
removed and saved without necessity for wast- 
ing acids in disBolviDg a large amount of nae- 
lets metal. 



[January 2, 1875. 




STATE GRANaE HEADQTJASTERS- 

I. O. Gardner, Stato Agpnt: Executive Oommittop 
RoomB: Fniit Growers' ABSOCiations, »ii<l Farmers' 
Mutual Life InsuraiK-e Company, all at Nj. 6 Lletlcs- 
ilorf street, W. H. Baxter, State Serntary, at 
Grangers' Baiil<. 415 Oalifonila street, H. F. 

Orange Clubs for the Rural. 

The Secretary (or Romi' other Patron) is Inviteil to 
act as club agent for the. PACific Ror.\l Press in every 
Grange. Circular and suin]>le copies sent free. Five 
or more names will constitute a club, at the rate of $3 
a year. No new siibs^'riptions will be taken without 
payment in advance. We will pay the postaj;© after .Jan. 
1st, 1875. All club Hiibscnptions in Granges should end 
©n the last day <>t the month. Old 8ubficril)ers 
may join the club by paying the S'cretary up to chib 
dates. Every Patron farmer should react a reliable 
agricultural paper. We need the support of all on 
this coast. Help the Secretary (or club agent) to male 
up a large list in your neighborhood. Pon't ilelay. 



California District and County Councils* 

M.AMEDV OOUNTY-.JoEi, Russell, lIay.v..od, M : T 

IlKLr.AK. S. 

I-OS .-.NGKr.E.S AND SAN BERNARDI.VO DISTRICT— 
'1'. A. Gauby. Los Angeles, M.; ,J. F. MAltycis. Ana- 
heim, S. 

MKNDOUINO COUNTY, Ukiah City: L. F, Long, .M.; J. 
A. liNOX. .S., Sanei. 

MO.VIEKF.Y AND SANTA VRV7, DISTRIOT-J. R 
HmnuoN, M. ; A. F. Riihariwon, s. 

NAPA D1STRI<;T-.M>. Blanihau, M; II. W. HAsKEtL. S. 

SACRAMKNTO. Kl. OORvlXJ AND Pi, ACER iW.S- 
THICT— Ollic- rs nnt r.pnit.d. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO (,'OlfNTY--A. J. MoTHERSHEAI). M. ; 
J. M, Mannon, S. 

SANTV CLARA (;OUNTY-ll. .V. LEONARD. M.; I. A, 
Wiixox S. Regular meetings every three months, 
alternalely at Sant-a Clara and San .l>«o. 

SANTA K. KHAR A ANO SAN LUIS OBISPO DISTRICT 
— OlfictTH mil re: orted. 

SOI.A.VO lOlI.NTY-.I.B.OARRINfiTON.M : J M..TON|-S,S. 

SONOMA COUNTY- MiPherson, M. :.I, A. OBhien.S. 
STANISLAUS COUNTY—R. R. VVaruek, M. : VitvlK. 

Bands, S. 
Tl LARE COUNTY'-.I. M. Graves, M. : F. L. ,jEFKKlii>s, S. 
VENTURA COU>TY COUNCI1,.-Mii,to.n » ason, M ; 

fc. B. Hn;oiNS. Saticov. ^ec'v. 
WEST SAN JOAgUIN DISTRICT. (Merced, San .loaquJn 

Hud Stanislaus 0'»unties).— W. J, Milli:k Oristimlia, .\I ■ 

TiioMAs A. Chapman, Orisliinba S. 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 
^\'si!vi v\?t'lV'^?- ''''''?": "t '•'■ <"'■ Morton, c, WtLSON. 
KLKGROVK^ '''''' A-^l!-"'^'' J.H.ATKINS. 

SiAfcVv. '*"'*'' ""KlXon-G J. M»rtin. w A Root 

L. Fiiscette. .1. J Bates' 

Amos Adams. P. R. Beckley 

J. c. Sawyer. J. L. Hfield' 



FLORIN. 

FRANKLIN. 

GALT. 



NOTICE. 

From and after this date, all moneys due to the State 
Grange by Subordinate GranRes should be forwarded 
to the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 415 California 
ftreet, San Francisco, together with reports appertain- 
ing thereto, addressed to me. 

JOHN B. CARRINGTON, 

Tieasurer State (Jrange. 
November 4th, 1H74. 19-v8-tf 



Installation of Officers. 

Any member of the State Grange is empowered to 
iBStsI the oftlcers of any Subortlitate Grange. 

J. M. HAMILTON, 
W, M State Grange oi Cal. 



Extra Copies of the Pacific Rural Press 

Containing Grange addresses, resolutions, obituaries, 
etc., will be furnishad post-paid at ten cents p<'r copy. 
Grangers wishing numerous copies should Bund the 
order for them with the MS. 

Secretaries will l>e supplied with a printed list of 
suscribers lor this paper upon sending a list of post 
offices within the range of their Grange. .Vlso with 
blank report , etc., for clubs. 



California Subordinate Granges. 

[This list contains the names of .Mast*'r8 and .Secretariea 
so far asreiKirted to us, elected to serve during the year 
1H7.S. In (Granges not reporte<l we continue the names ef 
la-*! years oftcers. Secretaries and others will greatly 
oblige us by raakiiig needful corrections.) 

Exi'LANATioss.— The P. O. address i< given only where i^ 
is diflerent from the name of the Gran^^e. 
ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Grange and P. 0. 
CENTERVILI.E. 
KDKN. Iliywanl's. 
HAMILTON, Biggs- sen 
I.IVKRMORE. 
SUNOL. 
TEMK.sOAL, Oakland. 



Master. 
.lAS. Shinn. 
THOS. IlKLL.Mt. 

H. L. I.asselle 

D. INMAN. 

K. M. Carr. 



Secretary. 
M. B. RTuniiis. 

Wm PKAKCi:;. 

A. Randall 

F. R. Kassett' 

S. W. Mn.LAiiD 



GRANGE DIRECTORY. 

National Grange. 



CHICO 

KVEvING STAR. 
NORD, P. O. Mord 



.1. V. Wkhsteii. John Collin; 
BUTTE COUNTY. 

E. IlALLKTr. H. W. Barnes. 



E. W. S Woods 
G. Van Woert. 



C. F. BCTI.KR. 

H. r. GeiN. 



CALAVERAS COUNTY. 
CALAVERAS, J'ny Lind. M. F. (iRlr.ouY 

COLUSA COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE YALLISY. .Iohn Sites 



OFFIIKHH : 

Jf.i»/»r.- DUDLEY W. ADAMS. Waukon. Iowa. 
0riir«<»r~THOMASTAVLOK,0o)umliia. Sonlh i^aroliiii 
torturer— T A. THOMPSON. Planview, Wah,a8li (>,., .«mn 
.VKir'nri— A..I. VAUKM AN. Early 'lr..ve, Mar-hall ''o., Mis- 
AififlaiitStriiai,t—ti. \V. TItOM P-^ON-.Ne .» Bunsivick N J 
r'Aup/ndi-REV. A. B. (iROSH. Wa.shinKlon, D. ( !. 
rr«i™i.T-F M . .McDowell. Connna, N. V. 
.<>><T<'..rv.-0. H KKLLEY. WashinKtnn. D. C. 
ff.iV*.--p«-0 DINWiDDIE Orol.ar.l'iropc, Likeio.Ind 
re.f«— Mrs. I>. W. AD »Ms. Waukon, I wa. 
Pomonn- Mrs. <). 11 KELLEV, Wi-hingtm. D. <;. 
Ftorn— Mrs. i.C.ABBOTT. Cl irkesville. But er ('o..Iowa 
£.i<l>/ >4»»i.(/mi Sl'iranl—MluB C A. HALL. ^Va-hingl..n.D.(•. 

RxecullTe Cummlttee : 
WILLIAM SAI'NDEKS. Washmwion. D. O. 
I>. rt YAir AIKEN. Cokexhury, Ablieville Co., S C. 
E.R. SHANKLAND. l)iibU(|uo, Iowa 



California State Grange. 

offi<;kk.s : 

Matltr-J. M. HAMILTON. (Jiienoc, Lake Co." 
<*rer»~T-0. L. ABBi'Tf. Santa Barbara. 
r.marrr—J. W. A. WRIGHT, Knfden, Fre-^no Co. 
.Steicnr.;— N. L. ALLEN. Salinas. Monterey ftn. 
.1»«i.fcin(.S(/-ir,ir.l-WM. M. JACKSON. Woodland. Yolo Co 
rhaplnin-J. A. HUTION. Y. lu, Vciln Co. 
rr»uiiire.— J. B. CARRI .VliTON. Di-uvorton, S 1 mo Co.' 
.•>^r.-(arv-W. II. BA.VfER. s Lei.lifdortI street. S. V. 
Oal< K"V"-R. K. WARDER, W^it.rford. Sta^i^laus Co 
C^rr.-MKS. G. W. DAVIS. Santa Ro.ss. Sonoma Co. 
Tiwion-.-MRS. S. C. BAXTF.R. Napa I'itv NiilwCo,-' 
f'or.i-MRS.R. S. ;IE(;LER. Bodpna. Sonoma Co * 
£o./v .<«.irf.i»( .V(.„n).(- Mrs. S. M. GARDNER, Giay!.or. 
•Stanislaus Co." 

Kxccntlve C'i»nimHl«e ; 
J. M. HAMILTON. W. M., Ohairinan, Guen..c, Lake Co." 

I. II. OaRD.sER, GraVMon. SlanisI lUs Co * 
J. C. MEiiKVI-lKLD. Dixon, Solano C... 

II. M. LEONARD, Santa Clara, Santa Clara Ci. 
J. M rHOMPHON.Suacol, Napa Co. 

G. W. COLBY, Nord, Hnttc lo. 
A. B. NALLY, Windsor. S .noma Co. 
'Address, at present, San l-'rancisco. 

List of Organizing Deputies. 

County. Dkputv. i'cst OrncL. 



ENTER. ' olusa. 
COLUSA. Colusa. 
FKbSKWATER, Colusa. 
KUNK SLoliuli. i;olu8a 
GRVND ISLAND. 
NKVV\ ILLE. 
PLA/.A. Jaiinto. 
PRlNCETtJN. 
SPRlNii VALLEY. 
UNKJN, Princeton. 
.* ilii-OW.s. Princeton. 



P. PETKRSON' 

J. P. KlMBRKI.L. W. i;. Salnukbs. 

W. K. Lstkll. k. .Ionks. 

P. S. PkRDUE. R. a. WlLSEY. 
E. C. Hl'NrER. J li. WoLKE. 

Wm. Oi.de.v. J H. DrFri- ld. 
B. N. >cRinNt:n. S. Osbornk. 
K. <J. Graves. M. Kendrick. 
R. R. Rush. P. H Siott. 

D. H. ARNOLD. L T. Hayman. 
J. F. Garh. W. W. Doli.inos. 

J. W. //UMWALT. U. T. HK KLIN. 



CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 



ALIIAMBRA. Martinos. 
ANTIOCH. 
DANVILbK. 
Pi.lNT OK TIMBER. 
WALNUT CREEK. 



J. STREN7.ELL. 

M. A. Walton 
V. Wood. 
R. G. Diun. 

N. Jones. 



W. A. FRAZVai. 

J. D. Darby. 

J. B. ljJ<YDOR. 

K. >v. (;ari;y. 
Wm. K. Daly. 



T. Wyatt. 

J. I'ontaink. 

F, Dusy. 

II. (! HlliBY. 

W. M. Pouoe. 

J. A. ALLEN. 



Alameda. 

Amador. 

Butie. 

Kutte. 

Bulte. 

Colusa. 

Colusa. 

'.'ontra Cobta. 

El Dorado. 

I''r.'«no 

Humboldt. 

Inyo. 

Lake. 

Los An^ele-^. 

Loa Angeles. 

Mendoumo. 

Merced. 

Modoc. 

Mono. 

Monterey. 

Placer. 

Sacramento. 

San Benito. 

San Kranciaco. 

Sjn Francisco. 

San Joa<luin. 

San Luis O'lisiio. 

San Luis O lispo. 

Santa Barbara. 

Santa Clara. 

Shasta. 

Sisuvou. 

Solano. 

Solano. 

Sola lo. 

Sonoma. 

.Sonoma. 

Sonoma. 

Sta isiails. 

Staniilaus. 

Sutler. 

Tehama. 

Tulare. 

Yolo. 



Eden. 

PI inouth. 

Chico. 

t'hico. 

Norti 

Grand iHlinrl. 

Spiiniz Valh'v. 

Antioch. 

Coloina. 



Tho«. Heller 
H. Vaoderpool. 
E.I. Hallelt. 
Wm. M. Thorpe 
G. W. Colby. 
.1. J. Hicok. 
D. H. Arnold. 
R. G. Djan. 

A. J. Criatie. _ . 

J. W. A. WriRht. Kordeo. 
H. »V. Arl>ogast. Arca'a. 
T. .1. Furbee. 
II. A. Oliver. 
Thoa. A. G.irry 
Ed Evey. 
R. M Wilaon 
II. B. ioiloy. 
I S. M It hews. 
T. J. Furbee. 
J. D Fowler. 
A. D. Neher. 
W. s Manlovo. 
J. D. Fowler. 
I. a. iJardoer. 
J. II. HcK.er. 
A. Wolf. 
A. .1. Moiher- 
Isa IV t lo td. 

0. L. Abbott. 
<;. W Heiinin^-. 
J. T Diiismore. 

1. S. M.ithewN. 
J. B. Carriiii4tx)n. 
R. C. Hade. 
J. C. Morryfield 
Geii. W. Itavia. 
A. B. Nally. 
T. H. Merr.v. 
•I. D. Speoi'er. 
J. D Reybur n. 
Goo. Ohleyer. 
A. J. Lfioinis. 
M. S. Bibcock. 
Wm. Sims. 



111. 



Bishup it Cr'k, Inyo. 

Gnenoc. 

Los Angeles. 

Anatieiin. 

Cahto. 

.Morceil City. 

Fort Jones. 

Hishon's Cr'k, Inyo. 

HoUister. 

Ro-eville. 

Sacramento. 

Hollister. 

San Francisco. 

San Francisco. 

SlOLkton. 

M'.ro. 

Old Creak. 

Santa Barbara. 

San Jose. 

Realm?. 

Fort Jones. 

Denverton. 

Suisuii. 

Diion. 

^anta Rosa. 

Win i-sor. 

Heald'buu k 

■Modesto. 

Modesto. 

Yuba City. 

Faraiin;;ion. 

Kingston, Fn'siio. 

Buckeye. 
General Deputies. 
Alameda. Ezra S. Carr. Oakland 

Fre-no. J. W. A. Wii„'ht. CW. L < Borden. 

Lake. J. M Hamilton, { W. M. ) (Vuenoc. 

San Francisco. W. H. Haxler. t W. S.) li Lietlesjorff St. 
Sail Francl'.co. John H. Hegler, tSan Francisco. 

Solano. John B Cari ur.'ton. Duuve ton. 

NEVADA. 

A. J. Hutch. Reno. 

Farmers ilesiriuK v< ont tnue Granges, can 'ipply to .J. M. 
Hamilton. (W. Master), Ouenoc, Lake Co. ; W. U. Bauer, 
•W. Seoyl, N.i. li Leidesdorff S:., S. F. ; J. W A. Wright, 
iW Lecturer), Borden, Fresno Co.; or to the nearest Deputy 
to their loeality. 



ICL DORADO COUNTY. 
f'LARKSVILLE. H. T. Mills. I. Maltby. 

EL UORADO. C. G.t'ARrENTER. .1 M B. WKATllEUWA.t. 

Pli.OI HILL, Pilot Hill. P. D Brown. A.,i.Bavi.ev 
SI TrERMlLL, Coloma. A. J. Christie. II. Mahler. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 
AUA.MS, Big Dry Creek T.P.Nelson. 
KUHUEN. J. W. A. Wriuut. 

FRhSNO, Fresno City. D. C. LiUBY. 
liARRETSON. King s R. Jos. Burns. 
RISING STAR. Paiiochi. W. W. H»r;AR. 
SYCvMoRE. A. C. Bradford. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 
ELK RIVEB,.Eureka. T. S Stewart. D. A. De.Mekritt. 
tERNUALE. F. Z. Boyntln. E. (,'. Damon. 

KIA p;la ITAH. Areata. H. W. AnuoOAST. c. Daniels. 
MATl'OLE, Pitrolia. s. Go>E. D. J. Johnson. 

K'lllNEKV.LLE. H. S Case. S. Stuono. 

TABLE BLUFF. J.Sawyer. E. Ci.ark. 

INYO COUNTY. 
BISHOP'S CREEK. A. Dkll. 

INDEPENDENCE. J. W. SYMS. 

LONE PINE. J.J. Mi-Call 

KERN COUNTY. 
BAKERSFIELD. J. R. RiL'V. 

CUM.MIN.^S VALY, Tehsichipa. G. Thomi'.son. T. Yatks 
Ll.\.\ S \ M.'Y. (;l.uvillo. S. W. Woody. S. E. ReeI). 

NEW KU l.R, Bikerstield: J. <;. Dawes. J.Dixon 

PANA.MA, liak.rs«:;,d. H I>. RoUB, J.F. GoitlioN. 

RISINi. SPAR, Panooho. C. Vai.pey. J. W. CRAYrRotT. 



W. T. WlsWALL- 

J. B. White. 
A. U. Johnson. 

P. D. Jewett. 



rEllA'ClIIPA. 

lEI.DON. 



'iUENi'C. 
KELSEYVILLE. 
LAKEPORT. 
LOWER LAKE. 
UPPER LAKE: 



.1. NORBOE. 

R. T. Melvin. 
LAKE COUNTY. 
H. A. Oliver. 
D. P. Shattvck 
J. W. Booos. 
A. E. Noel 

D. V. Thomp.sok. D. (J. Mccarty. 
OU.NTY 



J. Prewett, 
J. t. h.(;r4». 



A. A. RrmiiE. 

J. H. RiCNFRO. 

N. Phelan. 
G. H. SNi 



SAN BE.slTO COUNTY. 

MOUNTAIN. SJn Benito. G. BcTTi-niiELD. J.W.M.OIlEWs. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 

SlvrV.'Sirvis F. M. Slaitoiiter John Taylor. 

KIVKR.MDE. E. Ir. BuowN G W Uarcpton 

SAN BERNARDINO. R. s Helton. J BR^SkuasT: 

SAN DIEGO OtiUNTY. 
SAN .JACINTO. T.D. Henry. Mrs. M. Collins. 

.SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. 
ATLANTA. Moruno. S. Mver.s. W Massev 

I-AE*7'^,"I.'\'.i1';";!"'"- H. W.c.well. Mks.s Reynolos! 
( OLI.Ki; l,v I i.i.K. p P. Ward. c. a Bemh. 

t,'^'uiUr.x, V. .r HknryII. West. N. S. Misi.neb. 
riiJl^r/rv'l '^ ^^'•' ST, John RoiHiF-ns. E. O. Lono. 
!'i .tVaHt • ^'"""P"- J. M. Woon. VicToi; Jahant. 

!'/^,iJiv,^.,r. ''<""' Waslet. James Wakley. 

LOCKKl ORD. u. c. IIOLMAN. S. S, Stewart. 

Rit^'rin r .k i'^S" '■,^'"«'". Mrs N. CuorcH. 

^■rnMZJif^^""^- **■ P Whitman. O. F. Atwooo. 
srOfil-TON. T. L Kftchim F N Ai i rv 

WASHINGTON. J. W. collar"' M L C(«k 

wm\'',vw'w?.^'''' *""" " »•-■ Neediiam.J. i)ca<-kenriish: 
wnVR^nB^UP,.,- E. D. Morrison, w'. M. Mcsi ey. 

WOODBRIDCilC. EzR^FisKE. A. S. Thomas. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 
A?.^l!^." f'RANDE. W. H, Nelson. B.J. Wood. 

»\'!}}\,11.- ^- "• '''">•''■ H- Olmsteao. 

" '"9.i^.'T.\: A. J. MOTHERSI-iAD. 11. Y. STANLEY. 

8 .'Pr, '5.!';!'.',\.o '"'**'" I'Ltwn R. M. Preston 

^'^i^\ "'^'"'•KS H. W. Rhynk. J. P. M..ODY. 

2^^.iV.!"*.""i;''"^ Wm. Jackson. E. L. Reed. 

SU.MMI I . San M ircos. J. V. N. YouNu. A. T. Foster. 

SAN .MATEO COUNTY. 
9?I';**""''5'*''- H.M.Jewell. .Iambs Comi-ton. 

,';Ar '.^f,'?,'*-,., M. Wc.odhams. Mrs. J. E. Woodhams. 

l{K^-'^^.,^,.'t'^^- I.ti.KNOWLhS. E. R<IBSON. 

Lti"^.'??^^'^ K. V Weeks. H. B. SrBAnUE. 

SAN MATEO. A.F.Green. W. II. Lawrence. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 
'^;\'},''.'';^;T'':R'A. O. N. Cadwell. G. E. Thurmand. 

1 O-Nh IDIv.M'E. Cuadaloune. A. CoPELA^D. J.T.AUSTIN. 
l;)s,!.'> J.'MiP*"* OL Abbott. V.F.Russell. 

SANIA .MARIA, buey Station. J. Miller. M. D. .miller. 
SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 

PAk^l^Y., „ W. Z. ANOENEY. H. COFKIS. 

MAY HELD. F. W. HEiHsnAAR. J. Ponce. 

SAN Ji).-<t. Wm. Erkson. Rukus Fish. 

i'^Sl^^J!^'''^'*'^- S. J. Jamksos. LA. Willcoi. 

SARATOf.A. F. Dresser. Mlss J. Farwell. 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 
BEN LO.MOND, Sta C'rn/. John Burns. J vs Burns 

wV^i'ii^si-'i^^.^r- V- IV WarDWELL. T. PlI.KINUTON. 

WA1SONV1LL.E. J. McCOi-HN. SVRAH Redsan. 

SHASTA (J'lCNTY 

G. If. Kimball. John Barry. 
J. P. Webb. \ Calden. 

J. !•■. DiNsMoRE. S. J. R. Gilbert. 

SIsKlYOU COUNTY. 

John McBride. J. McConadouty. 

>F. s. MAmiEws. J.W.Tuttle 

MT. BOLIVAR, lallahansR. R. M .Iayoen. J. A.cole. 

SOLANO COU.VTY. 
BlNiJHAMPTON. A.Bennett. E. A. Beard-let. 

DKNVKKTON. J. B. Crbinoton. G.C.Arnold. 

l)l.\ON. J. i;. MKKKYriELD. B. F. Kelly. 

EL.MIRA. .I.A.Clark. M. D. Cooper. 

M'lNTEZUMA.Cnlnsvillo. T. Hooper. C. K. Marshall 
RIO ViSTA. JosiAH Pool (i. a. Knott. 

ROi'KV ILLE Cor.telia. W^i. L«niN. J. R. MorrIs 

SUtsUN VALLEY. J. IH. Jones. H. Panoiiohn 

VAt^AVII.LE. K. K. 'Thdrbur. Oscar Dobbins. 

VALLeJO. S.S. Drake. Chas. B Deming 

SONOMA COUNTY. 
BENNETT V M.'Y. S'la Rosa. N Cabb 
BLOOMFIEI.D. 
BOUeiiA. 
|'[,|)V1CH1)\LE 
CI;VSkR\ ll.LE 



Notes of Grange Travel. 



COTTONWOOD. 

.MILLVILLE. 

READING. 



iETNA 
fORT JONES. 



IIKAI.D.-sliURG 

1-K'TALUviA. 

SANTA ROSA. 

SKBASTOl'OL. 

SO-'OilA. 

TWO ROCK. 

WI.VDSOB. 



C. N. Whitahi:r 
Wm H. White. A. B. Gi/iver. 

K. S. PlUNK. E H. Choney. 

tniAS. H. Coolet. .1. B. COOLEY. 
. p. Moore. H. Wiedkrsham 



B. I!. tJAPELL. 

L. W. Wai.keb. 
Geo. W. Davis. 
J M. Hudspeth. 
Wm. McP. Hill. 



W^. N. Gladden. 

D. G. llEALO. 

J. A. Obreen 

W.J HCNI. 
T. S. Cooper. 



LOS ANHELES 
ALLIANCE. El Monte. J D Di RFKE W. II House' 

A«i'sA. Kl Monte. W. W. Ma.xey. J. <:. PufusroN 

COMPTON. J. .1. Morton. G. L. Russell' 

Kl, MO.VTE. Lis Angele-. li. C. UjBBS. J. II. liRAV. 

KN'TPlKPRlSE.Ii. .in'gl'a. A. .South worth. W. Henderson. 
El R|;K V. Spadra. i . BuRDiCK. P. ('. Tonner. 

FAIRMEW Anaheim E. Evey. J. M. iJuinn. 

I'LOliKNCK.l.oa Aug Is. J. RtlssELL. W. PoRTEK. 

KRUIIl.ANl), Sta. Ana. -N. O Stakfoud. L. H. Collins. 
LO' ANiiELf.S. T. A.Gabey. 6. a. WaLDRON. 

LO-i METOS. J, V. Mai«UIS. W. S. Keavik. 

NEW RIVER, L. Nietos. W. Newton. S. G. Uaki:h. 

ORANGE. J. Beach. L i. I^ockmart. 

SILVER.L. Nictos. H. L Montoomkhy W P. McDonald. 
SPADKA. A. T. iJUBKlER. Jos. WRliioT 

VINELAND, Tnstin C. A. « it Avw..on. R. I, Frei...man. 
WESTMlNIsT R. Anah'm. M. B. craio. W. F. Poor. 

MARIN ('OUNTY. 
NIi'ASIO. P.K.Austin. J W.Noble. 

POINT REYES N. II. stisson. A. II. Stinson. 

TO.MALES. Wm Vanderbilt. R. II. Prince. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 
CAHTO. R. M. Wilson. J. P. Simp.son' 

l.liTLE LAKE B. 11. Mast. W. \. WRioHf 

MANi:HESIER, B. F. McClore. W. F. McCLURf 

POMo .1. Mewhinney. G. B- Nichols 

Po l"l ER VALY. L. A. Preston.Mrs. A. H. Slinoeulasd 
ROI NV V.\LLfcY. f; jvcl". P. Handy. J. A.(;RAWrouD. 
SANEL. E. M. Carr. M. Greu 'RY. 

UKIaH. Thos. A. Lucah. a. O. 0;irpsnter. 

MERCED COUNTY. 
BADGER FLAT. L. Ban.s. A. P. Merbitt W. F. Ci.iRKE. 
cmTId.vwood. J. L. Crixtendk.v. J. M Daley. 

IIOI'KION John Ruddle. T. Eaoleson. 

LOS HA.N'OS. S. A. BMITII. JoH-BillEll. 

MERCED. W. E. Ellpit. J.vs.B. Ralston. 

PLAlXSnCRG. P.Y.Welch. 'T. J. E. Wiiaox. 

SNELLING. O. YeISER. W. L. IIa.MLIN. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 
HOLM.stER. R. Rcckledoe. Mary E. i'owan' 

MoltNINii STAR CastT'ville. C E. Wii-LiAMs. K. Blake 
PAJARO.WatsunviI.e. l». M. CLOUOH. L. B. JoHNSON' 

SALINAS. O, S. ABBOTT. Clara Westlake- 

NAPA i;ounty. 
B -.RRYESSA, Monticello. J. W. Smittle. L H. Bufobd. 
UALi TOGA. W. «. Pratt. (,'. H. Mknepek. 

NAPA. Napa City. J. B. Saul. Manuel Eyre. 

POPE VALLEY. J. A. Van AB8DALE. (;. A. Booth. 

KUTIIERFOKD, Y'ntville. li. S BURREOE. H. W.Crahb. 
ST, Uh.LK.NA. J.Llewellyn Chas. A. Story. 

VOUNTVILLE. J. M. .Mayfield. F. Oriffis. 

PLACER COUNTY. 
LINCOLN. M. WiLDRON. J. S. Marhiner. 

ROSKYILLE. W.F.Davis. Robert W*rd. 

SMIfRIBAN. ». U. LoN«. 8. J. Lawn. 



S. Q. Barlow. Howard Andhew 

A. b. Naltev. J. II. McClelland 

STANISLAUS COUNTY. 

BONITA, Cr.iws L'd'^-. 1. W. Tbeadwell. A, B. Cro ik 

CF.RES. H. W. Brouse. i'. N. Whitmore 

iJRAVSON. Wm. Love. A. H. Elmore. 

OAK DALE. A. S. KMERY. O. B. INO.ILLS. 

ORISTIMBA, Hill's F'rv. W. J. Miller. E. H. Robison. 

SAI. IDA, Modesto P. ViNiENT. A. h. Elmore 

S'TANISLAUS, M'd'sto. V. E. Banos. J. D. Hoop. 

rURLOCK. A. S. Fulkerth- W. S. Robinson. 

WATERFORD. S. M (lALLop. J. Booth. 

SUITER C'OUNTY. 

NORTH BUTTE. B. R Spillmav. .1. D. Dow. 
SO. TH SUTTER. Pliaaanl Glove. I'.BOYD. A DonaldsiN. 

SUTTER.Meiidian. W. C. Smith. J M. (iLADDEN. 

YUBA CITV. B.F.Walton. J. Hondy. 

TEHAMA COUNTY 

FARMINGTON. i;. F. FosTEK. S II. LooMis 

NEW SALEM, Pasken'o. O. Harris. J. R. Whitlock' 

RED BLUFF. R. II. Blossom. O.E.Fonda" 

TULARE COUNTY. 

CHRISTMAS. Visalia. A. B. fVisKV. W. II. Stuart. 

D'PCREK.l'"in'.svlllo G.F.Jf.FFEUDS. W.G.Pf.nnebaker.. 

FRA.NKLIN,Kin,'ston. w. L. MouETON. (i. W. Camp. 

LAKE. Kingston. M. S. Babkxk. Mrs. E. D. Timmons 
.MOU.MT WHIT.VEY. G. W. Duncan. a. Thohp.vin. 

TULARE. D. E Wilson. Victokia Wrioht. 

TULE RIVER Port'vill" G.A.Williamson. N.T.Blair. 
VIS ALU. T. FowLEB. J. O. Blakeley. 

WOODVILLE.- J. A. SLovER. J. Stewart. 

TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 
SON'ORA. G. C. souLsnv. R. F. Williams. 

VENTURA COUNTY. 
OJAI. S. Bucnavrnlura. (;. E. SouLE. J. Hodabt. 

Pl.EA.'^A.^l' VaLLKY. D. R ■SDEBUsn. P. Brownino. 
SAN PEDRO. S. B'veut'ira W. H. ViNYARn.D D DeNuue. 
SA'TIOt'lY. Milton Wason. E. A. Dotal. 

SES'i'E.Sin B'venlura. S. A. Goiberson. T. Marple. 
VE.VTURA. San B'ventura. J. WiLLETT. C. Prebble. 

YOLO COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE W.J. Clark. T, F. Niiohes. 

BUCK li YE. Wm. Sims. L.Moody. 

CACHEIIREEK. D. B HORLBUBT. L. D. Stephens. 

CAPAV V ^ LLfcY. J. N. Rhodes. N. 'V. Hcrluurt. 
D.WISVILLE. J. O. CjftiPUELi.. «■. Hand. 

HUMi'Y HOL'OW.Yo'o. G.L.Parker. Mrs A.E Dutton. 
WEsTuRAFTON, Yolo. A. \V. Morris. G. W. Parks. 
YOLO, Woo.Uand. J. A. Hutton. D. Schindler. 

YUBA COUNTY. 
M.VRYSVILLE. O. G. BocKius. Jas. M. Cutts. 



Editors Pbks.s: — While passing through 
Saliuas and Watsonville recently, on my re- 
turn from Grange work through S onthprn Cal- 
ifornia, the familiar scenes reminded me that 
you have as yet had no account of my visits as 
Lecturer in the early part of September, from 
the ,'J,1 to the 11th; so we will devote thi» 
pnper to a brief summary of some items in that 
trip— the last before the State Grange meeting 
at Stockton— and will then glance at the trip 
to our southern counties and the conclnsiona 
drawn therefrom. Prom September 3d to Uth 
are embraced the visit to Monterey and Santa 
Cruz Distiict Council, at Watsonville, and 
public lecture at the latter place, visits to Cas- 
troville, Salinas and Hollister Granges, the 
dedication of the new hall of Capay Valley 
(Irauoe, in Yolo county, of which yon have 
already received full accounts, and the meeting 
with Santa Clara Council, Sept, 14, of which 
liro. Wilcox gave an account at the time 
Through Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties Bro. and Sister Blanchard accompa- 
nied me, and their presence added much to the 
snccesss and enjoyment of the trip. 

We were impressed with the fact that the 
Salinas, Pajaro and Hollister regions form one 
of the most reliable and best wheat growing 
regions of California. For several years in 
8ucc(8.sion farmers there have realized large 
crops, and yon see evidences of it in the thrift 
and comfort which surround you everywhere. 
Consequently their towns are growing rapidly 
and solidly, their lands are attaining tbe bi^b- 
est vahies, their county is prosperous, tbeir 
people seem 

Contented and Happy. 

By visiting the pletuant homes of Bros. 
Kellogg, Laird and Hebbron, we bad an excel- 
lent oppoituiiity to see the best part of the 
not' il Saliuas country. We do not wonder its 
ppopl- like to live tbere. It is easy to see they 
are i.U working on a solid and sure basis. Yon 
know it is iu that country that some of our 
Grangers, yes we who as a clas*, according to 
one of your city dailies with a limited circula- 
tion, know so iitlle about anything, have had 
the audacity to try their hand at building a nar- 
row gauge railroad. They have it built now, 
and Hie well pleased with the results, so \vell 
in fact, that the Hollister people are going to 
try one of the same tort to connect with the 
Salinas road. These foolish Grangers! it is 
wonderful that they can do something once 
in a while, when they put their heads and 
and bauds and funds together, 

Bros, Kellogg and Laird have two of the lar- 
gest, best kept and most desirable dairy 
ranches that I have seen anywhere in my 
rounds. Jp.st think of great live oaks forming 
with their graceful, pendant branches, a great 
umbrella as it were, with a dinmeter of 80 or 
100 feet. These trees abound on their landa. 
To reach 

HoHlstcr 
Bros. Kellogg and Laird accompanied us in 
their spring wagon over the Gabilan moun- 
tains, and via San Jnau. 

At Hollister, Sept. 7th, Bro, Fowler, Past 
Mastt r, and Bro. Pomeroy, Master, had with 
tbeni the largest gathering that met us on this 
tiip. No one enjoyed that memorable meeting 
more than th i writer. We all tried to do our 
duty there, and all that was said and done, was 
saitl and done for the best, with the lights be- 
loro us. J. W. A. Wbight, 



Nevada Subordinate Granges. 

ALI^'ALl AReno, Nov. : G. W. Hcffakep.: T. B. KLoriiKR 
EA<;LE \ALL1'.V: G. W. CHEDiii-0. A. F. Gilbert, S 
CARSON \ ALLEY. Genoa: R. J. Livinoston-J. S.Child. 
WASHOE VALLEY, Franktown: Eli.vs Owens, M. ; G. D. 

Winters, S 
WILLINiiTON, No. R, Esmeraldi Co ; A. H. Hawi.ey, M.: 

J. N Mann. S. 
MERIT. Mason Valley. Esmeraldi Co.: Kimeeb Cleaves, 

M.: i'lark Cleaver, S. 



(^* Deputies who organize new Granges are requested 
to send the list of ofllcers, and the names of all charter 
members, with other facts of interest, for free publication 
in the Rural Press, as early as possible. 



Co-oPEBATioN IN Wisconsin.— The Wisconsin 
Grau,.es already have estiblished forty-one co- 
operative assuciiitions for selling goods and 
manufactniiug, and twenty-nine insurance 
companies; all fiourishiug and representing 
capital t« the amouat af four million dollars. 



A Commercial Paper on the Grange. 

Now and then a commercial paper of high 
standing, has a good word to say for our orgaa- 
jzition. As an example we copy the follow- 
ing from the Milw.iukco Journal of Commerce. 
How different and rnoro sensible this paragraph 
reads, than do the "Giange paragraph*" that 
now and then find their way into the Commer- 
cial Herald of this city: 

The Grange movement is broad enoueh to 
achieve permanent success. Pretended friends 
may mislead and abuse it for a time, but they 
cannot stop it. It is rapidly teaching the 
farmers and the middlemen tbeir respective 
duties and their respective rights. It is teach- 
ing the public servants, whether politicians or 
corporations to know their place. It is helping 
to dttermine what is just between all parties. 
The association of men against the ai-sociation 
of dollars is entirely in accordance with the 
laws of political economy. Whatever this 
Gr.inge association atrempts in opposition to 
those laws will surely fail. We believe iu the 
Grange, and believe ih^t there is a code called 
"political economy," of unwritten principles of 
justice and common sense governing men in 
their relations to one another. 



Thk "Seaton," " SUr of Hope," " W. R, 
Grace" and " Carrie Read," with wheat, ship- 
ped by Grangers, have arrived in England. 
Several cargoes have been sold. The market 
is rising. The Executive Committee are firm 
in the opinion that the sooner the whiat on 
hand is now forwarded towards Liverpool the 
Wetter for the ewneri. 



January 2, 1875.] 



PJLOIl^l© H^BJJ^ IPBIiSS* 



From the Granges. 

Stockton Grange. 

Editoes Press. — It has been in contempla- 
tion for a long time with the sisters of Stockton 
Grange to start a library, for the benefit of the 
Patrons, who when they come to town huve no 
place to go to, to get a paper to read, or a book 
either, unless they go into a saloon, the keepers 
of which seem to be the only public spirited 
people in town, in that respect, excepting the 
barbers and the Y. M. C. A., neither of which 
places are very attractive. The saloon keepers 
as a rule keep all the papers— daily, weekly 
and illustrated, and also set the most tempting 
lunches, (free) which few persons can resist, 
especially after riding in from the country, and 
arriving cold and wet. They fiud that the 
saloon keepers have made arrangements to 
warm them, and entertain and comfort them 
with hot or cold drinks and reading matter, 
and lunches got up in the best manuar, often 
regardless of expense. It is these free lunches 
that assist men and boys in the first step 
towards drinking, the chief cause of which is 
the ignorance of the women at the present 
time of the science of preparing tempting, ap 
petizing and at the same time, healthful dishes 
of food for their family, or the inability to do 
so, fiom their circumstances. You don't hear 
the "boy of the period" extoling the cooking'of 
his moiber, as of yore; but it is "What a splen- 
did lunch such and such a man sets! What 
magnificent chowders, soups and salads!" All 
of which are often made from the cheapest 
material, but with the knowledge of a Utile of 
the science of cookery. 

The sisters of Stockton Grange propose to 
rent a room for a library, and at the same time 
have a place where the Patrons can be accom- 
modated with a good fire to warm themselves 
a hot cup of tea or coffee, books and papers to 
read and at the same time enjoy the company 
of their fellow Patrons. To start this of course 
required funds. The sisters of Stockton were 
equal to the emergency, and got up an enter- 
tainment which took place on Tuesday evening, 
the 15th instant, which was public. Free 
tables were spread in the hall adjoining the 
Grange hall, and loaded with the good things 
which the Grangers know so well how to pre 
pare. After supper they repaired to the 
Grange hall to witness the exercises. 

At the close of the exercises, which were 
satisfactory in every respect, the young folks 
adjourned to the supper room, which was 
cleared for their reception, and enjoyed them- 
selves an hour in a social dance. 

The weather up to a late hour in the day 
was rainy, and fears were entertained that 
there would be but a slim attendance, especially 
from the country, but in the afternoon the 
weather cleared up, and the afterpart and eve- 
ning was pleasant. You know our hall is of 
good size. Yet there was not room for all that 
wished to witness the entertainment. But we 
Sed them all, and with such a supper as they 
seldom eat. 

The price of admisision was 50 cents for 
adults and 25 cents for children. The result 
was a success, in every sense of the word, as 
in fact all of our undertakings will be, when 
we unite and try to muke them so. The 
next time the editors of the RuiiAL will be in- 
vited. W. G. P. 

Stockton, Dec. 20th, 1874. 

Lake Grange. 
Editors Pbess: — Our Grange is prospering 
finely at present, with a prospect of an increase 
of members this season. We h,id a harvcsf 
feast on Saturday evening, December 19th, 
•with a large attendance. One of our Slate 
Grange officers was present and gave us a lec- 
ture with which we were all well pleased, and 
greatly benefitted thereby. He informed us of 

many facts new and interesting to many of our 
Patrons. 

Tb« rains set in early last full and the 
weather continued showery until about the 
15th of November. The farmers on the 
plains of the Mussel Slou<<h country have been 
principally dependent on the rains for a crop; 
this year, however, most of them can procure 
water from the "Last Chance" w*ter ditch 
which will be completed and flowing full of 
water in a short time, which will carry water 
enough to irrigate 4,00J acres of land. 

J. H. J. 

Lake Grange, Dec. 20th, 1874. 

In Memoriam. 

We have received the following from the 
Secretary of Ukiah Grange: 

WHRBEAg, It has b«en the will of Almighty God in 
his wiBdom to removn from our midst by death our cm- 
teemed sister Mrs. Sarah Henry, thirefore, 

Resolved, That In the death of Sister Henry, our 
Granne has lost one of its most respected charter mem- 
bers; the community an upright, honorable woman; 
her family an affectionate, devoted wife and mother. 

Setolved, That we extend to her bereaved husband 
and family our heartfelt sympathy in their sad hour of 
afflieti(m. 

Remloed, That tlie members of this Grange'wear the 
usual bad!<e of niourniuf,' for thirty days. 

Sesotved. That these renoiutious be spread on tliu 
minutes of this Grange, and that a copy be sent to the 
family of the deceased, to the Pacific Kobal Tkiss, 
and California Granger, for publication. 

Adopted by UiUU Orange, No. 114, P. of H., Dec. 19, 
187*. • Geo. MoCowBH, Sec'y. 



Imposition Upon the Grange. 

Some pei'son has attempted to perpotrate an 
anonymous fraud upon the Grange by sending 
to the Secretaries of subordinate Granges a 
circular so worded as to convey the impression 
that it comes from the State Grange. 

More than three-fourths of the document con- 
sists of a quotation from the California 
Granger, and was intended by that paper as 
an argument against any change iu text books, 
and in favor of McGutfey's readers, while the 
circular merely says : 

"We should like to have every Grange express 
itself on this question, and forward its resolu- 
tions to the Secretary of the State Grange that 
he may present them all together to the State 
Board at its next meeting, which is to be hdd 
at Sacramento, January 5th. We may not in- 
fluence its action, but we will, at least, have 
had our say." 

It is gratifying to note that the document bears 
internal evidence of being the work of some 
outsider,f or every Patron knows that the Secre- 
tary of the State Grange can take no official 
action except by authority of the State Grange 
or the Executive Committee. 

Anonymous circulars are not more likely to 
permanently advance the interests of t-hose 
who use them than are any other disreputable 
means. Indeed, it is probable that the Secre- 
taries of most of the Granges have treated this 
as it deserved, and not as a matter emanating 
from the Slate Grange. 

A Gr.inok Secrktary. 



In Memoriam. 

To the Worthy Master, officers, sisters and 
brothers of Snelling Grange, No. 105, P. of H: 
We, the undersigned committee appointed to 
draft resolutions of respect to the memory of 
our worthy brother, Thomas Eagleson, late 
Secretary of Hopelou Grange, most respectfully 
submit, the following preamble and resolutions: 

W HEREAS, It has pleased the Influite Father to call 
to a hi.^'her life one of our social circle, sending an an- 
gel messenger within our gates, taking from the 
Grange a worthy liborer, our brother, Thomas Eagle- 
son, therefore be it 

Resolved, That iu the removal of Brother Eagleson, 
Snelling Grange, and the Grange at large, has lost a 
worthy laborer, the community an upright honest citi- 
zen and his family a devoted husband, a kind and lov- 
ing father 

ResolveJ, That we as sisters and brothers of Snelling 
Grange will ever cherish his memory; feeling assured 
that when one after another of our Order is summoned 
by the Worthy Master above, we shall meet our broth- 
er in that higher Grange where as immortals, separa- 
tion and sorrow will come to us no more. 

Resolved, That the bereaved wtfe. children and rela 
fives of our ascended brother are assured of such sym- 
pathy as sisters and lirothers alone can give, and 
Biourn with them over the departed, and look for our 
solace only iu the belief that our loss is his greater 
gain, and that we in good time when called by the 
Worthy Master above, shall again meet and greet the 
brother now removed from our miust. 

Resolved, That these resolutions become a p.art of the 
records of Snelling Grange, and copies be forwarded to 
the wife and children of the deceased, atid to the fol- 
lowing sheets for publication : Merced Tribune Faciik' 
RuilAL Pkess and California Granger. 

W. Lee Hamlin, Chairman of Committee. 

Snelling, December 19, 1874. 



The Grange an Educator. — One of the most 
important among the educational advantages to 
be derived from the Grange, is the new interest 
it gives to the people, and especially to the 
farmers, in relation to matters of public and 
political, but not partizan interest. One great 
cause of the present corruption in governmen- 
tal affairs, is the lack of knowledge and interest 
in such matters manifested by the great mass 
of the people. Everything is left to the politi- 
cians — the people either don't vote at all. or 
vote merely as the politici.ins tell them. The 
Grange teaches its members to inquire into un- 
derstand and take an active interest in the 
science of government and true social economy. 
The working men from this time out propose 
that labor shall possess the dignity which intel- 
ligence gives, and which capitalists and politi- 
cans will respect, but which they cannot rule. 

Santa Bosa Harvest Feast.— We have glad 
tidings from the meeting of Santa Rosa Grange 
last Saturday. Quite a number were present 
from neighboring Granges. Bros. Cressey, 
BdXter and Marks, from this city, and Hill, 
from Sonoma, and others, gave well reci ived 
spoecliea. Toasts, seasoned with giod sense 
and humor, were plentiful, together with an 
excellent supply of material things. Visitors 
report Santa Kosa a good working Grange, 
with the best of cheer and good feeling in the 
Order. 

Santa Claba Grange and Tkxt Books.— 
Among the Granges that have taken the sub- 
ject of text books iu haiul the 'Santa Clara 
Grange at a recent met ting passed resolution, 
disfavoring a change unless absolutely needed, 
and that where changes are to be made they be 
gradual and without cost to the people, and 
further that books of home production be pre- 
ferred, merits and cost being equal. 

New Grange Diuectorv.— The annual elec- 
tion returns received and published by us up 
to this date number 108. If the Secretaries, in 
sending in fuither reports will please give the 
county in which they are located it will save 
us time in hunting up their whereabouts. 



A Grange Suggested for Auburn. 

The Placer .Argu."?, of a late date says:— We 
see no reason why the farmers and frnit growers 
'around Auburn should not organize a Grange. 
The Older has spread rapidly in all parts of the 
State, and while mistakes have been made in 
the administration of its affairs, there can be 
no question that it has been of immense bene- 
fit to the producing classes and incidentally, to 
the whole State. The antagonism that is 
pomilarly supposed to exist between the Gran- 
gers, and other classes of society, has a place 
more in fancy than in fact. The Grange aims 
to advance the interests of its members, by 
securing to them the advantages of cooperation 
in the production and marketing of their crops, 
and it also seeks to promote agriculture and 
commerce by reducing the cost of transporting 
and handling the various articles necessary to 
their business. 

In addition to this, it promises them social 
and intellectual advantage by calling them to- 
gether in its regular meetings, where the nu- 
merous questions of interest to the Order are 
discussed, and where the labors of rural life 
nre pleasantly diversifi 'd by cultivating the 
finer qualities of the mind. However dema- 
gogues may have attempted to sway the Grange 
to the support of their own ambitious schemes, 
it is not a politicial organization, and while its 
minciples are such as to influence every man 
to be careful whom he votes for, it leaves him 
free to affiliate with whatever party ho chooses. 

In a section of country like this where the 
productions of the earth are eo various, an 
organization that will bring our farmers and 
fruit-growers together once a week, to discuss 
the best methods of cultivation and that will 
enable tbem to co-operate in the disposal of 
their productions, could not but be of benefit. 
The nc cess iry steps to organize a Grange are 
simple, and as but nine men and four women 
are necessary, it ought not to be much of a job 
to get enough together to set in motion. A 
blank application has been left at this office, 
and if enough of our readers feel an interest in 
the matter to hfind in their names, we will see 
that it is attendtd to. 



Election of Officers. 

List of officers elect of Los Nietos Grange, 
No. 44, P. of H.:E. B. Grandin, M.; O. P. 
Passeus, O; John Condra, L.; Thomas Lsbell, 
S.; M. B. Condit, A. S.; E. Stockton. C; A. S. 
Kayland, T.; W S. Reavis, Sec'y; Robt. Tabor, 
(}. K.; Mrs. L. E. Reavis, Ceres; Miss M. 
Stockton, Pomona; Miss Jane Passens, Flora; 
Mrs. M. Condit, L. A. S. 

New Rivbr Grange.— W. Newton, M.; W. 
H. Settle, O.: T. J. Kerns, L.: S. T. Corum, 
S.; M. .L McGouch, A. S.; D. S. Wardlow, C; 
D. M. Harlow, T.; S. G Baker, Sec'y." N. H, 
Price, G. K.; Miss F. F. Houghton, Ceres; 
Mrs. Greaves, Pomona; Miss E. J. Sackett. 
Flora; Mr.s. Meeks. 

' Rustic Grange, No. 83.— L. P. Whitman, 
M.; Fred. Brownell, O.; George W.Francis, 
L ; Mrs. A. V. Visher, C; M. A. Speiker, S.; 
William Allen, A. S.; F. S. Fowland, T.; 
O. F. Atwood, Sec; L. W. Rowland, G. K.: 
Mrs. Eliza Allen, Ceres; Miss Dora Molloy, 
Pomona; Miss P. A. Sperry, Flora; Miss Mat- 
tie Buchanan, L. A. S. 

Napa Grange, No. 2, Dec. 26 —J. B. Saul, 
M.; W. H. Nash, O.; .T. W. Ward, L.: H. 
Goodrich, S.; C. H. A. Ward, A. S. : T. B. Me- 
Clure, C; J. M. Mansfield, T.; H. W. Haskell, 
Sec'y; Chas. Dell, G. K.; Miss Ida Goodrich, 
Ceres; Miss L. MeClure, Pomona; Miss Rosa 
Saul, Flora; Miss Rhoda Nash, L. A. S. 

Franklin Grange, No. 174. — Amos Adams, 
M.; .1. M. Stephenson, O.; W. S. Runyon, L. ; 
.T. W. Moore, C; Isafic F. Freeman, T.; P. R. 
Beckley, Sec'y; "Thomas Anderson, G. K.; Mrs. 
A. E. Freeman. Cores; Miss Cassie Maujiin, 
Pomona; Miss Belle .Johnston, Flora; Mrs. W. 
Daniels, L. A. S. 

Antei-ope Grange, Colusa CouNTY~The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for next year: John 
Sites, M.; Wm. Rosenberger, O.; H. A. Clark, 
L.; A. A. Shearin, S.; John Taylor, A. 8.; M. 
H. Shearin, C.;H. A. Logan, T.; P. Peterson, 
Sec'v;John Rosenberger, G. K.; Mrs. A. A. 
Shearin, Ceres; Mrs. R. A. Chirk, Pomona; 
Mrs. M. H. Shearin,- Flora; Miss Alice Cleg- 
horn, L. A. S. 

St. Helena Grange, No. 30.— John Lewell- 
ing. M.; J. W. Savward, O.; G. B. Crane, L.; 
C. Wheeler, S.; J. C. Weinberger, A. S.; D. 
Kdwarda, C: Chas, A. Storov, Sec'y; Wm. Pe- 
terson, T.; John Howell, G. K.; Mrs. H. M. 
Allen, Ceres; Mrs G. B. Crane, Pomona; Miss. 
Kate Edwards, Flora; Mr.s. H. A. Pellet, 
L. A.S. 

Clahksvillk Grange, No. 149.— Robert T. 
Mills, M ; Peter R. Willot, O. ;Simuel Kyburz, 
L.; Charles Chapman, S.; Z. F. York, A. H.; 
Isaac N. Wilson, C; Charles W. Peter, T.; 
Isaac Maltby, Sec'y; E. L. Wilson. Q. K.; 
Elizabeth Mills, Ceres; Rebecca S. Keyburz, 
Pomona; Mary E. Porter, Flora; Louisa M. 
Willot, L. A. S. 



T)iK New Homestead Plan.— The crowded 
state of our columns this week necessarily 
delays the publicati.jn of sever.al articles which 
we would like to have given his week. Among 
these is the "CMliforuia Letter," from the 
Secretary of the State Grange Committee on 
the " New HomeBteti4 Plan," It will appear 
in our next. 



Business Arm of the Order. 

During the past week business has accumu- 
lated rapidly in the office of the State Grange 
Purchasing Agent. Among other orders filled were 
six from Thornlown for all kinds of articles 
from sawmills down to a pair of stoga boots; 
four orders from Lebanon, mostly groceries; 
also orders from New Castle, Henry county 
Gib:ion county, Muncie, Dayton, Alpine, Ed- 
wardsport, Zion's Mills, Fountaintown, Cicero, 
Franklin. Sunman, Spencer, Columbia City, 
Marion, Xevay, Redkey, Millersburg, Tipton, 
Portland, Salem, Frankfort, etc. 

Many of these orders were for boots and shoes, 
some for groceries others for stoves, some for 
sewing machines, etc. 

Orders for twenty-eight sewing machines 
have been filled since December 2d — these 
have been sent to all parts of the State. 

Two car-loads of corn were shipped a few 
days ago to Massachusetts, and orders are on 
file for other car-loads. There wac such a 
saving to the Patrons in Massachusetts, that 
this method of buying corn will be followed un 
by the Massachusetts brethren. The State 
Agent has so far been compelled to make his 
purchase of corn of outside parties instead of 
Granges, none of the latter beine yet prepared 
to furnish in quantities on short notice. It is 
suggested that if a number of Granges iu a 
nei«hborhood buy a steam corn-sheller and 
thus prepare for filling orders, informing the 
State Agent when and where they have corn to 
sell, it will greatly aid the State Agent in sup- 
plying those who make orders on him. The 
suggestion is certianly a good one and deserves 
careful consideration, especially when it is re- 
membered that thirteen cents a bushel is charged 
for elevator services, shelling and handling. 
This per cent, might as well be saved as not. 

Two car-loads of flour were shipped to 
Massachusetts Patrons a few days ago, at a 
saving to them of three dollars a barrel. This 
opened the eyes of Eastern fsirmers, and the 
Order will receive large accessions of members 
through the influence of this fact alone. Three 
hundred dollars saved on a car-load of flour 
will soon call attention to Grangerism in the 
East. 

Those wishing to order goods, need not first 
write to know if the State Agent can get what 
is wanted. Send for what you want and it will 
be purchased and shipped to you. 

HoosiER Patron. 



OtJR aim in behalf of the Patrons of 
Husbandry is to do whatever we can consist- 
ently with our duty, to society in general, to 
advance the interests of the Grange and each 
individual member thereof. The Rural Press 
aims to win the respect and secure the patron- 
age of the Order by making itself essentially 
necessary to the convenience and needs thereof, 
and to every tiller of the soil also, whether in 
or out of the Order. 

Home Matters in the Grange. — Many of 
the Grangers are devoting their meetings to the 
profitable discussion of matters closely con- 
nected with their home affairs. In well or- 
dered assemblages, there is certain good to 
come from such interchange of thought. It 
makes of those bodies social and agricultural 
clubs— schools of improvement, and lends a 
charm to the proceedings, which will attract to 
the order the elements of society. 



Agricultural Items. 

Four Crops OF Pears in one Season. -The 
Foothill Tidings of a recent date is responsible 
for the following : Four crops of pears from one 
tree in one season is one of those stories for 
which California is famous, but which people 
East seldom believe. Any one who will take 
the pains to walk out to near the end of Neal 
street in this town can satisfy himself that such 
things do happen. Mr. Barker has a winter 
Nelis pear tree in his orchard that has blossomed 
four separate and distinct times this year and 
now has upon it four crops of pears. Only the 
first and second erops are perfect, the others 
being small and immature. 

Of the 14 000 acres of arable land comprising 
Sherman island, it is estimated that 10,000 
acres are already sown to wheat and barley. 
Several hundred acres of volunteer grain stand 
six inches high. 

TiiEBK are no new developments regarding 
the potato rot in Sonoma county. Nearly all 
not (lug before the late rains nre ruined. About 
50,000 sacks are stored in Petaluma. 

Seth Bennett, farmer, on Dry creek, So- 
noma county, gathered from one vine of Mission 
grapes 100 pounds of grapes, which, if made 
into wine would have produced eight gallons. 

Fresh butter is arriving at Petaluma in con- 
siderable quantities, and is selling from 43 to 
45 cents per pound, or 6 cents higher than last 
year. 

Mesquite grass is being sown extensively in 
Lake and Mendocino counties. It is said to be 
fine for hay. and rich green feed. Neither 
frost, wet, nor ordinary dry weather affects it. 

When all her land is properly reclaimed. 
Sutter county will have added fully one half 
more to the amount of land now under cultiva- 
tion. 

Santa Claba county is sending more graia 
East this year than ever before. 

The capacity of the Consolidated Tobacco 
factory at Gilroy is about to be doubled. 

Salt Lakk boastH of 200 new houB^B tiiia 
year. 



[January 2, 1875. 




Little Feet. 

Two little feet, bo Hiuall tliat both may ucBtlo 

in oue caresi-ing hand- 
Two tcndir ffit upi'U tho untried border 

Of life'8 myEterious land. 

Dimpled and Boft, and pink as peach-tree blossoms, 

In April's fragrant days, 
How can they walk anionn the briery tangles. 

Edging the world's rcaigh ways? 

These rose white fiet along the doubtful future 

Must bear a w.niau's lo;ul; 
Alas 1 since woniun lias the heaviest burden, 

And walks the harder road. 

Love, for awhUe. will make the path before them 

All dainty, smooth and fair- 
Will cull away the brambles, letting only 

The roses blossom there. 

But when the mother's watchful eyes are shrouded 

Away from sight of men. 
And these near teet aie left without her guiding, 

■Who shall direct them then? 

How will they be allured, betrayed, deluded. 

Poor littlf untauBht fief? 
Into what dreary mazes will they wander. 

What dangers will they meet? 

Will they go stumbling blindly in the darkness 

Of sorrow's tearful shades? 
Or find the upland slopes of peace and beauty, 

Whose sunlight never fades? 

Will they go toilirg up ambition's summit. 

The cnumon world above? 
Or in some nameless vale, securely sheltered. 

Walk Bide by side with love? 

Some feet there be which walk life's track unwounlcd. 

Which find but pleasant ways; 
Some hearts there be to which this life is only 

A round of happy days. 

But they are few. Far more there are who wander 

Without a hope or friend— 
Who find their journey full of pains and losses. 

And long to reach the end. 

How shall it be with her, the tender strang'-r, 

Fair-faci d and gentle eyed. 
Before whose unstained feet the world's rude highway 

Stretches so fair and wide ? 

Ah ! who may rend the future ! For our darling 

We crave ail blessings sweet, 
And pray that He who feeds the crying ravens 

Will guide the baby's feet. 



For Dear Life. 

A New Year's Night Ride. 

New Year's eve some thirty yeins ago — and 
wo were keeping it rioht mtTiily at the old 
manor-house of Stor Aswan, tho home of my 
childhood, as it had been that of my fore- 
fathers for niiuiy gmerationa. The pL as- 
antest .spot in the world, I thought, and still 
think, that quaint Norwegian homest^^ad, with 
its buff walls and birchbark roof, which suc- 
cetding summers had rendered verdant with 
« an evergrteu thatch of moss ai^.d itcheus, just 
now, however, tbis was not visible, for snow 
lay thickly upon it, as it had lain for weeks 
past, not only there, but upon all the country 
round. 

It was the hardest winter there had been for 
fifty years— so the old folks said — and they 
foretold its continuance some weeks longer. 

All this, however, did not affect any of our 
party, wbo were all Norse men and maidens 
born, used to the cold, full of health and 
spirits. I, Ella Bleorn, daughter of the 
house, was the wildest of that mad circle who 
bad assembled at Stor Aswan that Christmas- 
tide to do honor to my bethrolh d to Eric Jarl, 
the lover of my yopth, ere long to be my hus- 
band. As soon as the birch trees put forth 
their first green tassels, in the early spring- 
time, I was to leave my old home for a new 
one; so now, surrounded by kinsfolk and 
neighbors, we were keeping this last anniver- 
sary of my spinsterhoocl in gooJly fashion. 

So in dancing, feasting and merry-making 
the week sped, until a few hours more would 
see us all scattered in vnrious directions, to 
meet again we knew not when or where. For 
the last day, therefore, we had reserved the 
chief pleasure, the crowning point of all our 
enjoyment— a sleighing and skating party to 
Stor Aswan, a mountain-encircled lake some 
ten miles fnrther north, the same from which 
our homefctead derived its quaint Kunic name. 
This was to be our vail or greeting to the New 
Year — our welcome to the incoming guest. 

Brightly dawned the eventful morning, clear 
as one's heart could desire. Blue was the sky 
as sapphire, whilst the freshly fallen snow 
sparkled and shone as though strewn with liv- 
ing ^ems. All nature seemed rejoicing like 
ourselves at the advent (if another year, and 
one already so full of promise. Without, the 
sleigh bells tinkled and chimed merrily, mak- 
ing the frosty air ring again as the gayly capar- 
isoned horses pawed and shook their heads, 
impatient as theic owner to be off. At leugtli 
we btarte 1, Eric and I as h' sts being the last of 
the parlj ; for of course he was my charioteer. 

Oi that day I shall not speak, we were all 
young and in wild spirits, and some of us in 
love. I, blue-eytd, golden-haired, EUri Bleorn, 
was the aci-nowledged belle and qneen of the 
party, and Eric, my lover, the moat stalwart 
youth of the country-side. Bat all things, even 



the pleasantest, must eoma to an end. So 
when tbe s-hades of evening began to fall heav- 
ily, merging earth, sky and water into one 
iire'v leaden cloud, we began our journey bome- 
wards. Tiridoutwiih my exertion, as 8j)on 
as we started I nestled down amongst the soft 
furs in the sleigh, and, rocked by its rasy mo- 
tion, Eoon fell fast asleep. How long I slept I 
knew not, but when I awoke it was snowing 
fast, and the darknefs so intense that we could 
not see a hand's breadth before us. I called to 
Eric, who was driving, and nsktd if all was 
well.' To which the answer came back, half 
deadened by the thick atmosphere, "All well, 
bnt for God's sake try to keep awake." 

So I aroused myself and sat up, knowing 
that sleep in that bitter night air might mf an 
death. Of any other fear I had no thought, 
when suddenly I heard another sound dome 
up with the wind— a long-drawn hollow moan. 
Twice or thrice it came at intervaU, this wiird 
noise each time nearer and more distinct. 
The third lime the ponies also heard it, for 
thev sprang forward with an impetus that al- 
most shook me out of the carnage Fright- 
ened. I said to Eric, "What oh ! what is that ? 
And the answer came back, short and stern, 
"TheSal'en wolves !" 

Then began that terrible chase "for dear life 
which, though we should live for tWK^ our allo^ 
ted time, we could never forget. Swiftly we sped 
along, our steeds impelled by a terror as great 
as our own, until they appeared almost to fly. 
Breathlessly we hearkened,- hoping yet to leave 
our enemv behind. But no, they traveled with 
us, gained upon u«, nearer and yet nearer- 
th;ir cry growing perceptibly from an uncer- 
ai,^ vague voice of the darkness into the un- 
mistakablv wolf-like note. We knew from the 
direction from whence it came that they were 
tracking us bv scent; so now our last poor 
chance Uv in the darkness of t»>e ni^bt and 
our noarness to Stor Aswan. Eric still he'd 
the reins, and I cowered down in the bottom of 
thpsleieb. and prayed more earnes'ly than I 
had ever ytH done in my life "for an increase 
of the snow-drift, or ought, even a mirncle, u 
it might only save ns." 

On and on. for a time that seemed intermina- 
ble, yft might in trn'h have been but a few 
moments. Then the storm censed the moon 
emerged from her shelter, and we 'saw half a 
mile in our rear a dark line cominc swiftly and 
steadily down upon ns. In the niidd'e of a 
white plain, with no nook or corner visible 
wherein we could take refuge, and still nearly 
a league from home, our case looked hopeless 
enouah. So our pursuers seeroed to think as 
they caught sight of us for the first time, and 
lifting ttieir black muzzles from the ground 
gave vent to a howl of savage exultation. I 
conld have screamed, too. when I h(ard it, for 
fright was driving me half wild; it was so un- 
utterably horrible to perish thus. But n glance 
at Eric, so calm and steadfast, gave me new 
courage. I felt that, come what might, we 
should at lfa«t die toaether. 

Faster and faster we flew, like hunted ani- 
mal-!, death behind us coming on apace — a few 
yards more and he would claim ns for his 
own. Already I cnuld hear the rapid breath- 
ing of our foes see their fierce eves and now 
white teeth, elittering and gleaming in the 
moonlight. Prompt"d by Eric, I threw out 
the beBTskin rug which protected me from ■ the 
cold. For a moment they paused, smelt at it, 
then on with fresh fury after their old prey. 
One by one cushions, wrapi, all wert over to 
the hungry pack, each gaining us an instant's 
precious delay. As the Inst fell from my hand 
the foremost wolf bounded forward, just miss- 
ing my arm, while his strong, cruel jaws met 
with a" painfully audible snap. 

Then Eric turned and looked at me— a I'-ing, 
loving glance— and began knotting the reins to 
the iron aide of the driving-seat. Instinctively 
divining his purpose of giving his life to save 
mine, I sprang forward and, clinging to him 
frantically. I whispered, 

"Drarrst, remember, we stand cr fall to- 
gether !" 

A sudden thought, justified by onr dire ex- 
tremity, flashed through my brain- it was at 
best a forlorn hope. Quickly I bent over Eric, 
snatched the hunting-knife from his belt, and 
cul loose the nearest pony. With an almost 
human cry of pain the poor animal galloped 
off with the ravenous pack after it. A few 
strides only and it was surrounded, overpow- 
ered, down; and the last sounds we heard ere 
the welcome lights of Stor Aswan came in sieht 
were our baffl'^d enemies growling and fighting 
over the cruel sacrifice, but necessity knows no 
law, and by it we were saved. 

In after years, as we sat round the fire at 
New Year's eve, with the storm beating wildly 
as now against the casement, and the wintry 
twilight closing in, our children would ask to 
hear, "once more," tho oft-told tale of the 
"Salten wolves," or our fight "for dear life." 



Stcono Dbink — The habit of taking strong 
drink is like a river. An occasional glass is of 
little account, men say, and they take it. 
Then they drink oftener. The river grows 
broader and swifter, but they do not think of 
this They drink yet oftener and after a while 
the little stream of habil has grown to be a wide, 
roaring torrent, and a little further on is death. 



A Tour of the WoniiD. — Early n<xt month 
Ruv. Mr. ilewett and young Horace Hawes 
leave for a year's absence. They are to sail 
round the world, only stopping at the more im- 
portant places. Horace is oue of the prospect- 
ive rich boys of San Francif-co His training 
is evidently in good hands. 



Talking, Reading, Writing. 

When mothers teach their children to talk, 
they should require them to speak distinctly. 
When reading, they should speak all their 
words clearly, and when writing every word 
should be written plainly. How very few pay 
any special attention to these important points ! 
What can be more interesting in conversation 
than to listen to a clear, well-modulated voice, 
expresi-ing good sense through a kindly, well- 
discipHned mind? or, to listen to a really good 
reader, whether from tho Bible, or the Pilgrim's 
Progress, or jEsop's Fables, if he read or speak 
with exactly the right accent, and in the right 
tone and time, it is at least a good substilute 
for classical music. Why are not all intelligent 
persons educated to read aloud ? It would be 
a real accomplishment; far better than a know- 
ledge of all the common games, dancing, etc. 
Then as to writing. Oh, the luxury of clear, 
round, handsome penmanship! We do not 
care for flourishes; indeed, they have no busi- 
ness in tnisiness letters; they should only be 
indulged in when ''practicing," or when learn- 
ing to write. If not vulgar, it is egotistical to 
introduce much flourishing in letter-writing, 
book-keeping or anywhere else. A clear, plain 
round hand is always best, and the one who 
writes it secures thereiii and thtreby, excellent 
mental discipline. By proper care, and by tak- 
ing necessary pains to have good ink — not pale- 
blue, watery stuff, which crucifies one's eyes to 
read— good pens and good paper, the desired 
end will be attained. 

Then, if a correspondent desires prompt 
attention, he must give his exact address in 
full, with post-office, county, and State, leaving 
nothing to be guessed at, and inclosing the re- 
quisite stamp for a reply, when on his own 
business; and then having properly directed 
and posted Lis letter, he may reasonably hope 
to receive the answer he wants. Why can not 
everybody learn to talk distinctly, to speak 
cl-^aily, and to write plainly. 

Why the Telegraph Wires Wouldn't 
WoKK. — Lately, while the operators in the 
Western Union telegraph ofilce at the Central 
wharf, in Buffalo, ^were busily engaged trans- 
mitting gold and stock quotations from the 
office to the different banks in that city, tbe 
instruments suddenly, and without warning or 
apparent causf, refused to work. Consterna- 
tion siezed all the operators, and they simul- 
laneously gave up the explanation of this break 
of the lightning. The office was searched; no 
breaks or crossings of the wires could be found. 
The entire force there were nonplussed, dis- 
mayed, and at a loss to understand the where- 
fore. The gold and stock quotations bad to be 
carried around to the banks, for the instru- 
ment sternly refused to utter a single click. 
The wires werfe followed along tlieir route 
through the city by the dishearttned and now 
frantic telegraphers. On top of a tall house in 
tbe lower part of the city, across which two of 
the wires ran, was discovered a hoop skirt sus- 
pended from both of them. A remark tinged 
with more force than elegance was htard, and 
the obnoxious article of feminine apparel which 
had restored the equilibrium between the posi- 
live and the negative wire was draggtd down 
and thrown over into tho street. Gold and 
stock qtiotations werj a^ain transmitted as 
formerly. We have heard it said that there is 
always a piece of crinohne at the bottom of 
every trouble into which a man gets. So it 
seems. 



Pebhaps love is never so potent as when it 
seizes upon those who have passed their first 
youth, or even those who nave passed the 
prime of life. The choice made is then 
likely to be thoroughly suited to the nature of 
tbe man; and any intelligent gifts on tho part 
of the woman are likely to be more attractive 
to a man of this age than to a young person. 
Besides, there is a feeling that, as life is not 
likely to be very long, this lust love is the lust 
thing to be clung to, and that after it,should 
it be lost, all will be desolation. 



External Show. — How often do we try, and 
and persevere in trying, to make a sort of neat 
show of outer good qualities, without anyihiig 
within to correspond, just like children who 
plant blo.~soms without any roots in the 
ground to make a prettj' show for the hour ? 
We find fault in our lives and we cut off the 
weed, bnt we do not root it up; we find some- 
thing wanting in ourselves, and we supply it, 
not by sowing the divine seed of heavenly 
principle, but by copying the deeds that the 
principle ought to produce. 

Lady Whistlers. — The young lady who 
whistles defends herself in the Christian at 
Work, as follows: "Let no one deny me the 
privilege of whistling when silting alone at my 
sewing machine. If I am compelled to walk 
tbe street alone at night, I never fear danger at 
an approaching footstep if it is accompanied 
with tbe music of whistling. I do not believe 
a person can whistle who is intent on evil. 

Sight and Observation. — The difference be- 
tween sii/ht and observation is the perpetual 
distinction which turns up among men, and is 
at the root of all growth in tire lower or the 
higher wisdom. Many go through life as the 
figure of a ship goes round the world, and end 
the voyage with no gain from it, but that they 
return more battered and weatherbeaten. 



Dr. Buth is pronounced tbe handsomest man 
in the navy, and yet all the belles are Ruth-less, 
— Graphic, 



Women tor School Boards. — The profession 
of teaching is fast passing into the bands of 
women. In all the Eastern cities the female 
teachers are as four to one of the other sex, and 
of late the former have been carrying off a poirtion 
of the few prizes in that department of labor. 
The most positive advance however has been 
made in Boston, where txith parties have joined in 
nominating some eminent women to the School 
Board of that city. Two women were elected 
last year, bnt legal obstacles were discovered 
in the way of their performing the duties of the 
office, which have since been removed. 
Among those nominated is Lucretia P. Hale, 
sister of Edward Everett Hale, a teacher of ex- 
perience and a popular writer. Miss Abby W. 
May is nominated by both Democrats and Re- 
publicans, and llo organized opposition has yet 
shown itself to her election. Lucia M. 
Peabody is also tbe nominee of both parties 
and her election is considered certain. Seven 
women in all are nominated by Republicans 
and three by Democrats. 

Force or Example. — The poor woman, who, 
with a scanty ward-robe, is ever neat and clean 
in her person, amidst various and trying duties 
— is patient, gentle and aflectionate in her do- 
mestic relations— with small funds is economi- 
cal and judicious in her household man- 
agement, as presenting every day a practi- 
cal exposition of some of the best lessons 
in life, may be a greater benefactress of her 
kind than the woman of fortune, though she 
scatter a tithe of a large fortune in alms. The 
poor man whose regularity and sobriety of con- 
duct co-operate with such a woman, and show 
his fellow-workmen or townsmen what indus- 
try, temperance, manly tenderness and superior- 
ity to low and sensual temptation can effect in 
endearing a home, which like the green spot 
that the traveler finds in the desert, is bright 
•ven amid all the gloom of poverty, and sweet 
even amid all tbe surrounding bittetness— such 
a man does good as well as the most eloquent 
writer who ever wrote. 



The Consumption of Coffee. — Those people 
who go about lecturing as to death in the cup — 
of coffee — don't seem to be of much conse- 
(juence in this country. The annual consump- 
tion per person of this delicious or diabolical 
stimulant amounts to seven pounds. It is only 
phlegmatic Holland that goes beyond us; each 
sleepy child of the dykes is credited with ten 
pounds a year. England bring up the line with 
one pound aud one-eighth to each person; she 
fills up tbe account iu tea, however. Statistics 
certiiinly do not go. to prove that coffee is a stu- 
pefying beverage, for California, which is em- 
phatically a State of energetic people, takes 
more cnffie than any other. Twenty pounds 
and a half to each unit of the population is the 
amount required for the modest quenchers. — 
New York Tribune. 



Over- Worked Women. — I often Fee this at 
the head of pieces in your valuable paper. Not 
long since I saw, iu looking over the Rubal, a 
piece headed iu tbis way. The lady writer 
thought she had found an easier way for over- 
worked women to get along with their labor. 
As I feel myself one among that class, the lady 
in question would confer a great favor on me 
by simply writing a small chapter on that sub- 
ject. I have three siuall children, the oldest 
one not yet four years old. It is a very difficult 
matter for me to study out a way to get things 
done in the proper time and manner, and if 
any know of anything more about general 
housework than I do, I would like to hear 
from them. — Ex. 



The "Coming" Gate.— We have beenshown 
a design for an upholstered front gate, which 
seems destined to become very popular. The 
foot board is cushioned, and there is a warm 
soap stone on each side; the inside step being 
adjustable so that a short girl can bring her lip 
to the line of any given moustache without 
trouble. If the gate is occupied later than 10:30 
p. M. , an iron band extends from one gate post, 
takes the young man by the left ear, turns him 
around, aud he is at once started toward home 
by a steel-foot. The girl can, if she likes, set 
this part at a later hour than 10:30— Rome 
Sentinel. 



An Ekbing Husband. — An erring hasband 
who bad exhausted all explanations for late 
hours, and had no apology ready, recently 
slipped into the house about one o'clock very 
softly, denuded himself gently, aud began 
rocking the cradle by the beside, as if he had 
been awakened out of a sound sleep by infan- 
tile cries. He had rocked away for five min- 
utes, when Mary Jane, who had silently ob- 
served the whole maneuver, said, "come to bed, 
you fool, you! the baby ain't there." 

A New Pablor Game. — Here is a new game 
very popular in the country just now: — "A 
young man takes a chestnut, cuts round the 
hull with a sharp knife, aud then takes one- 
half of the chestnut in his month, and a pretty 
girl the other half in her mouth, and the hull 
comes off. " There may be quicker methods of 
hulling chestnuts, but none more soothing to 
the feelings of the young folks; and they don't 
get made and dance wildly around if the hull 
don't come off for five minutes or so. Country 
games are not to be despised after all. 

Ladies' Hats. — The New York Mail says that 
" the averag* female is just now crazy over hats. 
If she has not got a soft felt, with a rakish 
crown and a thievish looking brim, she is crazy 
to get one; and if she has got one she is ma4 
because sbo did not getlhe other pattern." 



January 2, 1875.] 






Dog Ham. — T. T. Cooper, late agent for the 
Chamber of Commerce at Calcutta, says in his 
"Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce;" While 
waiting for the return of the coolie, Philip and 
myself breakfasted at a fine tea shop, the pro- 
prietor 6f which, thinking his customer was a 
Mandarin, prepared an elaborate meal, con- 
sisting of a number of dishes, and among 
others, fried dog ham! I proceeded with 
stoical fortitude to taste doggie. One taste led 
to another, and resultod in ii verdict for reason; 
for in summing up, after a hearty meal, I pro- 
nounced the dog ham to be delicious in flavor, 
well smoked, tender and juicy. The landlord 
having heard that the Yaugjen, as the test had 
discovered me to be, had conquered his preju- 
dice, brought in the ham to show me. It was 
small — not much bigger th:in the Ifg of a good 
sized sucking pig; the flesh was dark, and the 
hair had been carefully removed, while the 
paw had been left as a stamp of its genuine- 
ness, as the proprietor remarked. Dog hams 
are jastly considered a great delicacy in China, 
and as such bring a very high price, costing' as 
much as five taels per pound. They are chiefly 
cured in the province of Hoonan, where dogs 
of a peculiar breed are fattened for the pui-pose. 

"What AM I Good For?" — Remember the 
parable of the talents— one had ten, another 
five, another two and another one. So it is 
among men to-day. Our "talents" may be 
compared with money, with education, acquired 
art, natural gifts, or with opportunity to do 
good. If we use our one, two, or five talents 
to the best of our ability, we shall be accepted, 
and earn the approval of Him who jud»<-s 
righteously. The comforting words, "Well 
done, thou good and faithful servant," will be 
&et opposite our name in the great book, whose 
records give a complete history of each indi- 
vidual lite. Are we so living to-day that we 
can ask or hope for God's blessing on our 
course ? This is our right, our privilege, our 
duty. We may count our passing moments as 
unimportant, as they may appear to be un- 
eventful. But "time flies," and we must fly to 
keep up, or be left behind; each secood, like 
the tick of a clock, makes its record. We do 
not Tfalize this until we come into middle life 
or old age, when, if our time has been frittered 
away, we are punished in a "hell" of regrets, 
for "lost time, lost opportunity." — Fhrenolo(]i- 
■cal Journal. 

No KosES WITHOUT Thobns.— Things are 
pretty well balanced in this world, so far as 
taking comfort goes; and we begin to believe 
that high and low, all have thi'ir triLiulations. 
i"ihhe8 are hooked, worms are trodden on, 
birds are fired at. Worry is everywhere. 
Poor men's wives worry because their bread 
won't rise, or the stove won't draw, or the 
clothes line breaks, or the milk burns, or the 
pane of glass is mended with putty, or they 
can't afford to hire help. Rich men's wives 
worry because the pressrve dish is not of the 
latest patteru, or because somebody finds out 
how a party dress is trimmed before the party 
happens, or because some grandee's wife over- 
looks them, or because their help sauces 'em, 
breaks up tea sets, spoils dinners, gets drunk, 
and cuts up sheets iuto underclothes. Causes 
vary, but worry averages the same. The scale 
of miles is different on diffdreut maps, but 
places remain just so far apart, and so do 
humanity and content. 

About Dolls. — Dolls are very prolific sub- 
jects now-a-days. Modern little girls do not 
«are for one, they want a whole family. Dolls, 
■dolls' babies, dolls' nurses, dolls' papas, mam- 
mas, uncles, aunts, brothers and sisters, cous- 
ins and a number of acquaintances. The last 
individual of the dull tribe that ha i been intro- 
duced is the family doctor, and they will have 
the clergyman ufixt year. The modern little 
doll must not only have her family of dolls but 
her baby house, her cook-kitchen, her stove 
and laundry, with all the necessary appurte- 
ances, her carriage to take the dolls an airing, 
and a wardrobe for each, of the most elaborate 
description. Even the one item of jewelry is 
Eo small affair, for the earrings are perpetually 
:getting lost, and the fashion of the sets chang- 
ing. And what well-bred doll wants to appear 
in society with an imperfect or old-fashioned 
•set of jewelry? 

A Hopeful Lady. — A couple was recently 
anarried in Olisfield, Me., who had been en- 
gaged twenty years, the man in the meantime 
marrying and raising a family, still keeping up 
the conespondmce with his old lady-love and 
occasionally visiting her, she keeping a faithful 
watch, hoping against hope, and never giving 
up her expectations. 

Hiohlt Charitablk. — Some young men in 
Vienna have formed a matiimonial league. 
Every member of the league mu.st be the son 
of a man of property, and must pltd'j;e himself 
to marry a poor girl, one who has neither dowry 
nor expectations, and must forfeit 10,000 florins 
if he violates his pledge. 

Touching.— "Call me soon, Georgie," was 
the touching exclamation of a German woman 
of more than four score years to her little dead 
great grandson, as his corpse was taken out lor 
burial at Pittsfield. 



Yoii^ct F®L*^s' ConJifipi. 



One and One. 



Two little girls are better than one. 
Two little boys can double the fun, 
Two little birds can build a fine nest, 
Two little arms can love mother best. 
Two little ponies must go to a span. 
Two little pockets has my little man, 
Two little eyes to open and close, 
Two little ears and one little nose. 
Two little elbows, dimpled and sweet, 
Two little shoes, on two little feet, 
Two little lips and one little chin, 
Two little cheeks with a rose shut in; 
Two little shoulders, chubby and strong. 
Two little legs running all day long; 
Two little prayers does my darling say. 
Twice does he kneel by my side each day — 
Two little folded hands, soft and b own. 
Two li tie eyelids east meekly down — 
And two little angels guurd hira in bed, 
"One at the foot and one at the hea<l." 

—St. Nicholas. 



QooD He^ljH- 



Esjic Eco 



The Sculptor Boy. 

Fraitk Lawson was the son of a Welsh miner 
who lost his life in the beginning of the present 
century by an accident in a mine. The lad's 
mother had died before that, and now the for- 
lorn little orphan took the situation of shepherd- 
boy for his supp rt. One day while watching 
his sheep, with two other children to keep him 
company, he carved with his pocket-knife from 
a block of wood such a capital likeness of his 
master's dog, that it soon become the wonder of 
the country-side. 

This was Lawson's fir«t attempt at sculpture. 
Afterwards he carved a figure of a fine horpe so 
admirably, that the animal's owner, who wa.^ a 
rich gentleman, supplied the boy sculptor with 
the means of studying his favorite art in 
Liverpool. 

Subsequently the young artist was able to 
spend three years in Italy, where his works 
achieved ever increasing fame. Returning to 
England he executed a number of fine statues, 
and then, going back to Italy, ended his days in 
the city of Rome 

Like some of the greatest of the world's great 
intn, the former Welsh shepherd-boy rose to 
fame and competence by earnest and painstak- 
ing devotion to the talent God had given him, 
and a bravo heart to bear obscurity, disappoint- 
ment and adversity until his industry and good 
character brought him friends and opporiuuities. 
His story is worth the study of every boy who 
believes that he has it in himself to become a 
man of mark. — Hearth and Home. 



A Westebn paper chronicles a marriage in 
this suggestive style: "The couple re.solved 
themselves into a committee of two with power 
to add to their number." 



A JUVENILE vigilance committee has been or- 
ganized at Truckee, for the purpose of banish- 
ing all hoodlums. 



The Baby Monkey. 

He was a little bit of a fellow, about as large 
as a kitten, and had a tail as long as his 
mother's, but he looked very old in the face. 
When I first went to see him, the monkey was 
holding him in her arms, but presently he 
crawled to the floor, then out through the bars; 
and upon me. I thought strange that the 
motLier was not afraid of losing it; but when I 
moved my hand to stroke it, back went the 
little monkey, swilt as a dart into his mothei's 
arms. 

Pretty soon he crawled away again, and then 
I saw that the mother monkey had hold of the 
tip of his tail with her fingers, and as the little 
one crawled away from her she let him go as 
far as she could reach, but never let go of bis 
tail; aud when anybody moved a hand to 
touch him, she pulled him back into the cage. 
She never seemed to relax this hold by day or 
by night till the little fellow was two mouths 
old. Then she'let him go. 

But her mother instincts were very marked 
even then. The cage contained a "happy 
family" of dogs, cats, monkeys and guinea 
pigs, sleeping in one box together; so when 
the little monkey crept out of his mother's arms 
she would reach down into the bex and take 
up a little puppy, or kitt<n, or guinea pig, and 
nurse and fondle it just as though it were her 
own. — Jix. 



A Boy of Pluck. — When Dr. Carey, the cel- 
ebrated missionary, was a boy, he tried one 
day to climb a tree. But his foot slipped aud 
he fell to the ground, breaking his leg by the 
fall. This accident confined him to his bed 
many weeks, and caused him much suffering. 

When the broken limb was healed, wh it do 
you think he did? Resolve never to eliinb a 
tree again? Not he. He was too plucky for 
that. On the contrary, the first tbiiiL; he did 
after his recovery was to go and ehiub that 
tree. Now, while I do not recommiud boys to 
climb trees unless duty requires tl.em to do it, 
I do advise them to imitate yruiig Carey's 
spirit of perseverance. He had a soul that 
would not be conquered by difHculties, and that 
spirit, when devoted to the in ssionary woik, 
made him successful. Imitate that spirit, boys. 
When a duty is to be done never give up! -A'. 
S. Aduocale. 



A TEAonEU, wishing to improve the occa.sion 
said to the boys at the conclusion of a straw- 
berry festival. 

"Have you enjoyed these berries to-day ? " 

"Yes sir," came from all sides, with unmis- 
takable heartiness. "Well, children, if you 
had seen these berries growing in my garden, 
and had slipped in through the gate without my 
leave, and picked them from the vines, would, 
they have tnsttd as good as now? " 

"No, sir," WHS the prompt reply. 

"Why not ? " 

"Because, " said a wide-awake boy, then we 
shouldn't have bad sugar an4 cream with 'em." 



Washing Out the Stomach. 

Dr. C. Ewald, of Berlin, describes a method 
of washing out the stomach, which, on account 
of its great simplicity seems likely to make the 
topical treatment of diseases of the stomach, 
especially in cases of poisoning, much more 
common: "A piece of ordinary India rubber 
tubing, such as is used for gas-lamps, about 
six feet long, is used. One end is rounded 
with seisfors, and, if necessary, two holes are 
cut at a short distance from the end. This 
tube possesses quite sufficient rigidity to be 
passed without difficulty into the stomach. To 
the outer end a funnel is fitted, into which can 
be poured either water or a solution of soda, 
etc., according to circumstances. If the con- 
tents of the stomach are to be removed the 
outer end of the tube must be sunk to the level 
of the pubes, or even lower; then the patient 
must make a short but forcible contraction of 
the abdominal walls. By this means the tube 
is filled to its highest point with the contents of 
the stomach, and becomes a siphon; the liquid 
continuing to flow until there is no more, or 
till the tube is stopped. 

This last seldom occurs, if the tube be of a 
moderate calibre. Should it, however, happen, 
or the abdominal pressure be insufficient to 
fill the tube in the first instance, or the patient 
be insensible, or any similar difficulty aiise, it 
can, in general, be readily overcome by fitting 
a common clyster-.syringe to the end of the 
tube, one stroke from the piston of which is 
generally sufficient to remove the obstacle. 

Thk HoDiiLY Death Rate. — Dr. Lawson, an 
English physician, has recently published some 
curious observations regarding the time of the 
day when the greatest and least number of 
deaths occur. He finds, from the study of the 
statistics of several hospitals, asylums, and 
other institutions, that deaths from chronic dis- 
eases are most numerous between the hours of 
eight and ten in the morning, and fewest be- 
tween like hours in the evening. Acute deaths 
from continued fevers and pneumonia take 
pi ice in the greatest ratio either in the early 
morning, when the powers of life are at their 
lowest, or in the afternoon, when acute disease 
is most active. The occurrence of these defi- 
nite daily variations in the hourly death rate is 
shown, in the case of chronic diseases, to be 
dependent on recurring v.iriations in the ener- 
gies of organic life; aud in the case of acute 
diseases, the cause is ascribed either to the ex- 
istence of a well marked daily extreme of bodily 
depression, or a daily maximum of intensity of 
acute disease. 

Simple Dyspepsia Remedies. — Dyspepsia 
arises from a great variety of causes, and dif- 
ferent persons are relieved by different reme- 
dies, according to the nature of the disease and 
condition of the stomach. We know of a lady 
who has derived great benefit from drinking a 
tumbler of sweet milk — the richer and fresher 
the better, whenever a burning sensation is ex- 
perienced in the stomach An dderly gentle- 
man of our acquaintance, who was afflicted for 
many vears with great distress after eating, has 
effected a cure by mixing a laVdespoonful of 
whe.1t br.in in half a tumbler of water, and 
driiiUiiig it half an hour after his meals. It is 
necessary to stir quickly and drink immedi 
ately, or the bran will adhere to the glass and 
btcjine pasty. Coffoe and tobacco are proba- 
bly the wor.st substances persons troubled with 
dyspepsia arc in the habit of using, and .should 
be avoided. Regular eating of nourishing plain 
food, and the use of some simple remedies like 
the above, will efi'ectin most cases quicker cures 
than medicine. — Scimllfic American. 

Nelaton's Treatment or Bcils.— A French 
medical journal says that Nelaton for more 
than 20 years prescribed the use of alcohol tor 
the prevention of these smaller abscesses 
which are so common among young people and 
which so seriously impair the beauty of the 
fice. It appears that this treatment is now 
extending. In speaking of boils aud outward 
absces.ses, and other inflammations of the ej)!- 
"dermis and of the derma, he observes that as 
soon as the characteristic circular redness ap- 
pears on any part of the body, whatever may 
be its size, with a point rising in the middle, 
making it a grayish white, a thimbleful of cam- 
phoiatod alcohol should be poured iuto a 
saucer; the palm of the hand should be wetted 
with it aud this should be rubbed with gentle 
friction over the affected place. The fingers 
should be again steeped, and the friction con- 
tinued as often as eight or ten times every half 
minute. The place should be well dried and 
before covering it up a little camphorated olive 
oil should bo applied to prevent the evapora- 
tion cf the fluid. 

Red Wall Paper Danqers.— To the dangers 
duo to the arsenic entering into the pigment 
used in staining green wall paper, must now 
bn added others produced by coralline dye em- 
ployed in the coloring of red hangings. It ap- 
pears that the poisonous symptoms (extending 
to acute eruptions of the body, when under 
garments thus dyed are worn, and to eye dis- 
eases in papered rooms) are owing not directly 
to the coralline, since recent experiments have 
proved the substance to be harmless, but to an 
arsenical mordant used to fix it. This last acts 
as a poison, both topically upon the skin, 
through contact with garments, and also by its 
dust and vapors, disengaged from the stuffs 
which it colors. 



How to Cook Turkeys and Chickens. 

Roast Turkey.— A turkey should be well 
singed and cleaned of pin feathers; then draw 
the inwards. Be sure you take everything out 
that is inside. Dip the turkey into cold water ; 
clean the gizzard, liver, heart and neck; let all 
soak one hour if you have time. Wash all 
very clean; wipe the turkey very dry inside 
and out. Make a dressing of two cupfuls of 
bread crumbs, one teaspoonful of salt, two 
large spoonfuls of sweet marjoram, two spoon- 
fuls of butter, one egg and mix them well to- 
gether. Cut the skin of the turkey in the back 
part of the neck, that the breast may look 
plump; fill the breast with the force-meat and 
sew it up. If you have any more forcemeat 
than is required for the breast, put the remain- 
der into the body and skewer the vent, tie the 
legs down very tight, skewer the wings down 
to the sides, and turn the neck on to the back 
with a strong skewer. Baste with salt and 
water once, then frequently with butter; fifteen 
minutes before dishing, dredge with a little 
salt and flour, and baste with butter for the 
last time. This will give a fine frothy appear- 
ance and add to the flavor of the turkey. 

To mitke gravy, put the gizzad, neck and 
liver, iuto a saucepan with a quart of water,a 
little pepper, salt and mace; put it on the fir e 
and let it boil to a^bout half a pint. When 
done, braid up the liver very fine with a knife, 
and put it back into the water it was boiled in; 
then add the drippings of the turkey and a lit- 
tle flour, and give it one boil, stirring it all the 
time. Dish the gizzard with the turkey. Al- 
low twelve minutes to a pound for the time to 
roast a turkey. A turkey weighing ten pounds 
requires two hours to roast with a clear fire, 
not too hot. Turn the spit very often. 

Boiled turkey is prepared the same as for 
roasting, except in the dressing. Put in pork, 
chopped very fine, instead of butter. In truss- 
ing, turn the wings on the back instead of the 
sides, as for roasting; flour a cioth well, pin 
up the turkey tight, put it into boiling water 
where one or two pounds of salt pork have 
been boiling for some time; let this boil with 
the turkey: and dish the pork with the turkey 
on a separate dish, with some parsley. Serve 
with oysters or celery sauce. A turkey weigh- 
ing eight pounds requires an hour and a half 
to boil. 

Roast Chickens. — Dress and roast the same 
as a turkey. A pair of chickens weighing six 
pounds require an hour and a half to roast. 
Make the gravy the same as for a turkey, ex- 
cept the mace, which is to be ommitted. 

Boiled Chickens. — Dress and boil the same 
as a turkey. Some cooks do not stuff boiled 
chickens or turkeys; but the dressing adds as 
much to the boiled as to the roast. Pork boiled 
with chickens is very necessary. A pair of 
chickens require from one to two hours to boil, 
depending upon the size and age.— OAio 
Foamier. 

Blowing Meat. — Dr. Yeld, medical officer of 
health for Sunderland, England, has presented 
a memorial to the health committee of that 
town against the "blowing and stuffing of 
meat." The practice of "blowing" is described 
as follows: "A tube or pipe is thrust under the 
skin of the meat, and the butcher or dresser 
then blows the foul air from his own lungs into 
the cellular tissue of the meat, the effect being 
that a deceptive appearance of plumpness or 
fatness is given to the meat, and in many cases 
it becomes tainted with~the smell of rum, to- 
bacco, etc." This is pleasant for consumers of 
meat,'and where ignorance is bliss, it is per- 
h 'ps folly to be wise; and now that public at- 
tention has been called to the "blowing" prac- 
tice, it might perhaps be as well for butchers 
to meet the wishes of the fastidious so far as to 
use a pair of bellows for the purpose of giving 
a graceful contour to the carcasses of animals 
they kill. Even for their own sakes they will 
act prudently by discontinuing the use of their 
lungs in the process. 

Chocolate Caramels.— Take one pound of 
.sugar, one-fourth pound of chocolate, one table- 
spoonful of milk, one also of molasses. Grate 
the chocolate aud mix with sugar, etc. Put the 
mixture in an iron skillet on the back part of 
the stove, where the heat will slowly melt it. 
Cook slowly, stirring it well. .To ascertain 
when done, take a little in a spoon and drop it 
in a cup of water; if done, it ought to sinkin a 
solid mass, and in a few minutes be firm. 
When you have decided that it is cooked 
enough, grease a long cheesecake tin with but- 
ter; pour in the mass aud spread evenly. Be- 
fore too cold, cut in small squares. 

Breakfast Indian Cake.— Take as much 
meal as may be required, scald it partially; then 
take some drippings of lard and warm water- 
melt the fat with it; then take the meal and 
mix it with milk to the proper consistency; atld 
a little salt aud a beaten egg, or the egg may be 
omitted; bake on the gridille, and yoa will have 
an excellent cake. 

Water Cake.— Take four cups of sifted flour, 
two cups of white sugar, half a cup of butter, 
two eggs, and one cup of water. Turn the 
water over the butter, stir the sugar into it. 
add the eggs well beaten. Dissolve a eiaaU 
teaspoonful of saleratus in a little boiUng 
water: stir it in; mix two spoonsfuls ot cream 
of tartar with the flour. Nutmeg, lemon or 
maoe for the flavoring. 



WAQtWIQ mMUM^ !P!E^BB, 



[January 2, 1875. 




t. I. UKWBY. W. B. KWEa. 0- 
PaiNOITAL Edizob 



^ CO. 

, H. BTBOHQ. J. L. BOOHE 

W. B. tWER, A. M. 



Omott No 224 Sansomo street, Southoust cornor of 
Oalilorniii street, where friends und patrous are iuvlt«d 
to our SoiKNTiFic Pbkbb, fateut Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establishment. 

SuB-CKii-TiONS payable 111 advance— For one year, $4; 
six months, ti.iS; three mouths, $1.25. Kemittauees 
by registered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advkbtuuno Rates.— 1 «"■«*;. 1 month. 3 months, lyea 

Per line 2'> -W HM «5.0 

Oue-halfinch iUm $;t.()0 $7.51) 24.0 

One Inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.0 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, uutices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. _^_____^__ 



No QuacK Arlvortl«om«"iit.s insertetl 
m tliese coluiuns. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jajiuary 2, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS.- Where in Your Gar- 
den? PickliiiK and Proherving; Uf' Huutuig. Pagre 1. 
The New Comer- IHTS; Jut'-: Mure Kaiii Wanted; 
A New Volume: Home Industry Notably Honored, 
8 Klpp's rpright Km;ine, 9. General News Ituuib; 
Industrial Items; Patents and Inventions, 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Bio Hunting, Pasre 1. 
Kipp's Upright Engine; How to Plant the Eucalyp- 
tus, 9. ....,« 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Our I p-Lands. 2. 

THE DAIRY. — Premium Butter; Abortion In 
Cows 2. 

THE HORSE.— flyde and French Draft Horses; 
Quiddlng Horse; The Horse for Farm Work; Blood 
Drinking, 2. . . . » „ 

BEKS— Br (Sill Market; Communication between Bees; 
The Codling M.ith, 2. ^ ,. .,„,. 

USEFTIl^ INFORMATION —Keduction of Obee. 
ity; Natural Ai.ti-iiorbutics; Strmtiire oi a Cow's 
Horn; Chinew India Ink; Useful Information, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New arauges; Meetings; 
Eic., 4-5 

HOME CIRCLE.-Little Feet (Poetry): For Dear 
Life: Strong Drink; A Tour of the World; Talking. 
Reading. Writing; Why the Telegraph Wires Wouldn't 
Work; E.xterual Show: Lady Whistlers; Sight and 
Observation; Women for School Boards; Force of 
Example; The Consiimption of Co ee; Over-Worked 
Women: The ■•Cuming" Gate; An Erring Husband; 
A New Parlor Game; Ladies' Hats, 6. Dog Ham; 
"What am I Good For?" No Roses Without Thorns; 
About Dolls; A Hopeful Lady; Highly Charitable; 
Touching, 7- 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN.— One and One (Poe- 
try) ; The Sculptor Boy; The Baby Monkey; A Boy of 
Pluck, 7. 

GOOD'hEALTH. -Washing Out the Stomach; The 
Hourly Death Kate; Simple Dyspepsia Kemedies; 
Nelatou's Treatment of Boils; Red Wall Paper Dan- 
gers, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— How to Cook Turkeys 
and Cliickc ns; Blowing Meat; Chocolate Caramels; 
Breakfast Indian Dake; Water Cake. 7. 

HORTICULTURE— Grafting Grapes and Planting 
Locusts; How to Plant the Eucalyptus; Grafting 
Grape Vines, 9. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from varions coun- 
ties in (California. 12. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Good Advice to Settlers: 
German Emigri,tion; Fastening' Iron in Stone. 2. 
Decrease of i-arm Laborers in England; Short Weight 
in Lard: Dots Cooking Injure the Health of Stuck? 
To Break up a Hen; Agricultural Set lUis on Mineral 
Lands; Thick and Thin Saws; Wooden Nest Eggs; 
Soft Shelled Eggs; Computing the Speed of Gearing 
and Pulleys; Uemoving Hair jrom Hides, 3. The De- 
velopment of Natural History and Science; The 
Transit and Its Probable Results; 'Peat Charcoal as a 
Deodorizer: Air Pressure in Wind Instruments; Belt- 
ing and Gearing; The Telemeter in Surveying: Springs 
as Motors: Pulling up Foreiit Trees by Stoam; Metal- 
lic Pens, 10. 



The New Comer— 1875. 

How awkward the bookkeeper, the corre- 
spondent, and others who flourish the pen, (eel 
in making the simple change of figures from 
'74 to '75! But it must be done; for Time is 
"relentl'.ss" in small things as well as in more 
weighty matters. We accordingly make the 
imperative change, Loping that the "new 
broom"— 1875 — will really sweep a clean 
course for the Kubai, Pbkss, and that our in- 
tercourse with our subscribers and friends will 
will be as pleasant when we remove it from the 
heading of our paper, as it is at the present 
time when we first place it there. We again 
wish our friends a "Happy New Year." 



On File.— "Silk Culture in 1874," F. G.; 
"The New Homestead Plan," Bec'y. S. G. 
Com.; "About Dress Reform," A. J. H.; 
"Clipping Shtep," A Subscriber; "Letter from 
J. T;" "Letter from L. P.;" "The Grange So- 
cially," J. T.; "Fram Sacramento Grange," G. 
B.; "Inquiry about Jute," "Inquiry abjut 
Broom Corn," S. K. S.; "Letter from Kiilu 
jnazoo, Mich.," H. H. M.; ''Notes of Grunge 
Travel," J. W. A. Wiiyht; "Summer Houses, 
F. P.H, 

Thtety seven vessels have loaded wheat at 
Sruth Vallejo this season. 



Jutet 

This is undoubtedly one of the products des- 
tined to figure in the programme of diversified 
fanuiiig in Culifomia. Although .some attention 
Las b -en given to this matter during the last 
two years, it may still bo ranked among agri- 
cultural experiments. We have endeavored to 
"draw out" tho>-e who are ex) criim-uting in the 
culture of jule, and have them communicate 
the results through the Pkess. But very little 
practiciil knowledge, it is evident, has yet been 
secured, and thuso who possess that little are 
(lUite uncommunicative on the subject. Judg- 
ing from the extent and character of the inquiries 
received by us touceruing jute, and the diffi- 
culty in obtdining the desired inforiuaiion, we 
are convinced that tL« growth of interest in 
the matter is increasing much faster than that 
of the plant itself. 

In Southern agriculture the subject occupies 
precisely the .same position as wilh us. The 
farmers there are making the same efforts to 
curtail the proportions of the cotton product, 
that we are using to reduce those of the wheat 
crop. Among the means by which they hope 
to eflfect this cuitailmtnt, the cultivation of 
jute figures conspicuously; more bo than with 
us. The Jute company of Now Orleans has 
been in active operation for some time, and is 
using every means to induce plantefs to sub- 
stitute, in a mtftiure, this crop for that of cot- 
ton, and to place the material before the manu- 
facturers of the country. The President of 
this company a i?hort time siqto sent to the 
Deiiartment of Agriculture at WasLiuglou, 
specimens of jute aud its fabrics raised and 
manufactured in Louisiana. They consisted 
of jute filament, rolled, after cleaning by ma- 
chinery; jute rope, crude as it comes from the 
machine; and jule rope made of rotted jule. 
The President stated that the jute was acknowl- 
edged to be 50 per cent, superior to the Indian 
article. A planter, writing from North Caro- 
lina, sayj th»t the ground was prepared as for 
cotton, aud the seed dropped twelve inches 
apart; and, as tho spiing wu't a very wet one, 
the seed lay dormant for Ihrfe weeks. The 
plant grew to a height of thirteen feet, with 
branches from fivB to seven f»et long. The 
laud was ploughed twice, and hoed once. It 
was cut in October and thrown into water, 
where it rc-miiiued to rot three weeks; the bark 
was then easily stripped from bottom to top. A 
specimen of the fibre was exhibited at the Stale 
lair, and pronounced very tine by persons who 
were familiar with its cul'.ure. Bottom lands 
of North Carolina could be made, it is nffiruied, 
to produce, by mapuiing, as much as 3000 
pounds per acre. A planter iu Georgia, also, 
who has succeeded well in an exp- riment in 
raising jute, says that if five cents per pound 
Clin be netted, more can be made by raisin" jute 
than cotton. He planted about May 1; the 
seed germinated freely, and the plants grew 
finely on rather ponr land, attaining a height 
of over ten feel by S -ptember 19. 

The attention of England is already directed 
to the impetus given to jute culture in this 
country. .AUhongli they declare that there are 
no indications that this fibre will be raised in 
the United Siates to an extent that will jeopar- 
diz-! the prosperity of the jute industry of 
Bengal — the main source ol jute supply for 
Englai.d- the consideration of tLesubjtct has 
induced the Governuient iu India to appoint a 
commission to inquire into the culture, etc., of 
the jute plant. They were evidently incited to 
this by the superiority of the American product, 
and with the characteristic willin,.4ness of Eng- 
lishmen to acknowledge manifest superiority, 
and the unwillingness to play second to any- 
body in anything, they in.'-tituled a thorough 
investigation of the subject. 

The report submitted by this commission is 
complete iu everj' respect; containing much 
information that will bo extremely interesting 
to those who are simply curiou,i in the matter, 
and deserving the careful coasideration of 
those who view the subject from the commer- 
cial aud manufacturing stand points; while 
those who wish to embark in its culture will be 
able to obtain fiom it many points of practical 
utility. We therefore give the following syn- 
opsis of the report, as published iu a recent 
number of the British Trade Journal: 

"As to the origin of the word jale, concern- 
ing which there has been so much dispute, it is 
su^igested that the modern word is simply the 
Anglicised form of the Orisn&jUot, and the an- 
citnt Sauskiit jArti. As to the precise plant 
which yields the fiber, the commission has 
shown that the jute of commerce is yiel led in- 
ditferenily by two distinct species of Vildceoe, 
the Corcliorous oliotorius and Chorcliorus capsu- 
laris. The plants are extremely 'alike in ap- 
pearance, leaf, color, and growth, aud difl'er 
only in their seed-pods, tbo.se of the C. cap.su- 
larU being short, globular, and wiiukled, 
while those of C. oliotorius are the thickness of 
a quill, aud about two inches long. Both 
plants are annual, and grow from five to ten 
feet high, with a stalk about the thickness of 
a man's finger, seldom branching except near 
the top. The leaves, which are of a light green 
color and serrated, are four or five incues long, 
and taper to a point. Several other species of 
the same plant are said to yield juie, bul are 



not cultivated for the fiber, the apecies already 
named alone yielding the real jute. This fact 
was established by the commission, by a series 
of experiments in the Royal Botanical Gardens 
with seeds obtained from all the districts in 
which the fiber is grown. The results showed 
that the jule of commerce is the produce of 
onf< or tLe other of thotwo plants named, and 
of them only. 

In lower Bengal, the two species appear to 
be grown indifferently; but in the central and 
some of the eastern districts, the C. copsiilaris 
largely predominates, while in the neighbor- 
hood of Calcutta it is the C. oUtorius that is 
chiefly cultivated. The well known Lukhiporo 
jute of Hooghly and the24-Ptrgunnahs, known 
also as desi jute, is the produce of this latter 
species. The plant has been cultivated from 
time immemorial in the lower provinces, but 
its export is a modern industrj', although the 
tibtr has been cultivated largely for home use, 
and for the manufacture of gunny from a very 
remote peritjd. One or other of the two plants 
has been found in no less than forty-seven 
out of the fifty-eight districts of ihe Presidency. 
The attention of the Commis.sion was specially 
directed by the Government to the importance 
of ascertaining what description of soil was 
most favorable to the growth of the fiber. The 
evidence collected upon the point is conflict- 
ing. A light sandy soil is not suited to it, and 
it seems most to flourish in a hot, damp at- 
mosohere, with a heavy rainfall and rich allu- 
vial soil. The seasons of sowing and growing 
appear to be generally the same as those for 
the early rice crop of Bengal. The of tener aud 
more thoroughly the land is plowed, and thi; 
more manure, the better. The seed is sown 
broadcast from the middle or end of March to 
the beginning of June, and the i>lant cut from 
the middle of August to the middle of October, 
and in some of the districts earlier. The Com- 
mission direct prominent attention to the ex- 
treme carelc'ssness of the cultivators in the se- 
lection of the seed. In most instances a cor- 
ner of th<- field, or a few stunted way.~ide 
plants are lift to produce it, not the slightest 
attempt being made to select it; and if in these 
circumstances a real detorintion of the plant 
h id taken place, a fact which the commission 
douVit, little wonder could have been expressfd. 
Neither selection nor ch.inge of seetl seems to 
be resorted too, and if the attention of the 
Government is ever directed to improving the 
cultivation of this plant, its first step must be 
a reform iu this fundamental point of good 
husbandry. The acreage under jute in the 
great producing season of 1872 was 921.000. 
The ar'U is said to have been no more than 
517,000 acres in 1873. The northern and east- 
ern districts may also be said to engross the 
cultivation, showing a total area of 8(10,000 
acres under the plant in 1872, against 125,000 
only in the rest of the Presidency. The sug- 
gestions of the improvement of the staple are 
confined to the selection of the seed, to the 
observance of a more careful rotation in grow- 
ing the crop, and to the improvement of the 
procei-ses for cutting and steeping the fiber. 
The influence of the cultivation on the condi- 
tion of Ihe people appears to have been good. 
The testimony is uniform that it has enriched 
the cultivators, while the deleterious efi'rcts of 
the manufacture upon their health seems to be 
very problematic. As to an alleged deteriora- 
tion of the staple, the commission attribute 
tbis belief to the fact that the high prices which 
have prevailed of late years have stimulated the 
production of large quantities of inferior or 
badly-prepared jute. It is not that there is 
less good jule produced than formerly, but 
that a larger proportion of inferior fiber grown 
on any and every soil has isome into the mar- 
ket under the stimulus of prices; and that 
when the quantity grown is large the care de- 
voted to its preparation is comparatively small. 
The commission record their judgment that 
there is nothing to show that there has been 
any deterioration, in se, in the character of the 
jute, or any general falling ofi' in the quality of 
the fiber. The local manufactures of the fiber 
into cordage and twine, and into gunny cloth, 
aud gunny bigs, are described iu their report 
at length; and the commission have shown that 
it is used for paper-making in several districts. 

More Rain Wanted. 

The immediate -want of rain is not urgent, 
according to such infoimation as we can ob- 
tain from correspondents, exchanges and other 
sources, but serious apprehensions are looming 
up in connection with the prospect of a dry 
winter which many now predict. We have no 
sympathy with croakers; and one of the re- 
grets growing out of the present unhopeful as- 
pect of the season, is a sort of mortification at 
the satisfaction which these evil prophets man- 
ifest over the seeming truthfulness of their pre- 
dictions. It will be remembered that on the 
appearance of the first rains of the season, 
which were unusually early and copious, fears 
were entertained that they would be followed 
by a dry winter; aud at the present time there 
is, it must be confessed, too near a prospect of 
those fears being realized. 

While we do not believe in gauging our op- 
era'ions or allowing our feelings to be swayed 
by the predictions of those who are continually 
prophesying evil, we are not disposed to close 
our eyes to anything that is so near an approach 
to disaster as the present scarcity of ram ren- 
ders imminent. Wo might as well face the mu- 
sic at once, as to wait until the diu becomes 
confusing. 



A New Volume. 

This issue commences Volume IX. of the 
Pacific Rcbal Pbess. It will be our endeavor 
to improve each number issued during the 
year. It is a good time for old subscribers to 
renew their subscriptions, and to induce their 
neighbors to enroll their names also on our 
large and increasing list. With compliments 
to our newspaper exchanges of the past, we 
would say that all editors receiving this num- 
ber of the BaBAL may consider that we desire 
a continuance of their exchange. 



Home Industry Notably Honored. 

The Committee on Gold Medals of the State 
Agricultural Society have awarded a gold 
medal to the Alden Fruit Preserving Co., by 
recommendation of the Committee in the De- 
partment of Dried Fruits, etc. The report of 
the Committee was as follows: 
Your Committee beg to report: 
That in examining the dried fruit on exhibi- 
tion they were highly pleased with the excel- 
lent quality and great commercial value of 
the fruits and vegetables entered by Geo. W. 
Deitzler, President of the Alden Fruit Preserv- 
ina comnany of California. These articles are 
not dried, in the common acceptation of that 
terra, but are preserved iu their own juices by 
this peculiar process, and, it is claimed, will 
keep for years in any climate. The flavor of 
the fresh" fruit is retained, and it is free from 
that dark and leathery appearance which is 
always found in sun or kiln dried fruits. 

The Committee have no hesitation in expiess- 
inc the opinion that, as regards appearance 
and flavor these articles are the best on exhi- 
bition. The value of such fruits and vege- 
tables is very great. California can produce, 
in nnliraited quantities, the finest fruits and 
vefff'tables in the world ; but we have not the 
resident population to consume these immense 
productions in their fresh state, and they will 
not hear transportation to distant markets. 
Neither can we hope to find a remunerative 
market for inferior dried fruits and vegetables, 
at home or abroad; but for such preserved 
articles as those under consideration there is. it 
seems to uc, no danger of overstocking the 
nia'-ket. 

When we consider that there are Imported 
into the Tltiited States, annually, over $15,000,- 
000 worth of dried fruits, all of which articles 
can be raised in California, and placed upon 
tbe market in a cured condition, infinitely 
superior to the imported articles, the impor- 
tance of tbi^ enterpri-e can be appreciated. 
In view of these considerations we deem the 
articb s on exhibition by the Alden company as 
worth v of special notice, and we respectfully 
recommend that the Board of Directors award 
to the company the go'd medal, and give to 
their valuable and growing industry every pos- 
sible encouragemtnt. 

W. C. Hoppiyo, 
Alfred Bbiggs, J- Com- 
W. K. Strong, 



Fkom -Alamkda. — A correspondent speaks of 
a trip through this county as follows: "From a 
trip through Alameda county and around the 
bay, I find the country everywhere green with 
verdure, excepting that which is plowed and 
seeded; and never were crops put into the 
ground here when it was in better condition. 
But the feel for stock is liegincing to shorten, 
in places, and rain will be needed soon, as some 
of the ground is too dry to plow -well." 

Answkrs to QtJKSTioNS. — A subscriber at 
Anaheim asks the following questions: First, 
will the Muscat Alexandria do well on sandy 
soil? Second, in what month should decidu- 
ous trees be budded? Third, what month is 
considered the best for planting blue gum seed? 

Answers: First, yes; on "sandy soil," but 
not on pure sand. Second, in August and 
September. Third, amateurs would do well to 
wait until February or March before planting 
blue gum seed. 

It Pays in Mobe Wats than One.— It pays 
in mure ways than one to take a good newspa- 
per. If you road it, it is a benefit which lasts 
beyond de«th. If your family read it, they 
will be better companions for you and the 
world besides. It is a good representative of 
your community when sent abroad, and you 
can afi'ord to support it for the value of its in- 
fluence in the public weal. 

The Rkedvii,ub Hkbd.— S. G. Reed, of 
Portland, Oregon, one of the most successful 
and prominent importers and breeders of tine 
stock on this coast, makes an important an- 
nouncement to stock purchasers in our adver- 
tising columns to-day. 

Anotheb Woolen Mill. — Active efforts are 
being taken to secure the ereotion of n woolen 
mill at Merced. The sum of $32,000 has al- 
ready been paid up. It is proposed to go into 
the manufacture of mixed tabrics — woolen and 
cotton. 

Two farm hands named Howe and Webber 
were recently robbed on the Pacheco road, 
while on their way to Martinez, 



January 2, 1875.] 



t|OF^pcJLXJj\E. 



Grafting Grapes and Planting Locusts. 

Editoes Pbess:— We see by reading the 
pEEsa that communications are in order where 
they pertain to something in which the people 
are interested. Now we propose to offer a few 
ideas on a subject that has been treated on be- 
fore; grafting the grape vine and planting lo- 
cust seed. Both of which have been recently 
treated upon in the Peess. But we want some- 
thing practical and adapted to our present 
needs. First, in grafting the grape vine of 
large growth there is considerable labor re- 
quired at the best. Now we wish to do the 
work in the fastest possible manner and have 
it succeed. The two past years we have had a 
little experience and tried different plans* 
First we grafted large vines six years old, by 
sawing off below the ground and then sawing 
down in the top and cutting out with a knife so 
that the end of the graft may be made to til 
easily, then put in and pound lightly so that it 
will be firm, then pack damp earth around and 
cover with loose soil about to the top of the 
graft; or a little over will do no harm. Second, 
we sawed off as before, and slit with a chisel, 
and packed with soil as before; and third, we 
cut off with a broad thin chisel, made for the 
purpose, all vines that would admit, but with 
some vines the roots came out too close to the 
top of the ground. The cutting done by set- 
ting the chisel on one side with a little slant 
downward and cut to the center, and then cut 
from the other side to meet in the same way 
and split in the center to insert the graft. This 
method will seiver the vine some, but I could 
see no difference about the starting. This 
method being the quickest and easiest, would 
recommend itself to many. In all cases large 
vines should be opened with a wedge to allow 
the graft to enter easily. The soil should be 
packed around the vine in the last instance the 
same as in the first. 

As to the time of grafting there is some di f- 
ference of opinion, iu my experience the latest 
set have done the best. The first was done 
when the buds began to start, and the last af- 
ter they had got out a number of inches, and 
the last set have always started first and done 
best. I was in the vineyard of Mr. Cantilow, 
Pleasant valley, near me, and he showed me 
some that were grafted after they hud made a 
growth of afoot or more, and done by sawing 
off below the ground, splitting, and inserting a 
small wedge, and leaving in on all large vines 
to prevent to hard a pressure on the graft. Set 
the bark near together and cover with loose 
earth, lay the severed trunks bottom up over 
the grafts to prevent the sun coming on too 
warm. They had made a fine growth with 
small per cent, of loss. 

In grafting the grape vine, as in anything 
else, much depends on having the graft in good 
condition. I think they should be cut some 
time before the sap begins to start and kept 
fresh in sand or common soil, but not too damp. 
Planting locuat seed is something not understood 
very generally and many are diaappointed in 
not having seed grow. My experience has 
cost something and may' possibly be worth 
something to others if given to the public 
through the Kueal Peess. Not long since an 
article appeared in the Pbess stating that the 
seed should be scalded ami immediately planted. 
Now that is not enough; it might lead many 
into mistakes. I have planted a number of 
times and always scalded the seed before plant- 
ing and never had but very few come up until 
the last planting. The reason was the seeds 
■were not scalded enough. My last process was 
as follows: Put scalding water on the seed and 
let stand until cold and repeat and continue to 
repeat until the seed swells to nearly three 
times its natural size. It will not be uniform, 
and only a portion will swell at each scalding, 
which should be separated as far as possible, as 
repeated scalding might injure it; but by no 
means plant until it has swelled, for but very 
little if any of it will grow. In my last planting 
I scalded some of the seeds five or six times, 
separating what I could conveniently and let it 
stand until all was ready, and planted in good 
ground, the same as any other seed and about 
the time when you would plant corn. Practice 
this method, and my word for it it will come up 
as easily as corn or beans. 

The question of timber is getting to be one 
of great importance to Sacramento' valley, and 
something must be done soon or we shall be 
left out in the cold, as the timber is fast disap- 
pearing along the foot-hills and the groves of 
the valley, and already exhorbitant prices are 
beginning to be asked for firewood. I have 
some planted in hedge row form, about two 
feet apart, which has been growing the two 
past years and is doing well, and promises soon 
10 make a stock fence, and wrth a few pickets 
between will stop hogs, to say nothing about 
the firewood which may be taked off without 
injuring the fence. The beauty that it adds to 
any place should be sufficient inducement to 
plant trees of some kind. M. Allen. 

JJear Dixon, Solano county, Cal. 



How to Plant the Eucalyptus. 

[Written for tho Kukax, Pkesb by W. P. GiCDONa.j 

Having recently received several letters re- 
questing information in regard to the cultiva- 
tion of the eucalyptus, I avail myself of the 
facility of telling nearly all I know about the 
matter, through the Rubal Peess, so that 
every anxious inquirer may have access to the 
same. Perhaps these remarks may induce 
more than one of my correspondents to engage 
in the matter, with other objects than mere 
experiment— for experiments have already es- 
tablished the propositions which are contained 
in this paper. 

Plant your seed immediately, in a box 12 
inches deep containing 8 inches of clean, rich 
loam, by dropping the seeds on the surface 
about an inch apart, and covering them with a 
quarter of an inch of saw dust, or by sifting 
vegetable mold over them to a like depth. The 
common method of placing the seed in 3 or 4 



a forest tree on his premises; who has stripped 
his canons of the few straggling oaks, which 
once kept up a flowing stream throughout the 
year; who has spent his money in purchasing 
fencing for his fields; whose homestead looks 
as dreary as weather-beaten boards and ash 
colored surroundings can make it. I know 
that there are hundreds of snch farmers around 
and I wish to show them the money-making 
aspect of cultivating trees. 

You have 100 acres of ground then. That 
will be equivalent to a square plot often acres 
to each side, of 2,086 feet; bo that the outside of 
your farm will measure 8,314 feet round. Sub- 
soil a strip 26 feet wide round your land; 
this will take up five acres. Through this strip 
open four furrows six feet apart, and run the 
plow through each several times till the soil is 
loosened deep and finely pulverized. The 
ground is now prepared for planting. 

Take a piece of thick twine or bale rope some 
200 feet long, untwist and tie through the 
strands short pieces of rag four feet apart; 
stretch the line tightly along the center of one 
of the furrows, and with a dibbiO make a hole 
six inches deep and an inch and a half in diam- 
eter opposite each mark on the line. Knock 
otf one side of your box containing the plants, 




and 116, making a total of 323 cords. You 
will now have left 4,172 trees, and thfl trees 
will be eight feet apart in the row. On the 
10th, 11th, 12th and 13th year take out every 
other tree, and the amount of cord wood ob- 
tained will be 75, 93, 114 and 140, making 422 
cords. Making an aggregate of 745 cord-i of 
wood obtained, and a balnnee of 2,086 trees 
which will contain 684 cords. Now sum up 
the whole operation. Total quantity of wood 
realized at the end of 13 years, 1,429 cords, at 
a cost of 

Seed $ S 00 

Preparing five acres of ground 1.5 00 

Six days' labor planting 12 00 

Subsoqueut cultivation 60 00 

Total cost $92 CO 

These estimates are within bounds. On dry 
hillsides, the growth wilt not be so rapid, and 
if 50 per cent, be taken from the foregoing re- 
sults, there will still be left a wide margin for 
profit. On the other hand, on larger farms, a 
much greater number of trees may be thus 
cultivated. The outside capacity of 160 acres 
will be 14,000 trees, yielding at the end of 13 
years, 2,400 cords of wood. Any other kinds 
of forest trees will prove remunerative if cul- 
tivated, but on account of the rapid growth of 
the Ecalyptus and the density and durability 
of its wood, it commends itself over other 
kinds for immediate profits. But some farmers 
must bear in mind one cardinal fact: That 
while Providence furnishes the material and 
conditions for the healthy growth and develop- 
ment of trees, it does not engage in the culti- 
vation of the soil. 



KIPP'S TTPRIGHT ENGINE. 



inch depth of soil, is objectionable, as the roots 
soon penetrate to the bottom of the box, and 
are bent off at right angles to the axis of the 
plant. This distortion prevents the tree from 
having such a firm hold in the soil, as it other- 
wise would. Hence so many eucalyptus trees 
blow over after having a growth of 4 or 5 years. 
Their germin^tion may be fajilitated by soak- 
ing them for 24 hours in a pint of warm water, 

A 




in which a piece of saltpeter or carbonate of 
ammonia about the size of a marble has been 
dissolved. Place the box in your kitchen or 
some other warm locality where sunlight will 
reach it, cover it with glass or a piece of board, 
and keep the soil watered every day, snflicient 
to give a decidedly moist character thereto; if 
possible, keep up a temperature of about 750 
F., during the day time, until the seeds sprout. 
'When they are half an inch high, remove the 
covering, and give them sunshine. They will 
grow more slowly, but the plants will be more 
hardy and vigorous. When they are four in- 
ches high, they should be gradually seasoned 
to out door temperature, so that they may be 
ready to transplant as soon as frosts disappear. 
You will then have trees from 4 to 6 inches 
high, growing in a depth of soil which will in- 
sure straight and vigorous roots. 

I presume, now, that I am talking to a farm- 
er, who has from 100 to 500 acres ot land; 
who has been raising cattle, horses, hogs and 
sheep for 12 years past; who has never planted 



and with a trowel' or strong knife carefully 
detach each tree from the soil, disturbing the 
s jil about their roots as little as possible. Then 
take the tree between the thumb and finger of 
the left hand, pass its root into a hole to its 
natural depth, and with a trowel or piece of flat, 
hard wood pointed at the end, press the dirt 
around the root, and level the soil about it. In 
short, plant them just as you would cabbages 
or tomato plants; but mark this point, be sure 
that the roots are vertical. See this representa- 
tion — fig. A. The tree is in the hole with the 
stick ready to close in the a )il about the root; 
tig. B, the tree as planted with the stick ready 
to withdraw from the soil. You will thus have 
four rows of trees round your farm, four feet 
apait iu the row, and the rows six feet distant; 
earh row will contain 2,086 trees, making an 
aggregate of 8,314 trees, occupying five acres 
of your ground. Two men can plant 3,000 
trees in a day in this manner. They will require 




no stakes. They must be dressed by the culti- 
vator three times during the first year, and they 
must receive one plowing and three dressings 
each succeeding year for four years. 

The following table will give the dimensions 
of the trees at five years old, and at every suc- 
ceeding year till they are thirteen years old: 



Age 


Diameter 


Height 


Wood in 


l^ears. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Cubii- Ft. 


■) 


9 


40 


5.75 


C 


10 


4.3 


« 


7 


11 


50 


11.5 


8 


12 


55 


14.a3 


y 


13 


BO 


18.40 


10 


14 


65 


23 


11 


IS 


70 


28 


12 


16 


75 


34.75 


13 


17 


80 


42 



Grafting Grape Vines. 

Nothing in the world is more easily grafted 
than the grape vine, and as by this simple op- 
eration vineyards of Mission or other inferior 
varieties may be transformed into thrifty bear- 
ing vines of the best varieties in two years' 
time, we deem the following instructions on 
this subject, of paramount value to any- 
thing we can give our readers. Just before the 
buds begins to swell in the spring dig the earth 
away from the vines to be grafted leaving from 
six inches to a foot of the tap root of the vine 
exposed. Then with a sharp saw cut off the 
vine five or six inches below the surface, — if 
the vine be large drive a wedge into the center 
to hold open the cleft which should be made by 
driving into the top of the stump a thin-bladed 
hatchet. 

The grafts should be cut from the base of 
large limbs and should be made wedge-shaped 
by cutting the wood away from both sides, the 
joint of the wedge should be cut square off 
leaving it at least one-eighth of an inch in 
thickness. 

Insert the graft as in cleft grafting of trees, 
and pack the dirt closely around, leaving only 
a bud of each graft above ground. 
Setting Grape Vines. 

My instructions in setting grape vines pub- 
lished in your last should have read: Set 
your cuttings any time in .Tanuary, though 
when from any cau^e you cannot set them so 
early you can keep them in a cool damp place, 
(not in water) or bury them in the ground 
where the water does not stand, and where they 
are shaded from the heat of the sun, thereby 
preventing their st irting to grow. Cuttings so 
kept can be set as late as the 20th of March. 



W. A. S. 



On the 6th year, take out every other tree of 
first row; 7th year, second row; Sth year, third 
row; 9th year, fourth row. The amount of cord 
wood obtained each year will be 47, 57, 93, 



KIpp's Upright Engine. 

The accompanying illustration represents 
Kipp's upright engine, one of which, of small 
size, was exhibited at the late Mechanics' Insti- 
tute Fair and also the State Fair, where it run 
a large Sluthour pump. Both engine and pump 
were exhibited by J. M. Keeler & Co., of 306 
California street. The engine was awarded a 
diploma at the State Fair. Certain important 
advantages are claimed by the manufacturers 
over other upright engines. The style of frame 
is both symmetrical undsirong, and itslinesand 
proportions bring the whole into a compact 
form so that it occupies much less space than 
is usually the case. 

The cylinder, steam chest and piston guides 
are cast solid in the frame, giving a mutual 
support and making it impossible for it to vary 
from its original exiictness in working. Again, 
the piston guides and steam cylinders are 
bored or turned out at the same time, and, of 
course in the same line, so it is difficult for the 
engine to get "out of true" in working. The 
en<;ine has the latest improved slide valves, 
which are easily adjusted. The shaft and 
piston rods are of steel. The bearings are of 
the most approved kind, and all the adjustable 
parts exhibit good workmaushiji, the engine 
running almost noiselessly. 

The governor is simijle, effective and in- 
geniously connected, and, on the whole, it is 
claimed that for workmanship, compactness, 
durabitity, and ease in handling, the engine 
has no equal in the market. Messrs. Cubery 
& Co., 414 Market street, are running power 
presses with one of these engines, where it 
may bo examined by those interested and in- 
quiries made as to cost of fuel as compared 
with other engines. The price asked lor it 
gives it a fair advantage iu the market. The 
engine can be used for many purposes on 
farms, and being small and easily handled 
would be very convenient in many places in 
the country. 



10 



^M.Q'^^tO ^EltTBAO!. 



[January 2, 1875. 



The Development of Natural History and 
Science. 



Mr. W. W. Calkins, recently before the Chi- 
cago Academy of Soienres, read a very inter- 
esting paper on "The Development of Natural 
History aa a Science," of which the following 
digest is given in the Engineer and Arcldtecl : 

The great lamented AgHBsiz said, "I have de- 
voted my whole life to the study of nature, and 
yet a single sentence may express all that I 
have done." This confession reveals to us a 
degree of simplicity and gradeur not often wit- 
nessed. It suggests that the grace of modesty 
might be cultivated by most people with great 
propriety. Since man was first created he has 
been ecgrtged in studying the world of animate 
and inanimate objects around him. As the 
first rude i fforts seems to us like childish dis- 
plays, so, when the present era shall become an- 
tiquity, our attainments in knowledge will no 
doubt appear small indeed in comparison with 
the advances that shall mark future ages. 

Aristotle was the first prominent naturalist, 
and the founder of the science. As evidence oif 
this, we have his "History of Animals." In 
Aristotle's time, 2,000 years ago, text-books of 
natural history were in common use, and the 
study was pursued with vi§or. We are still 
without elementary works of this kind adapted 
to the young beginners. We are, however, 
working up to the point when the study of 
natural history in the school will be indispen- 
sable and popular. After 1800, Linnaeus re- 
sumed the work where Aristotle had left it. 
Pliny added but a little to what had been done 
by Aristotle. The Middle Ages, with an intel- 
lectual pall dark as night, followed the enlight- 
ened period cf Eoman and Grecian history, 
and gave us nothing. The sixteenth century 
witnessed a temporary revival in this and other 
branches of learning. The naturalists were 
mainly occupied in studying local species, and 
in disputing over ancient authors. The seven- 
tetnih century witnessed remarkable advances 
in general knowledge, but men had not yet 
done wondering over the successful revolt of 
the Netherlands, or the brilliant military career 
of Gustavus Adolphus. Wallenstein, and Tully. 
It was reserved for Linnaeus, in the last cen- 
tury, to break the spell that had for so many 
ages been hung over the pursuit of the natural 
sciences, and strike the key-note that aroused 
the scholars of Europe from their lethargy. 
Aristotle had given us genera and species; he 
divided the animal kingdom into Eiudma and 
Awiima, or blooded and bloodless animal". 
Linnaeus, beginning where Aristotle left off, 
formed, in addition, classes and orders. He 
divided the animal into six classes — mammalia, 
birds, reptiles, fishes, insects and worms. The 
classification at once aroused the atteutinn and 
provoked the criticism of other naturalists. 
The defects were pointed out, and the impor- 
tant principle of classifiration founded upon 
the internal structure, and uniting animals upon 
common structural characters, was established. 
The magnitude of the work of classification 
will be appreciated when we consider that the 
species now number 230,000. The confusion 
that existed before Linnaeus' time on ace unt 
of the different names and languages employed 
by naturalists was counteracted, and in fact 
done away with by the use of one language by 
him — the Latin. 

Linnaeus' classification, however, did not 
meet with tntiie success. Its effects did not 
escape criticism. All, with the exception of the 
great Cuvicr, failed to strike the grand princi- 
ples of cla»^ification. When he announced his 
theory dividing the whole animal kingdom into 
four classes -Vertebrates, MoUusks, Articu- 
lates and Hadiates — the scientific world stood 
amazed, as though a revelation had been made 
from Heaven. The founder of comparative 
anatomy was not one who skimmed over the 
surface of things Cuvier went deeper; he ex- 
amined the internal organization and revela- 
tions of animals He tells us the comparison 
•was the secret of his success. The result em- 
botiied the four plans of creation already men- 
tioned. The views of Cnvitr, which have 
withstood criticism for nearly three-quarters of 
a century, lead to three conclusions: First, that 
Cuvier's four classes embrace all known ani- 
mals. Second, that there is thought and har- 
monious law as the basis of all, the whole di- 
rected by one will— the Creator. Third, that 
the numerous subdivisions of the four greit 
groups mentioned, such as classes, orders, fam- 
ilies, genera, species and other subdivisions of 
these subdivisions, should be formed in accord- 
ance with characters expressed in nature to bo 
of value. Otherwise they are artificial distinc- 
tions tending to lead us away from what we 
seek, and that which is the basis of all science 
—the truth. 

ADOther great discovery hardly less impor- 
tant than those mentioned was that of Von 
Baer in eiubryolojiy— or the fact that all ani- 
mals originate from egg-i, and tliough all alike 
at first, grow to maturity on four different 
plans. Embryology is yet in its infancy 
Agassiz made some of his greatest discoveries 
in this science, and it furnishes one of the most 
attractive and promising fields open to tbe ex- 
ploier. The progress of natural history for 50 
years has been rapid. The latter part of the 
last and the beginning of the present century 
were particularly marked by great discoveries. 
The present century has produced hosts of dis- 
tinguished naturalists who have labored suc- 
cessfully in their i aiticular departments, but 
Agassiz, before his death, probably rimked 
first among living contemporaries. 

Mr. Calkins closed by saying that the study 
of natural history should be popularized. 



The Transit and Its ProbabJe Results. 

The full r< suit of the patient watchings of 
the various parties deputed to observe the 
transit of Venus, will not be made known to 
the world for several months, perhaps not in a 
year from now; and they will probably be 
affected with a larger possible error than is gen- 
erally anticipated. It will be some weeks be- 
fore the telescopic measures taken at all the 
stations can be known, even if trasmitted by 
telegiaph, because many of those stations are 
far removed from any ocean cable at present in 
existence. At many of the stations the chief 
dependence will be on photographic views, 
and the negatives cannot be transmitted by 
means of the lightning flash; they can only be 
carried by the slower agency of steam to 
the observatories where they can be submitted 
to measurement with the micrometer. Tben 
all the results obtained at separate stations 
must be compared, and many laborious calcu- 
lations be made before the value of the solar 
parallax can be known. 

Mr. E. Colbert, in some remarks at a late 
meeting of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 
said: " I have called your attention, at former 
meetings to tbe difficulties which will be en- 
countered in the attempt to reconcile these 
observations; difficulties arising from, 1, the 
irregular shape of the earth, which is not a 
true oblate spheroid; 2, the irregular contour of 
the sun, its surface being in a state of perpet- 
ual commotion; and, 3, the errors of observa- 
tion, which may be regarded as an external 
kind of " personal equation." Summing the 
probable average of these three factors of error, 
I conclude that the astronomical world will be 
lortnnate if it is able to reconcile all the obser- 
vations so as to make it certain that the ac- 
cepted average is not more than 100,000 miles 
in error, or one part in 900 of the whole dis- 
tance. 

There is no reason to doubt that we already 
know the distance of the sun to within 300,- 
000 miles. I speak not now of my own calcu- 
lations of the quantity, but of the extremes 
claimed by others. If we assume 91,700,000 
miles as the average, this estimate will not be 
more than 200,000 miles, from the 92,000,000 
miles of Newcomb, or the 91,480,000 of the 
English computers. This is one part in 300 of 
the whole distance. Henc« the probability is 
that observations of the Iranist of Venus in 
1874, on which more than $1,000,000 have 
been expended, and involving the equivalent of 
not less than 200 ye irs of labor on tbe part of 
one man, will only reduce the nncertaintv to 
about cmethird of its present magnitude. But 
this will be no mean achievement. It is not 
saying too much to claim that this result will 
be worth at least ten times the money and 
labor expended in obtaining it." 



Peat Ch.\bcoal as a Dbodobizeb— The ex- 
traordinary deodorizing power possessed by 
that variety of charcoal known as bone-black is 
generally attributed to the earthly matter with 
which it is mixed. It was therefore to be ex- 
pected that peat charcoal should be specially 
valuable in this direction, and in some parts of 
England and Scotland it is now extensively 
used for mixing with the excreta of households 
on account of its value as a deodorizer. Ptat 
charcoal is one of the most porous of all forms 
of impure carbon, and its powers of absorption 
«hen dry are very great. Thus, in some ex 
periraents tried in the town of L amingtou, 
England, recently, it was fouud that two or 
three ounces of newly-made peat charcoal were 
sufficient to deodorize six gallons of ordinary 
sewage. The actual proportions employed, ac- 
cording to the report, were about one part of 
charcoal to 150 of sewage by weight; and in a 
few minutes after the charcoal was mixed with 
the. rich albuminoid sewage, a peenliar sweet 
smell was noticed, but in less than a quarter of 
an hour all smell had disappeared, and the 
constant addition of fecal matter did not per- 
manently restore the odor. A closet arranged 
for the purpose was devoted to the use of some 
forty laborers, but even during the hottest 
weather, on no occasion, was any offensive 
effluvia noticeable, although the amount oi 
peat charcoal daily made use of did not equal 
the proportion already stated. 



Air PnicssuBE in Wind Instrumknts. — Dr. 
W. H. Stone in a paper before the Physical 
Society, of London, describes some (xperi- 
meiits on the wind pressure in the human 
lungs during the performaiice on wind instru- 
ments. About G feet of water or 13 pounds 
prt ssnre per square inch was the ordinary 
maximum when a small tube was inserted be- 
tween the lips. When the lips were supported 
by a capped mouth piece, as in brass instru- 
ments, a much greater pressure could be sus- 
tained, and lip muscles invariably gave way 
long before the expiratory power of the tho- 
racic muscles was exhausted. The following 
pressures were sufficient to produce an orches- 
tral tone: The obee requires an air pressure of 
from 5 to 10 ounces per square inch, the clari- 
onet, 8 to 14 ounces; horn, i]/^ to 5 ounces; 
cornet, 5 to 18 ounces; euphonium, 1% to 23 
ounces; bombardone, 1% to 20 ounces. It 
will be noticed that the clarionet, in this, as in 
some other respects, differs from its kindred 
instruments, and also that some of the press- 
ures are small, uot exceeding or indeed attain- 
ing the pressure of a fit of coughing. Thoy 
ate, therefore, very unlikely to injure the 
the lungs, or to produce the emphysema erro- 
niously attributed to them. 



Belting and Gearing. 

As regards the transmission of power, the 
AmeriC'ina, says a French writer, aim at 
achieving two important things which are cor- 
relative — the lightest possible weight and the 
highest possible speed. Hence the universal 
substitution of belting for gearing, and the 
general adoption of ligbt shafting and small 
pulleys, which are conspicuous features of 
their sj stem of transmitting power. The first 
mover is usually a geur. but after that all trans- 
mission is obtained by belting. The belting is 
a little study in itself, but it will suffice to say 
here that belts of the lat«st improved pattern 
run for wonderful lengths of time without 
piecing. The ease and durability of ihe sys- 
tem, would, I think, astonish the advocates of 
gearing. The light shafting and small pulleys 
in general use are said to save twenty-five per 
cent, of the power. The shafting is run twice 
as fast, and hence the pulleys can be S'lialler, 
yet tbe fly wheel of a powerful engine may be 
large. For instance, I have seen one twenty- 
seven feet in diameter going, as I was informed, 
a mile a minute. The pulleys are ca^t, but it 
is expected that wrought pulleys much lighter 
will soon come into general use. Hollow 
shafting is finding favor. If shafting and pul- 
leys Could be advantageously constructed of 
steel, the saving of power would probably be 
greatly increased. Engines and their equip- 
ments, and belting, shafting, and pulleys, are 
all made in the United States. 

The Telemeter in SuRVEYX^^o — Captain W. 
H. Dall, in some remarks recently made before 
the Civil Engineer's Club, of New York, said 
that he had used the telemeter for four years on 
the coast and interior of Alaska. His rod was 
even more simple than Mr. French's, and he 
found that he could depend on his surveys 
being almost accurate, and in some cases much 
more so than if measured with the chain or 
tape. On rocky shores, the telemeter was in- 
valuable, and in a few months he had, with the 
assistance Of a common sailor, as rodman, 
made surveys that by the ordinary methods 
would requirw fully five years to complete. He 
discovered after a time that for correct results 
an accurate focus was necessary, and to every 
observation the following correction or error 
in measurement was to be added, vi^. : to the 
distance of the eye-piece from the object glass 
add the distance of the object glass from the 
diaphragm, which in the case of his instrument 
was exactly one foot. This subject of survey 
ing with the telemeter is a very important one, 
and worthy of careful investigation. 

Springs as Motors. — The method of pro- 
pelling ears, omnibuses and velocipedes by 
coiled springs is being tried in England, and 
\yith good prospects of success. 'The motor 
used is an arrangement of powerful springs 
encased in cylinders like watch springs on a 
very largo scale. A car worked by these 
springs is shortly to be tried on the tramway 
at Greenwich. The services of French ma- 
chinists h»ve al-so been called into requisition, 
and steel bands cipable of being coiled and of 
exerting great pressure have been made in 
lengths of one hundred yards each. In Shef- 
field some of the steel manufacturers have 
turned out springs fifty and sixty feet long. 
and said to be capable of a pressure of eight 
hundred pounds. To wind up these springs of 
course requires more power than could be ob- 
tained by hand, and the English experimenter 
proposes to have them wound at certain int' r- 
vals bv means of stationary engines. The re- 
sult of the experiments will be looked for with 
much interest. Some of the English patents 
have a combination of spiral or helical springs 

PcLLiNG UP Forest Trees by Steam. — Some 
interesting experiments in the clearing of 
wooded lands took place lately in Scotland. 
The experiments were carried out under the 
auspices of the Canadian Land Reclamation 
Company and were intended to demonstrate 
the ea-e with which the forests of Canada 
could be cleared by means of this process. A 
fraction engine of twelve horse power is sta- 
tioned some distance off from the wood, and a 
wire chain is fastened to the tree. Steam is 
then put on, and tho tree is pull d out by t'ne 
roots. An objection to the adoption of the 
process WMS that it would injure the wood by 
Hidittins the tree; but the experiments showed 
that, with proper precautions, there was no 
fear of such a result. In five hours upward 
of 300 trees, in a plantation nearly 100 years 
old; were pulled out. Of that nnmber not 
above half a dozen were broken, and in these 
cases the result was wholly due to the inex- 
perience of the men engaged in the work, who 
placed tho chain too high \x\> on the tree. 

Metallic PhNS. — It was a fortunate thonsiht 
which led some genius to substitute metalic 
pens for those obtained from the gray goose 
(juill, for if to-day we had to depend upon these 
sagacious birds for our su^-iply of writing mate 
rials, quill pens would be at a premium. So 
rapid has been the increase of knowledge, and 
so greatly has cheap postage promoted the de- 
siie and the power to write, that all the quills 
in the world would not furnish one-tenth of 
the necessary supply of pens. If, therefore, it 
had no't been for the invention of gold and 
steel pens, -our schools, our counting rooms, 
and our editors would have had hard times, 
during the time that has elapsed since quill 
pens were displaced by metallic ones, the form 
and material of these useful substitutes has 
been greatly varied, but notwithstanding the 
many forms which have been introduced, there 
is still gnat room for improvement, ae ©very 
writer knows. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFTIOE, 224 SAN30ME STREET, 8. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by 'tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent bu.siness, enable us to abundantly 
satis^ our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventore 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby f.-vcilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secures 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales. QueenJiland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the dra\vings and specifications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are famiUar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We cun and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
SOONER than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inveutious 
already patented; hence we are fiequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise appUcants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applications 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. Wo hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat.of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by the extra time consumed in transmit- 
ting specifications from Eastern agencies back 
to this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecv in all 
confidential matters, and applicants K>r pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions vrill be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists iu our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons iu bringing their valuable is- 
ooveries into practical <anl profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foveign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Presa and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 224 Sansom^ St., 8. F. 



January 2, 1875.] 



11 



Scientific and Practical Books 
on Mining, Metallurgy, Etc. 

Published or iBsued. wholesale and Retail, by DEWEY 

CO., MlNINQ AVD SCIENTIFIO PbEBS Olfloe, S. F. 

BY CUIDO KUSTEL, 

MiNiNO Enoineeb and Metalluroist. 

Boasting of Gold and Silver Ores, and the 

Extraction of their Respective Metals without Quick 

silver. 1870. 

This rare book on the treatment of gold and silver 
ores without quicksilver, is liberally illustrated and 
crammed full of facts. It gives short and concise dd- 
Bcriptions of various processes and apparatus employeu 
In this country and in Europe, and explains the why 
and wherefore. 

It contains 142 pages, embracing illustrations of fm- 
naces, implements and working apparatus. 

It is a work of great merit, by an author whose repu 
tation is unsurpassed in his speciality. 

Price $2.50.coin, or $3 currency, postage free 



Concentration of Ores (of all kinds), in- 
cluding the Chlorination Process for Gold-bearing 
Sulphurets, Arseniurets, and Gold and Silver Ores 
generally, with 120 Lithographic Diagrams. 1867. 
This work is unequaled by any other published, em- 
bracing the subjects treated. Its authority is highly 
esteemed and regarded by its readers; containing, as it 
does, much essential information to the Miner, Mill 
man. Metallurgist, and other professional workers in 
ores and minerals, which cannot be found elsewhere 
In print. It also abounds throughout with facts and 
instructions rendered valuable by being clearly ren- 
dered together and in simple order. It contains 120 
diagrams, illustrating machinery, etc., which alone are 
of the greatest value. PRICE REDUCED TO $5. 



Nevada and California Processes of Silver 

and Gold Extraction, for general use, and especially 
or the Mining Public of California and Nevada, with 
full explanations and directions for all metallurgical 
operations connected with silver and gold from a 
preliminary examination of the ore to the JBnal cast- 
ing of the ingot. Also, a description of the general 
metallurgy of silver ores. 1804. 
As its title indicates, this work gives a wide range of 
information, applicable to all vein miners and workers 
in precious metals, aflfording 'hints and assistance ol 
exceeding value to both the moderately informed and 
the most expert operator. 
Price, $5 in cloth; $6 in leather— coin. 



Railroads. 



BY OTHEK AUTHORS. 
The Quartz Operator's Hand-13ook; by P. 

M.Randall. 1871. Revised and Enlarged Edition. 
Cloth bound, 175 pages. Price, $2. 

Sulphurets: What They Are, How Con- 
centrated, How Assayed, and How Worked; with a 
Chapter on the Blow-Pipe Assay of Minerals. By 
Wm. M.Bar8tow,M.D.; 1867; cloth bound, 114 pages. 
Printed and sold by Dewey & Co. Price, fl; postage 
free. The btst written work, and most complete 
work on the subject treated. 
ANY OTHER BOOKS DESIRED will be furnished at 

the most reasonable rates by Dewey & Co., Mining and 

Scientific Press Office. 3. F. 



Java Coffee Seed.— We have received from the Is- 
land of Java a small consignment of the above variety 
of Coffee, which was saved expressly for seed. Mer- 
chantable coti'ee is thoroughly dried aid its color 
changed liefore shipping, and is, in consequence, of no 
value for seed, whi^li accounts for the failure which 
has attended all efforts to sprout it. Soed-coffeo (so- 
called), which we received from the Department of 
Agriculture, m Washington, proved worthless with us 
as has with others. The seed which we offer is em- 
phatically good. We have plants grown from it. The 
seed may be sprouted in a 'hot-bed," or in any warm, 
sheltered situation— using a fine, sandy soil, which 
should be kept moderately moist. There are a few 
Coffee trees in this State, one of which is about twenty 
years old, and which began to bear fruit when only five 
years old from the seed. Price per packet, contiiiuing 
one ounce, fifty cents. Price per pound at reduced rates. 
Address R. J. TRUMBULL, 427 Sansome St., S. F. 
25v8-lam-2t 



TWELVE COLUMNS OF PRICES EVERY WEEK. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

JOURNAL OF COMMERCE 

— AND— 

Weekly Price Current. 

NO MERCHANT SHOULD BE WITHOUT IT. 

W. II. MURRAY, BuRlnes* Maiiager, 
411 Clay Streel. 



RELIABLE REVIEWS OF THE MARKETS. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, OAL. 

A Boardlne School for Boys and Girls, offering all the 
advantages of a thorough modern education. French. 
German, SpaIll^h, Latin, Greek, Drawing, the Natural 
Sciences, Gymnastics and DanotnK taught without extra 
charge Vocal unit Instrumeaul Music receive particular 
attention. Pupils furnish ottty a pair of heavy blankets. 
Next term opens January 6th! 1874. 
Write for Oaialogue to ELWOOD COOPER, 

22v6-lv President Board of Directors. 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 



I have a lot of choice HOP BOOTS, and also healthy 
BLACKBKRRY SETS for sale at LOWEST RATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Dewey & Co., of the 
Rural Press, San Francisco: Robt. Williamson, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to me, 

CALVERT T. BIRD, 
24v8-3m San Jose, Cal. 



STOCKTON, CAL. 

JAMES COLE, Proprietor. 

This House contains all modern improvements; Sa- 
loons, Bath Rooms and Telegraph. 
The only firs t-class Hotel in Stockton. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tods and Machines, 
111 and 113 California, 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street. Sacramento 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



Chicago and ?forthwesterii 
Railway. 



3Iiles in. Operation t 



Illinois Division 486.5 

Iowa " 432.8 

Wisconsin *' 585.4 

Michigan " 168 7 

Minnesota " 291.8 

Dakota '' 38.5 

Total Miles 2,003.7 



IN CONNECTION WITH THE 

Central and Union Pacific Railroads, 

— THIS IS THE — 

PIONEER LINE 

Between the Pacific Coast and the 

And was the first to connect with the great 
Pacific roads, and form the 

OVERLAND ROUTE. 

THIS LINE IS THE 

Sliortesfc ll^ail X^iiic 

— between — 

OMAHA and CHICAGO. 

The track is of the 
ISEteT S=iTEEL. IIA.1L., 

Anil is well ballasted, and as free from dust as 
a road can be made; the bridges are strong and 
durable, and all the appointments are first- 
class in every respect. 

The trains that run over this road are made 
up of elegant 

New Pullman Palace Drawing Room and 
Sleeping Coaches, 

Built Expressly for this Line, 

Luxurious, well lighted and well ventilated 
Day Coaches, and pleasant lounging and smok- 
ing cars; all built by this company in their 
own shops. The cars are all equipped with the 

Miller Safety Platform, 



PATENT BUFFERS AND COUPLINGS, 

WESTINGHOUSE SAFETY AIR BRAKES, 

And every other appliance that has been de- 
vised for the safety of passenger trains. All 
trains are run by telegraph, and are so regular- 
ly on time that one can safely set his watch by 
their arrivals or departures. 

IN A WORD, THIS 

Grreat Oalifomia, X^ine 

Has the 
BEST AND SMOOTHEST TEACK, 

AND THE MOST 

Eleg'ant and Comfortable Equipment 

Of any road in the West, and has no competi- 
tor in the country. It is eminently the favorite 
route with Oaliforniaus traveling East, and is 
acknowledged by the traveling public to be the 
popular line for 

Chicago, New York and all Eastern Cities. 

Through tickets by this favorite route can be 
procured at all offices of the Centbal Pacific 
Bailboad, and at the office of the 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY, 

300 MContgomery street. 

H. P. STANWOOD, Gen. Ag't for Calif'na. 

M. HTJQHITT, W. H. STENNETT. 

General Sup't. Gen. Passenger Ag't, 

Chicago. Chicago. 

10v8-lam-ly 



For' the very best Photoeraphs go to BRAD- 
LEY & KULOFSON'd GALLEKY, with an " Elevator- 
429 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 2v7-6m 



W. L. Chukoh, formerly newspaper agent, will 
fiaam addiegi this oSce. 



J. D. Yost, San Francisco. H. S. Cboceeb, Sacramento 



H. S. CROCKER & CO., 



IMPORTING STATIONERS 



General Job Printers. 



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23v8-3m.lGp 



SANBORN & BYRNES, 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Fraucifco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pius, fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 25v8-8m-bp 



the: A-LiDElV 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF C A 1. I F O K N I A , 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 

machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 

linowledged to be the best method known for 

preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at the company's 

Office, 426 Montgomery St., S. F. 

G. W. DEITZLER, President. 
W. M. WHERRY, Vice President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF CALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse. 

Japan and Townsend Streets. 

San Fbancikco, July, 1874. 

T beK to inform you I have leased the above first-class 
Fire-Proof Brick Warehouse, now beinw erected by Geo 
F. Hoo[ier, Esq.. and will be ready to receive storage on 
the 1st ot August. This warehouse otters sujierior induce- 
nmets to parties desiring to store t<rain and tlour, a^ itU 
situated on the Water Front, and on the line of the 0. P. 
R .R. and S. P. R. R. It is well ventilatr-il, rat pronf, and 
combines all the modern advantages and iinnmxements 
Yours respeotCully. JOHN JENNINGS. 

Advances and insurance effected at the lowest rates 
Storage taken at lowest current rales. " 4v8-tt 

AMERICAN SWEET CHESTNUT TREES. 

Thirty Thousand American Sweet Chestnut Trees for 
sale cbeiip, in lots to suit, at Room ^2 Merchants' Ex- 
change, Sun Francisco, where samples may be seen. 
tt£7" 'rhe trees are two years old, and in prime order. 
Will be delivered either in this city, Oakland or Sacra- 
mento. 'Ihese trees are valuable for nuts, timber, 
shade trees or lawn trees; and are preferred by many to 
any of the foreign varieties. tf 



t!*03IETIIIlVG NEW. 

Every business man should have one of those neat 
and durable Vulcanized Rubber Stamps, to mark 
their merchandise, stamp their envelopes, &c. Also, 
a name stamp for marking their clothing and cards 
with genuine indelible ink. Send your orders to 

FRANK H. WINO, 

Boom 14, G08 Market street, San Francisco. 
Printing Wheels only $C. 25v8-lm 



COaiPTON" «Sfc BINJFOltO, 

REAL ESTATE. BROKERS, 

Employment and Intelligence Ollice. Horse and 
buggy free to see property. Ofllcos at Compton, and 
at corner ot Court and Spring streets, Los Angeles, Cal. 
25v8-ly 



CENTINELA COLONY 

LOS ANGELES CO., CAL. 

SIX MILES WEST OF LOS ANGELES, OAL. 
The unparalleled success ot the 

LOMPOC COLONY, 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY, 

Has induced the "Centinela Land Company of Los An- 
geles" to subdivide and place in market for sale and 
settlement, under the direction and management of 
the "California Immigrant Union," of San Francisco, 
the "Centinela and Sausal Redondo" Ranches, contain- 
ing Twenty-five Thousand Acres of Beautiful Valley 
Laud, located seven miles west of the city of Los An- 
geles, and extending to and fronting on the Pacific 
Ocean. There is now on the tract an orchard of about 
three hundred acres, containing Orange, Lemon, Lime, 
Fig, (Valnut, Almond and Olive trees, and a nursery of 
young Orange and Lime Trees. Some ot the Orange 
and Lime trees are in bearing. The tract will be sub- 
divided in twenty, forty, eighty ,ono hundred and sixty- 
acre farms, and sold upon easy terms and long credits. 

Auction Sale of Town Lots 



5. 10, 20 and 40 ACRE FARMS, 

WILL COMMENCE ON 

Monday. Jan. 18, 1875, at 12 o'clock, M. 

And continue Five Days. The sale will take place on 
the Rancho. Parties desiring to purchase should be on 
the ground a few days prior to the sale, in order to ex- 
amine the property. Title— United States patent. 
Situation. 
"Centinela," with the addition of the "Sausal Re- 
dondo," contains 2.3,0110 acres. The boundary of the 
Rancho commences three and a half miles from the 
city limits of Los Angeles, and extends to the Pacific 
Ocean. . 

TOPOGBAPSY. 

"Centinela" is made up of one broad, level, fertile 
valley, ot over twenty thousand acres, and beautiful 
fertile rolling hills near the ocean. 
Soil. 

The soil is an exceedingly fertile loam, and is, with- 
out exception, the richest and most productive In 
Southern California. Its vicinity to the ocean insures 
a crop without irrigation. Excellent wheat has been 
raised for the last two years upon the hills adjoining 
the ocean. This wheat field contains 1,000 acres, and 
covers the lightest soil upon the Rancho. There is no 
alkali or barren land. 

Semi-Tboicpal Feuits. 

There are a few bearing orange and lime trees upon 
the Centinela, and the fruit they produce is of the 
largest and finest quality. There is an orchard con- 
taining 6,000 orange trees three years old, and 1,700 
almond, lime and lemon trees. The almond, lime and 
lemon trees will bear fruit in 1875. The orange trees 
will bear in five years. There are 7,000 three-year-old 
orange trees in the nursery near the orchard. Fig, 
pepper and gum trees grow without irrigation. The 
entire ori hard can be taken care ot by three men with 
six horses. The orchard will be kept undivided by 
the company, to save the expense of each shareholder 
having a few trcf s to take care of. Each share will 
entitle the owner to about 15 trees iu the orchard and 
about the same number in the nursery. The almond, 
lime and lemon trees will yield an immediate return. 
In five years each orange tree will produce $20 per an- 
num, or $300 per share for those now planted. There 
are flowers in the garden in bloom every day iu the 
year. 

SaEEP, 

A flock of about 14,000 sheep will be kept undivided, 
to save expense to the shareholders. This will give 
about 30 sheep to each share. The sheep will produce 
in increase and wool over $2 each, yearly, over ex- 
penses. They will be grazed upon outlying and un- 
sold lands of the company. The "No.fence" Law is in 
force in Los Angeles County. 

Climate. 
The climate of the "Centinela" is without exception 
the finest and most equable in the world. It varies 
but little throughout the year. The mean temperature 
is about 60 degrees. The mercury falls but little below 
60 in winter and rises but little above 6ii in summer. 
You sleep under one pair of blankets and with your 
bed-room window open every night in the year. 
Agbicultdee. 
The soil of the "Centinela" is admirably adapted for 
all kinds of grain, vegetables and fruit. 
Wateb. 
The Centinela creek rises upon the Rancho and runs 
through the northern portion of the tract. It affords 
an abundance of clear spring water. The source ol the 
Centinela creek consists of several natural artesian 
springs, showing that artesian water can be obtained 
by boring. 

The Town. 
A square mile is laid off at an eligible point on the 
tract, with lots 31x133; avenue 100 feet, and streets 80 
feet wide. A stream of water can be brought in so as 
to supply every lot with crystal, cool, sweet water. 
Oue of the forty-acre tracts is set apart for a College 
and Farm School, and tli re will be a Ten-acre Park on 
each ol the four sides of the town, and Four Blocks in 
the center of the town tor Public Buildings, Schools, 
etc. A large lot will also be set apart for each Relig. 
ious Denomination, and a block given for the erection 
of a large hall by the different Fraternil, Grange and 
Temperance Societies. 

Fake. 

Parties desiring to visit the Rancho can take the 8:10 

A. M. train of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Soledad, 

thence by Coast Line Stage to Los Angeles; by 4 P. M. 

train to Bakersfiold, theme by stage to Los Angeles; or 

by Pacific Mail Co.'s and Goodall, Nelson & Perkins' 

steamships direct to Los Augeles, where conveyances 

can be had to go to the Rancho free of charge. 

Railroads And Wuabf. 

I'he Company intend building a wharf to enable 

Steamships from San Francisco and other places to 

land passengers on the tract. A narrow-gauge railroad 

will be built from Los Augeles to the wharf, a di.stam^e 

of about 12 miles. The Main Street and Agricultural 

Park Railway will soon be built to the park, about — 

miles from the tract. This railway wi)l be extended to 

the tract as soon as the settlement will justify it 

Apply to W. H. MARTIN 

General Agent California Immigrant Union, 5:i4 Califor 

nia street, betweeu Montgomery and Kearny streets, 

San Francisco, to TEMPLE & WORKMAN, Bankers, 

or Gen. SHIELDS, Los Angeles, or O. L. AB130TT, 

Corresponding Secretary State Grange Immigrant Aid 

Association, Santa Barbara. 

P. S.— A second sale will take place on the Rancho, 
commencing on Monday, the 8th of March, 1875. 

Further particulars will be furnished by the officers 
and directors of the Centinela Land Company, of Los 
Angeles, who are : F. P. F. Temple, President; F. P. 
Howard, Vice-President; J. S. Slauson. Los Angeles 
County Bank, Treasurer; J. M. Griffith, of Griffith, 
Lynch & Co.; Gen. J. H. Shields; O. W. ChlldB; D. 
Freeman, on the Rancho; W. H, J. Brooks, Secretary. 



12 



[January 2, 1875, 



^qF^lcJLjjRi^L ^OTES. 



BUTTE. 

Grain and Cattle. — Butte Mercury Dec. 25: 
We had a vi&it this week from T. A. R Jgers, 
who liyes ill Hioiiltia t)WQship, about «ix 
miles from Biggs'. Mr. R. is eugi«(?ed in farm- 
ing; Ilia ranch contains about 1,000 acre.s, 
Bouie 700 of which are sown to wheat. He 
states that ihe grain is at least a month ahead 
of anything he ever aiw at this season of the 
year before. Some of it on Butte creek is six 
inch< 8 high and makes a thick carpet over the 
gronni. He thinks the frosts have done good 
in checking its too rapid growth, and will cause 
it to take de per root, thereby filling it the 
belt, r to endure the heat and drought of early 
summer. 

Mr. Lowe informs us that the stock running 
on the plains is in better order than he ever 
haw it durini? any previous winter. Some of 
his neiijhbors' shtep, even the ewes, that are 
usually poor at this season, will sell for mutton. 
The plains are covered with grass; and cattle 
after eating a few hours, get full and lie down, 
as they do in April. Every grain-field bids fair 
to yield a large crop, and there are thousands 
of acres more fhan last year sown. It is 
believed that the storms yet to come, even if they 
are more severe than usual, will not retard the 
growth of either grass or grain. 

Gbain Shipment.— TJecord, Dec. 26 : General 
Bidwell has shipped during the week 100 car 
loads, or. 1,000 tons, of wheat to San Francisco. 
Cars and engines have been busy running to 
and from his extensive warehouses and mills 
during the week. This is indeed a large ship- 
ment of whtat; but does not embrace the crop 
of the Chico farm. The General yet has 
sufficient on hand to run his mills until another 
harvest, and, should he see proper to sell, will 
make other large shipments. The price re- 
ceived fjt the grain is $25 per ton, the single 
shipment aiuountinj» to $25,000. To load these 
cars with the present facilities, requires the 
service of ten men for ten days. 
CONTB.A COSTA COUNTY. 

Shbkman Island Gbain. — Antioch Ledger, 
Dec. 20: Of the fourteen thou.sand acres of 
arable lind comprising Sherman island, it is 
estimated that ten thousand acres are already 
sown to wheat and barley. Several hundr^d 
acres of volunteer grain stiud six inches high. 
There has been but unt» break of any impor- 
tance in the ievets, and that was speedily re- 
paired. The level s are said to bo in better con- 
dition than ever before and, altogether, the 
prospects of this islaud are (juite flattering. 
The rapid growth of the grain, which results in 
a too heavy growth of straw, is checked by 
feeding down with sheep, large numbers of 
which are now upon the island. 

Favobadlk fob Fakmees. — The farmers tell 
us that they are two months earlier with their 
work than last year. The early so.iking rains 
prepared the soil for plowing and the weatner 
has since been such as cause no interruption 
of thi work. Most of the ground will be seeded 
before the first of Jauuary, which is quite un- 
usual. The grain s iwn before the rains is look- 
ing he ilthy and vigorous, is of a dark green 
color with large strong stocks and wide blades. 
The present prospects are good. 

NEVADA. 

Applks. —A correspondent of the Grass Val- 
ley Union writes from San Juan as follows: 
Last fall there were huudreds of apples allowed 
to rot on the ground in the orchards round 
town, for want of people to take them away. 
In fact it sem d too bad to have them waste 
in such a wholes ile mauner. Now how differ- 
ent! You can't get a decent apple for less 
than two or two and a half cents per pound, 
though there is plenty of them at that price. 
But a person can't help but think what a con- 
trast; two months ago they could be had for the 
taking, but now a hug-- priC" is asked for them. 
Ah, well, "'lis either feast or famine." and this 
is only another of the long chain of inequali- 
ties we have to encounter. 
SANTA CEtrZ. 

PB>sPEcrs. — WatsouvlUe Pajaronian, Dec. 
21: The weather for the past week has been 
cold and clear, with no iudications of rain. A 
heavy frost tvr-ry night and days as warm as 
an Eistern summer. Green grass does not 
seem t ) bo aff cted by these cold nights, and 
cattle are becoming fat with the rank, rich 
feel. AUUouljU the soil is now a little dry for 
plowing, much laud h is been plowed and 
much grain has been sown. Ttie farmers are 
making ready for a heavy r.iin storm, which 
will undoubtedly come within the next two 
weeks. The re^idout8 of the Paj iro valley are, 
whether the present is a dry or wet senson, 
sure of excellent crops. 

Bekt SuoAK.-The two California sugaries. the 
larger beinn located at Sacramento, and the 
smaller in the county of Santa Cruz, are, we 
learn, preparing to plant more beets than ever 
before. The bu.siuess has become profitable 
and can be cnlurged to an almost unlimited ex- 
tent. The people of San Jose, Marysville and 
Vetaluiua talk of or^aniziug for the construc- 
tion of a BUgarie at their respective places, Imt 
they do not appear to have much stomach for 
sucli undertaking. 
SAN JOAaXTIN. 

Geapes vs. Wheat fob Pbofit. — To dispose 
advantigeoasly of a portion of the grape pro- 
duct of San Joaquin valley the present year led 
the proprietors of some small vineyards to 
threaten the destruction of their vines. This 
would be unwise and, perhaps, was never neri- 



ously intended. Grape culture is doubtless 
one of the most profitable branches of rural 
industry, far more so than the growth of wheat 
or other cereal crops. The Democrat tells that 
in Sonoma two and a half to three tons may be 
relied on as an average yield, one year ,wilh 
another, and the fruit is worth from $20 to $30 
per ton according to quality. As high as ten 
tons have been taken from an acre in that 
county, but that is altogether exceptional. 
Say that the average yield is two tons and a half 
and the worth of the crop $'20 per ton, (the 
lowest estimates given) the average worth of 
the product, one year with another is $50. 
Tne average \ ield of wheat will probably not 
exceed twenty bushels to the acre. That is a 
high estimate. At $1 40 per hundred pounds, 
the value of twenty bushels would be $111 80, 
thus requiring the product of about three acres 
of wheat to be equal in value to one acre of 
grapes. The wheat crop is uncertain, while the 
yield of the vineyard. is comparatively sure. 
The grape crop in Sun .Joaquin county and 
valley, and in the adjoining mining counties, 
will, we believe, average quite as large as in 
Simoma. In the lat'er county, however, much 
attention has been given to the best means of 
utilizing the fruit, something which claims the 
special consideration of parties in other sec- 
tions of the State. We have heard it suggested 
that it would pay to raise grapes to fatten hogs, 
and we have been told of on instance where 
the fruit has been successfully used for that 
purpose. The yield, in weight, of grapes as 
compared with wheat is as 2% to 1; but their 
comparative nutritious qualities we leave to 
chemists, or parties who may engage in feed- 
ing experiments to determine. 
SOLANO 

Crops and the Weathee. — Vallejo Chroniek, 
Deo. 28: The grain which has been already 
sown is well advanced in this vicinity. On W. 
Cirter's ranch it stands up thickly over the 
whole ground, and, he says, is further along 
than the crop of last year was the first of April. 
The protracted spell of cold weather is, how- 
ever, cutting down the grass very severely. 
Many of the farmers who had plowed their 
ground at an early period have been waiting for 
more rain before seeding, so as to have more 
mellow soil for harrowing. Most of Ihem prob- 
ably now regret their delay, as the ground is 
growing drier, and the prospects of rain seems 
us remote as ever. In some places the 
ground has already begun to crack open. Farm- 
ers who have not their grain planted now will 
be late in getting it in, and their crops may suf- 
fer if they do not get late rains. 

SONOMA. 

Wink AND Gbapes. — Argus, Dec. 25th: The 
amonnt of wine made in Sonoma county this 
year is much larger than ever before, and its 
quality is better than usual. It is estimated 
that over one million gallons were made in So- 
noma valley. The injury to grapes by the 
early rains was but slight. A large area will be 
planted with grapes in the vicinity of Santa Ro- 
sa this year. Fruit growers are iilantiug plum 
and prune trees extensively. Many farmers 
are sowing barley instead ot wheat this year. 
It is estimated that one-third of the entire po- 
tato crop of Bodegi will be destroyed by the 
rot. 

Potatoes. — About 50,000 sacks of potatoes 
are stored in this city. There are no new de- 
velopments regarding the ro:. Nearly all those 
that were not dug before the rain will b" a to- 
tal loss, and otners are somewhat aflectfd. 
Opinions are divided as to the character of the 
disease and the probability of its appearance 
next year.. 

The Faie of the Sonoma and Marin Agricul- 
tural Society for the year 1875, will commence 
on Monday the 4th, and end on Saturday the 
9th of Octolier. 

Cheese Factoey. — Mr. William AVhite of 
Bloomfield, who has 330 acres of land; 150 ot 
which are under cultivation, is about to start a 
cheese factory on his place, that will, we think, 
prove of gre.it advantage to those having cows 
in his locality. The factory is two stories high, 
with a basement, and is well situated for the 
business. It will be supplied with all the ne- 
cessary machinery and equipments, and when 
in full running order will have a capacity for 
the milk of 600 cows. We wish Mr. White .suc- 
cess in his new enterprise. 

TUOLUMNE. 

Grapes on the Vines. — Tuolumne Independ- 
ent Dec. 2G: Hundreds of tons of grapes are 
hanging on the vines in the vineyards about 
Culumbia and other parts of the county, the 
owners not having the facilities for making them 
either into wine, brandy or raisins. It is a 
great loss to the owners as well as the county, 
thatthis waste should be permitted, when a lew 
huudreds of dollars properly invested would 
change these grapes into Lard coin. A wine 
and brandy manufactory and a patent dryer 
would use up every pound of fruit, and, besides 
giving employment to many, would scatter 
thousands of dollars among those owning small 
vineyards and orchards. 



5Ir. J. .T. H. Grkuobv, of Marblehead. Maxa., lias bis 
auuual advertiutiment in our culumus. Hh was the 
uritsiiial introducer of some of the best vegetableB uuw 
fouud on every table. He comes this beascin with a 
new squasb, and a unmber of tempting specialties, 
some of which are finely illustrated from eugraviujis 
takfu from photographs. The fact that so many of hia 
varieties ol seed are of his own growing, U a golden 
fact for fai-uuTS and gardeners. 



Woodwabd's Oabdens embraces an Aquariam, Mu- 
seum, Art Gallery, CouBervatories, Tropical Uouses, 
Meaagerie iieal Ponda, and Skating Kink. Admlstion, 
'i& ceQIB; children, 10 c«nts. 



Beneral News items. 

Shooting. — The emotional mania for shoot- 
ing seems to be on the increase. Some woman 
is generally at the bottom of such trouble and 
not unfrequently does the shooting herself. 
The latest instance of such a case occurred in 
this city last week. A woman named Annie 
Suiythe. shot Mr. M. G. Cobb, a lawyer of this 
city as he was passing along Washington street 
near Montgomery. The wound was at first 
thought to be fatal, but Mr. Cobb is now in a 
fiir wiiy for recovery. The woman has b''en 
arrested. The only cause assigned was a suppo- 
sition on her part that be was mismanaging a 
land casH in which she was interested, for 
which there was no reason whatever. It is 
charitatdy thought by many thai the woman, 
who is a widow, was insane. 

Fatal Political Quarbel. — Mr. Byerly, ed- 
itor of the New Orleans JiuUetiu. having east 
some severe reflections upon ex-Governor War- 
moth, a challenge had passed, or was about to 
pass, when the two accidentally meeting in the 
street, Byerley knocked Warmoth down and 
jumped upon him. During the fight Warmouth 
drew a knife and stabbed bis antagonist several 
times in the abdomen, from the effects of which 
he died the next day. Warmoth has been ai- 
rested. Byerley was a Northern man and a 
political opponent of Warmouth. 

Hawaiian Annexation. — Washington news- 
paper correspondeuts state that the General 
Government is striving to indtice the King of 
the Hawaiian islands to use his influence for 
annexation. Undoubtedly annexation would 
be of great advantage to the Sandwich islands, 
and incidentally to California. The islands 
would also be of advantage as a way station to 
the nation at lar^o. 

Two BoTs Chaeged witu Pabricide. — Two 
sous of Jacob Nerswinder who lived 15 miles 
north of Columbus, Ohio, have been arrested 
charged with having murdered their father 
and then burned his body. The boys are 
fourteen and eighteen ysars old. The family 
deserted their house, and the remains of Mr. 
Nerswinder have been found among the ashes 
in the fire place. 

P. M. S. S. Investigation. — The examina- 
tion of Mr. Irwin before the Congressional In- 
vestigation Committee proceeds slowly. Mr. 
Irwin don't "pump" as well as it was thought 
he would. It has transpired, however, that 
large sums of the company's money went into 
the bands of the Cougre8si<!toal postmaster, 
but for what purpose, or where it went subse- 
quently, has not transpired. 

The German Chuech Contbovebsy — It is 
reported that Queen Victoria has written to 
Emperor William urging bim to compromise 
the ecclesiastical conflict in Germany. The 
report is of doubtful ivuthority, and Germ my 
is generally suppo.-'ed to be pn tty well calcu- 
lated to mind her own business, and the 
Catholics don't compromise worth a cent. 

Deowned. — Wm. Farmer was drowned 
while trying to cross the Edl river at the Fort 
Seward ford, on the 29th of November. He 
started to cross the river on horseback, and his 
horse failed or refused to swim, and Farmer, 
who could not swim, was washed from bis 
back and drowned. 

Emigrant Ship Burned. — News has been re- 
ceived of the burning of the English emigrant 
ship "Cospairick." while on the viyagefiom 
London to New Zealand. Four hundred and 
sixty lives were lost. Further details are anx- 
iously awaited. The vessel and cargo are a 
total loss. : 

Cuban Annexation. — A letter to the Diario 
reports that strong efforts are being made in 
Washington to obtain the recognition of Cu- 
bans as belligerents. The letter couples the 
names of Aldama and Collector Casey with 
these efforts, and says that the object is to 
throw on the market Cuban bonds held in 
Washington. 

Deaths Last Week. — During the last week 
7'J persons died in this city, 51 males and 28 
females. Of those 68 were white, 1 colored, 
and ten copper colored persons. There were 
3 casualties. 1 homicide and 17 persons died in 
public institutes. 

Gebkitt Smith Dead. — This w«ll known 
philantiophist died suddenly in New York on 
Monday last, of apolexy. Ho had just arrived 
in that city to spend the Christmas hoUdays 
with bis friends. 

The great ship "Three Brothers" went to 
sea on Monday with 4,000 long tons of wheat 
in her bold. She was taken out by two tugs. 
This is the most magnificent specimen of naval 
architecture that carries sails. 

Hobse Beef. — The horse shambles of Paris 
supplied the public during th§ Brut quarter of 
the present year with nearly 630,000 pounds of 
meat, the result of the slaughter of 1,555 
horses, mules and asses. 

Fatal Accident. — Patrick Smith, foreman 
and section man on the California Pacific Ilai'- 
road at Napa Junction, stumbled across the 
track on Monday morning with such force that 
he died almost instantly. 

California Rivees. — The proposition pend- 
ing before Congress to expend a small sum of 
money to improve California livers ought to 
receive favorable consideration. But $57,000 
are required for the Sacramento River. 

Railway AtuiDENT in England. — Several 
persons were killed «nd many wounded by a 
railroad accident at Woodstock on Thursday 
last. Kome of the latter are fatally wounded. 



Industrial Items. 

The Navy Yard. — Eighty-two men are em- 
ployed at the present time in the construction 
department at the navy yard, as follows: Ten 
men are engaged in boat building in that de- 
partment. There are twenty-five blacksmiths, 
twenty-two ship joiners, three block makers, 
five spar makers, two pattern makers, seven 
plumbers, and eight in the saw mill. 

An Industkial Colony. — Westminster Col- 
ony is still on the march of improvement. 
Several houses are nearly completed, and were 
it not for the scarcity of lumber and carpen- 
ters others would at once be erected. The 
school is flourishing, the plows are busy, the 
corn crop excellent, and the number of trees 
to be planted this season will be greatly in- 
creased. 

Steamship Expenses.— Some" idea of the 
expenses attending the trial trip of a large 
steamship may be had when it is knrwn that 
the trial tiip of the "Cityof Pekin" to Newport 
with a large number of guests, cost $50,000. 
Delmonico's bill for the entertainment was 
about $25,000. 

The estimated cost of a ship canal from 
Stockton to Disappointment slough, eleven 
miles, is $1,117,000. Such a work is greatly 
needed, and would be of immense benefit in 
opening up the San Joaquin valley. 

Twenty tons of coal per day are used at the 
Starr mills, in Vallejo, which at present rates 
costs about $130. One vessel is kept con- 
stantly running to supply fuel for this great 
flouring establishment. Fifteen car-loads of 
wheat are ground every twenty-four hours. 

Iron Works at Santa Claba. — An effort is 
being made to get up a joint stock company at 
Santa Clara, with a capital of 100,000, for the 
purpose of obtaining the location of J. T. 
Walker & Co's iron works there. 

The Anaheim branch of the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad is now within seven miles of 
Anaheim. The track will be completed by the 
Ist of January. 

A New Industry. — One hundred and sixty 
acres are being pUnted t > peppermint at 
Milipitas, Santa Clara county, by W. Boete. 

Thbeb hundred and fourteen men are em- 
ployed at the gunpowder works near Santa 
Cruz. 

The Sacramento beet sngarie will this year 
plant from 1,500 to 2,000 acres in beets. 

There are eight vessels contracted to be 
built on Humboldt bay. 

The Pacheco-road pass over the Coast range 
has been completed, at a cost of about $18,000. 



Frosts and Fogs. — During the past week the 
valleys of the State have nearly all been vi^ted 
by heavy fogs, which have extended for hun- 
dreds of miles, lifting at slight intervals only 
to descend again like a pall, shutting out the 
view of distant objects. It is noticed as some- 
thing r'-markable that severe frosts have ac- 
companied these fogs. This phenomenon oc- 
curred all through the upper San .Foaquiu val- 
ley and in the foothills of the moun'ains. The 
same was true of Sutter county, to ubich cir- 
cumstance altnslou is made in the Yuba City 
Bitnner as follows: "The continued fogs and 
white frosts, coming together night after night, 
is what beats us. The frosts are very white, 
and it is only occasionally that ice is formed, 
and then only on very small pools of water. 
The fog sets in i efore sundown and continues 
until near noon, sometimes listing all day. 
The white frosts gather during the thickness 
of the fog." As might be expected from the 
moist and chilly state of the atmosphere in the 
regions thus visited, there has b^en more than 
the usual amount of sickness. In the open 
plains, colds and influenzas are complained of. 
—Call. 



Patents & Inventions. 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(From OmciAi, Krpobts fob ths Hikino and Bciem. 

TIFIO PKRS8, DEWEY & CO., POBLIBHKaS ANI> 

U. 8. AMD FouEiaN Patent Aoent).] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated 'Washinirton, 
D. C, Dec. 20th, 1874. 

Fob Week Ending Dkc. 15th, 1874.* 

Tibs Upsetter. — Quintns C. Tebbs, Windsor, 

Cal. 
Windmill. — William C. Nelson, Sacramento, 

Cal. 
.■Vi.ARM Combination Lock.— Henry W. Dilg, 

Portland, Oregon. 
Overalls. — Cheang Quan Wo, S. F., Cal. 
Artificial Stone.— -AohiUe Berard, Oakland, 

Cal. 

Tbademaee. 
Fob Cocoanot Psepabations. — The California 

Cocoanut Pulverizing Company, S. F., Cal. 

"The patnntg are Dot ready tot delivery by tfce 

Patent Office nntil Home 14 dayB after the date of ia»ne. 
NoTI.— Copies of ll. 8. and Foreign Patents fumlsbpd 
by Dewet Si Co., In the Bhortost time ponHibln (by tel. 
ograpb or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business tor Pacific coast InTeutors transacted witb 
perfect security and lo the shortest time possible. 



January 2, 1875.] 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



Flour, qr 8k8 


....l,047,r,C0 


Wheat, lOOlbsks.... 


5,990,980 


Barley, do 


.... ()P8,219 


Oats, sks 


154, 1«4 


Potatoes, Bks 


.... 42U,8a7 


Corn, sks 


. ... .52,403 


Ryp, sks ...,. 


... 11,050 


Buckwheat, ska 


t)99 


Beaus, sks 


. . . 47,153 


Brail, sks 


65,937 


Hay, tons 


. . . 29,742 


Salt, tons 


4,427 


Wool, bales 


... 49,(n2 


Hides, No 


. . . ii:,.im 


Raisins, 20 lb sks 


... 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Franolsoo, Wednesday, Bcc. 30, 1874. 
The week ending to-day has been more one of hoi i- 
day pleasures thiin of business. Not only was Christ- 
mas given to amiLsement and general diversion from 
trade and commerce, but the days preceeding and fol- 
lowing were also a time of relaxation from business, 
and devoted to fun and frolic. All the banks and most 
of the wholesale houses were closed Saturday accord- 
ing to anunderatanding previously had and no sessions 
of the Produce Exchange nor Stock Board were had, 
■while it will be yet some days before the business por- 
tion of the city puts off its holiday appearance. Yet 
the receipts of the principal articles of produce from 
the country during Christmas week were fair, being 
10,008 bbls of Flour; 33S,088 ctlsof Wheat; C4,128 ctls of 
Barley; 5,345 sks of Beans; 19,009 sks of Potatoes; 1,018 
Bks Onions; 13,160 gallons of Wine; 1,005 gallons of 
Brandy; (14,900 Oranges; 9,250 Lemons, and as many 
Limes. 

The following is b statement of the receipts of domes- 
tic produce at Ban Francisco from July 1 1874 to Dec. 
26, compared with the same poriod hi the previous har- 
vest year: 

1873-74. 1874. 

July 1 to Dec. 27 July 1 to Dec 26. 
878,945 
6,364,483 
859, 8h6 
206,079 
409,296 
34.900 
34,817 
1,483 
,'')7,137 
65,139 
36,220 
4,412 
54,39.'; 
81,423 
2,781 
The market for the great staple. Wheat, has re- 
mained firm, with comparatividy little ofl'ering, but 
the prices show no improvement. At New York, the 
export demands for Wheat have slackened, and there is 
likely to be no revival until after the holidays, while 
prices are a trifle lower; but the export movement 
there is much restricted by the absence of freight 
room, all the steamers having more freight now en- 
gaged than they can transport in the next two months, 
and rates of freight are there steadily advancing. The 
Liverpool Wheat market is given to-day at 9s lOd to 
109 2d for average California and 10s 4dra>10s 9d for 
Club. Beerbohm's telegram reports a light attendance 
at Mark Lane and a Kteady feeling for cargo parcels at 
4fis to 468 Ort per quarter at San Francisco. Tonnage 
continues to arrive freely. We have had nearly fifty 
ships, barks and schooners from distant ports this 
month, and others are fully due. Nearly all of these 
are suitable for Wheat, which are all disengaged, and 
said to be tho lar^jest number disoaga;,'ed ever in this 
port. There are 42 vessels in port under engageuiout, 
representing 49,300 tons of tonnage, with u capacity 
for 1,480,000 centals of Wheat. The great California ship 
Three Brothers again sailed from here for Liverpool 
Saturday morning, with 89,600 centals of Wheat, val- 
ued at $140,400, the largest cargo ever dispatched from 
this port. The ship Dauntless, which sailed the same 
day for New York, had as part of her cargo 340 tons of 
Barley, besides 3,000 bbls California Syrup and other 
cargo, amounting in all to $160,000 

Barley. Sales Thursday were 1,400 sks coast feed, 
$1.22>«; 2,400 do brewing, $1.32 J^; 800 bay brewing, 
$1.42)6; 1,500 do in two lots, $1.45; 500 do strictly 
choice, at the extreme price of $1.50. On Saturday 
1,000 sks feed sold for Sacramento at $1.25. On Mon. 
day 1,000 sks coast feed sold at $1.25; 900 sks bay feed, 
$1.30; 1,500 ska coast brewing, $1.30; 1,000 sks bay 
brewing, $1.45@l.o0 ipl 100 lbs. 

Beans are quoted as follows for prime lots: Small 
white, 3)i@334c; small butter, 4;<ic; large do, 5c; bay, 
2;.i to 3c; pink and red, 2H to iHc ip lb. 

Eggs have remained scarce and high, California 
selling at 45 to 471^0 per dozen, and small lots choice 
bringing the extreme price of 50c, which rates may 
continue until after the holidays. 

Flour receipts from the interior .continue liberal , 
and a large part thereof goes aboard ship. The city 
millers also have a good jobbing demand for extras at 
$5@5.12>!; 51i»bbl. 

Freights to Liverpool are unchanged, but many ef 
the vessels load on owners' account, and most charters 
that are made are kept private. The rate is nominally 
.£3. 

Game has not been in great demand, and prices 
ruled low. 

Oats has remained firm for jobbing demand at $1.40 
to $1.75 for the diffi<rent grades. A sale of 50 sks 
choice Oregon brought $li70 per 100 lh3, and 300 do, 
$165, while 200 sks choice Feed brought $1.75 ■^ ctl. 

Onlooa which ware weak at the beginning at $1(3)1.10 
1f» 100 lbs for good to choice, are bringing$1.10to $1.12^ 
for choice Yellow. On Monday 7-5 sks good Alviso sold 
for $1, and 100 do choice Bay, $1 .10 to $1 .12 M fl ctl . 

Potatoes have sold throughout the week at $1.75 ?» 
100 lb< for choice sound lots, at which price there is no 
difficulty in selling; particularly choice Pigeon Point 
or Humboldt. But there are so many of an iuferior, 
rotten character, that the prices greatly vary. Good 
Tomales brings $1.05; fair Petaluma, $1.50. Mo8tr.;und 
lots hare to be picked oyer, and many are worthless. 
Sweet sell for $2 ^ ctl. 

Poultry. Notwithstanding'the immense quantitiCB 
of all kinds sent in for tlie holiday demand, kept up in 
price uatU •hristmas, wkea rates dropped of, and 



commission merchants could not dispose of all their 
stock. Dressed Turkeys were received by hundreds of 
thousands of pounds, and hens, roosters and broilers 
■were for a day almost unsalable at $7(2)$7.50 for hens, 
$0(a$6.50 for roosters, and $1 to $3 for broilers; Ducks, 
$7 to $8 ^ doz; Turkeys, alive, 13 to 16c; dressed, 14 to 
16c IS lb; Geese, $2.25@S2.50 f> pair. 

Rye is quotable at $1.20 ^ ctl, at which the last 
sales were made. 

Seeds. Mill price for Flax is Sijc for clean, on 30 
days; Mustard Hi to 2Hc for White, and 2 to 3c ^ lb 
for Brown; Canary, 9 to lOo; Alfalfa, 17 to 18c; Timo. 
thy, 7c i? lb. 

Wheat has remained firm throughout the week. On 
the 24th among the several lot« that changed hands, 
two went :it the extreme figure of $1.37;4 ^ 100 Ibs^ 
10,000 sks Shipping sold at $1.35; 20,000 do Choice, at 
$1.57^; 10,000 do, at Sl.52;^; 2,000 do Milling, at $1.55. 
Saturday trade was suspended. Monday, 10,000 ska 
Shipping soldat $1.52J4, the market remaining firm, 
with but little offering. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



3?^' 



■aKA.i<i». 

Beans, sm'l wfi. lb 3)^fai 

do. butter i'A@ " 

do, bayo 2*iW» 3 

00, pink -MW 2 

uo. pea 3'-^'^ 4 

ltROO»I COKN. 

Per B) 5 @ 8 

COTTON. 
Oal.1874, ^tti.... l.'i ® 15 
J>A.IKY rKOntlCE 
Butter. Oal. choice 

ft 40 ^ 

do. good 3!> m 

df.. inferior 30 @ 

do, tlrkin M V 

do, pickled. ... 35 (^ 

Cheese. Oal Kip 

do. Eastern . IS &> 
SOON. 
Bggs, Cal. fresh 40 IS 

do, Oregon 30 (gt 

do. Eastern — 25 ® 

do, UucLs' 40 ca 

FEEn. 

Bran, per to - ai9 00 

Middlings — W28 .W 

Hay 12 OO'gn 00 

Straw, 'P bale.. •a)— — 

Oil cake meal... —(^.10 00 

Corn Meal 31 (10lc«!2 CO 

FI^UVK. 

Extra 4 75 (SA 124 

Suporfinc 4 .'0 te)4 73 

FKESU MEAT. 
Boef, fr ciualit.v..ll> 7 (a) 



Wednesday m., Dec. 30, 1874. 
_ (a _ 

~ I 75 



43 

40 
35 
35 
40 

n 

20 

na 

3'i 
31) 

n'i 



do, second do 
do. third do — 

Veal 

Mutton 

La mil 

Pork, undressed 

do* d'^esaed — 
UtRAlJt. 

Wheat, coast 



Hij 



6 

4>i',§ 

im 

h'/i'S 
(i'Ao) 
8'4« 

1 40 ®\ M 
do sliippiiig ..I 30 1^1 .'•3 
do milling....! 30 a^t 3.'> 

Barley, I oast..... 1 20 (oil .!u 
do brewing... I 40 &\ 3il 

Oats, ch ice... 1 40 m 03 
do common ..I M (all ■lO 

Oorn. White I 25 l^l 33 

do, Yellow 1 35 (SI iO 

Buckwheat 2 00 #2 25 

Rye 1 Vi'i'atl 20 

HOPS. 

(":alirorDia,1874. . 35 (3 3V, 

ERst'ni,'74,ch'ice .'0 & - 

MI.SCEI^LASIKOtl.S^ 

Beeswax. per It).. 23 (ai '27: 

Honci- 111 comb.. IS (g) 22' 
do Strained 5 @ 10 

Pulu S'^'OO 

Onions f>~i'im' '0 

KUT!*-JOB«irifG. 

Cal. WalDula .... 10. & 11 

Peanuts per lb... 

Ohile Walnuts.. 

Pfcan nuts 

Brazil do 

Alm'dsli'rd shell 
do. soft 

Fillierts 

Cocoaiiuts, KlOO.-bii 00® - 
POTATO K.S. 

Sweet, per cwt . . 1 60 tel 75 
Outlac Oovel —®- 
H. M. Bav..l 30 loll 30 
Piccon Pt... 1 40ig)l (10 
Humboldt.. 1 .3031 73 
Tomales 1 .10- Ml 7.) 



Mission 
Salinas. 

Bodega 1 40 

St Barbara. — (g> — 
Sac. River. . — (ol 
POCl^TKY az eA3CE. 
Live Turkeys, 

hensperlb 14 (© 18 

do gobblers... 12 (ai 14 

do dressed 15 @ 19 

Hens, per dz... 6 00 'at 7 00 
Roosters, .voung. 

arge 5 .50 ®6 -30 

Broilers, small.. 2 50 ,a4 00 

do large 4 00 (3.) 00 

Ducks. tame.doz7 00 ®8 00 
Gee^Je. per pair 2 00 (32 .30 
Hare, per doz. . . 2 00 ^3 00 
Snipe, Ent;., doz — ^1 73 
(Juail.pi'i doz ...1 30 ;gil Hiii 
Mallard Ducks.. 2 00 (a) 3 00 

do small 73 'oj 1 25 

Wild Geese, Rray — (ffl — 

do white 2 00 ;g)4 00 

Do.ves, per dozen 30 (a) 73 
Prairie Chickens — @ — 

Rabbits 1 ^3 ;a)l .30 

do tame 5 00 igiH 00 

Venison, per lb.. 6 tol 7 

PRO VI. SI ORIS. 

Oal. Bacon. Light — ® I4'< 

do Medium — — (S 13'^ 

do Heavy 13 S) 13S 

Kastern do Vi'im UH 

Hams, Oal 13'^® U^ 

.1o Whittakcrs — M — 
do Outfield, ch — C<9 — 
do Plankton & 

Arm ur 1.3M'a — 

do Boyd's — @ 

do Stewart's .. — '^ Ifi 

l<,a8tcrnShould'.s 9 «g Ul 

do new hams 13H'(S 16 

Oal. Smoked Beet 9 id) 10 

i.ard i'i'Am 16 

SEKDS. 

Alfalfa. Chili.. . 15 a 16 

uo (Jaliloruia. 18 (g( '20 

ijanary 8 (g) 10 

Ootlon 6 a) 10 

Flaxseed 3 (® 4 

Heinp 8 (S 10 

Ky. Blue Grass.. .30 |a» KO 
do !d niialilv.. 40 (0 30 
do 3d quality.. 30 (g> 4) 

Millet 12 m 13 

Mustard, white. Pjf^ 2-}4 

do. Brown l>4^ 2 

ltalianR.ve 30 (§ 40 

Perennial do 30 td) 40 

Rape II '« 12 

Timothy 11 ® 12 

.Swet V Grass.. 1 00 (all .30 



8 


ra 


9 


13 


(0) 


1.1 


14 


m 


IK 


8 


(m 


10 


15 


w 


22 


17 


(ai 


18 



Orchard d 

Red Top do... 

Hungarian do 

La\\n do 

Mesqtiit do... 
('lover Rod 

do White 

WOO!.,, 
FALL- 
Good to choice.. 

Fair grade 

Heavy free 

Defective 

Hides, Jiy 

do wet salted 
Tallow, Crude.. 
do Refined 



(gj 33 

(a) 30 

(^ 13 

«8 KO 

® 20 



K5 (g> 
ETC. 

18 m 

16 & 
H (^ 
12 & 
W-i'Jt 

8;-2 a 

5 ;a 

6 10 



.FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Wednesdat' M.,Dec. 30, 1874 
FKiriT MAKKET, 



Tahati, Or. * M - (gi 

LonU, do 40 00(0(43 0(1 

Oal. do 13 00^40 00 

Limes, * M 8 IIOSIO 00 

Oal. Lemons,^ .'tf20 00(530 00 

Austr liao do . (oilO 00 

do Sicilv Tttb'x, & 

Bananas,* bncb 3 Odoi 4 CO 
Cocoanuts.TSKKIO.HO 00(?!.'0 00 
Pineapples. Vdz. — (gi 00 
Apples, T^ box... 1 00 (<|l 25 

Cherries 

Blackberries .... 

do wild 

Hucklf berries. . . 
Strawberriesl*.!)) 

Hoose berries 

Raspberries 

Currants 

do black 

Aoncots 

Plums 

Peacnes. bskt. . 

do. %* box 

do ext Mouiit- 

tain.lb 

Pears, Bart'i, bx. 

do Uookmg, ... 

Crab Apples 

Nectarines 

Wat'riuel's'HlOil 

Muskni'l'sWKIO. ® 

Poiiiogran'STiilOO r^ — 

Figs — @ — 

Grapes.Bl'k H'g — (gi — 
do Muscat.. — (g) — 
do Matavo'e.. — (a — 
do Sweetw'r. — ffl — 

do Mission .... — (31 — 
do Rose of Peru I — jg) -- 
do Tokay 2 .30iq/ 3.30 



(a - 



- IS* - 

- ® - 

- @ - 

- (S - 

- (® - 

- @ - 
73 ^l 00 

- (g) - 

- (a - 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



Wrdnesdat m., Dec. 80, 1874. 



do Morocco 3 0034 00 

do St. Peter - m — 

DRIEU FRUIT. 

\ppl8s * 111 5'<(9 6S 

ears, ^ lb 10 .«12'i 




BAOS. 

Eng. Stand Wht..— 
Detrick's Machine 
Sewed, 22i3K E..12 
do 22x36, do E W- 
do20x4U, do A....— 
Flour Sacks '-^s.. 
•■ ^3. 
Stand. Gunnies., 
double seam . .. 

single seam 

" Wool Sacks. _ 
Bariey Bags 24x3S 13 
do -23x40 - 

do 24x40 — 

do 2'<x36 - 

Oat Bags, 24x40.... 16 
do 28x36.. . — 

tlesaiaa lO-tn.gds 9)^ 
do 45 1U>4 

do 60 — 

CANNED OOOl)!^. 
Asst'dPie Fruits 
in 2'-6 fti cans. 2 .30 
do Table do.. 3 .30 
Jams A Jollies 3 73 
Pickles >4 gl.. — 
Sardines.qr hoxl 80 
do hf boxes.3 20 

COAL— JobhliiB. 
Anstralian.^tonlO .30 '0)12 .30 

Coda Bay ^10 Op 

Bellinuham Bay. M 8 50 

Seattle (all— 

Oumberl'd, cks.. (§18 00 

do balk.. .16 00 (ai7 .30 

Mt. Diablo 6 23 ®8 30 

Lehigh S^H 00 

Liverpool 10 .30 ®ll .30 

West Hartley .... — S14 00 

Scotch 1|) 00 @11 00 

Scranton foiU .30 

Vancouver's IsL.U 00 @U 30 
Charcoal, l^sk... 75(5 — 

Ooke.-pbbl — @ 60 

COFFEE, 
Sandwich Island — "ffi 22 
Central A menc'n 20 @ 22 
Costa itica per lb 23 21 

Guatemala 20 @ 22 

Java — (» 26;- 

Manilla 19 M 20 

Ground in cs — (a 27 

Chicory 9 (a 10 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new 5 @ -6 

cases 6 (^ ■,> 

do boneless.... 11 @ 12 

Eastern Cod 8 (tf 8' 

Salmon in bbls. .9 00 @9 .30 

do '^ bbls4 .30 (35 .50 

do 2'^!tlcaiiB — ®2 80 

do 2Ri cans. ,2 (^3 ''012 75 

do ltt> cans .1 75 (oj — 

UoOnl. K. ,Sb... — (a - 

Pick. Ood, bbl3.22 (1(1 (a — 

do "^ bi.lsU on M — 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'e40 <& 30 

Mack'l.No.l,'»,bl69 00 Sill 00 

Extra.... - %n 00 

" in kits 2 00 'a)2 50 

" Ex mess. 3 uo (S3 .30 

" Ex mess.Sbs — 2(13 00 

Pio'd Herr'g. bx.. 3 00 O 3 .30 

VAII..S. 
Assorted size, tb. 5 37^<i^7 .30 

OILS. 
Pacific Olue Co. 
Neat F't No. 

Pure 

Castor Oil, No. 1.. 
do do No.2.. 

Cocoanut .. 

Olive Plagniol.. 

do Possel 

Palm B> 

Linseed, raw.. . 

do boiled 

l^hina nut in C3.. 

Sperm, crude — 

do bleached.. 

Ooast Whales... 

Polar, refined 

Lard 

l^oal, refined Pet 37'.i(c 

Oleophine 21 (a 

Devoe'3 Bril't... 25 M 

Long Island 21 (m 

Karoka — m 

Devoe's Petro'm 21 ^ 
Barrel kerosene 21 (di 



Olive 4 20 

Downer Kerose'e — 

Gas Light, Oil... - 

PAINTS. 

Atlan. W. Lead. 6 

Whiting — 

Putty 4 



8 
10.'^ 



Chalk 

Paris White 25if< 

Ochre 2 

Venetian Red... 3',^ 

Red Lead 7 

Litharge 10 

Eng. 'Vermillion 2 00ffl2 10 

RICE. 
China No. 1, * B) %H® «■ 

do 2, do. 59^(3 6 

lapan K (3 7 

'^iam Cleaned... 7 @ 

Patna 6 fa 

riawaiian 1%^ 

'arolina 10 (a 

SALT. 
Ual. Bav.per ton 10 00(^1 4 00 

do Common.. 5 OOta 7 On 
Carmen Island. .11 00(al3 00 

Liverpool fine... (a24 00 

do coarsel6 00{(^ 

SOAP. 

Oastile * lb 10 

Local brands. ... 5 
SPICF-S. 

Gloves 50 

Cassia 26 

Citron 33 

Nutmeg 1 '20 

Whole Pepper... 21 

Pimento — 

(ir'nd Allsp prdz — 

do Ca.ssia do . . — 

do Cloves do.. — 

do Mustard do — 

do Ginger do.. — 

do Pepper do.. — 

do Mace do. . . — 
SCOAR, 
Cal. Oibe per lb.. 
Partz' Pro. Cube 

bblorlOOftbxs — @ WH 

do in .30 lb bxs.. — m 12 

do in 23 0) bxs. — m I2J4 
Circle A crushed — @ 11^ 




Powdered 
Fine crushed, 
tiranulatea... 

liolden O 

Hawaiian 

California Beet. 
Oal. Syrup in da. 

do in '^ bis. 

do in kep(3.. 
Hawaiian Molas- 



- (^ W 

— (a ii,jc 

— ca \VA 

— ^ 10 

- ii« 

67 it 



8 (31 
1094'a 




25 
TEA.. 

Uolong,Canton,B) 19 

do Amoy... 2.S 

do Formosa 40 
Imperial. Canton 25 

do Pingsuey 45 

do Moyune . 60 
Gunpo'der.Oant. 30 
do Pint^suey 50 
do Moyune. 66 
Y'ng Hy., Canton 28 

do Piniisuey 40 
do Moyune.. 63 
Japan, ,^ chests, 

bulk 30 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs, 4'^ and 3 lbs 45 
Japan (10,3 8) bxs 4.3 

do prnbx,4^tti 33 

do s&l lb paper 30 

TOBACCO— Jol 

Bright Navys 

Dark do 

Dw f Twist 

12 inch do 

Light Pressed... 
Hard do .. 5i' rifl m 
Conn. Wrap'r.... 33 m 40 
Penn. Wrapper.. 20 @ 43 
Ohio do .. 15 a 20 
VirKi'aSmok'g.. 43 (a 75 
Finectche'g,i;r..B 50 @9 23 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.^ ft. .75 @ 90 
Banner fine cut.. 9 00® 9 25 

Eureka Cala — (g)9 Ou 

TURPENTINE. 
Eastern 53 @ 6o 



m 



80 



METALS. 

Wednesday M.,Dec. 30, 1874. 



Peache.s f. ID 10 © 1 . 

Apricota, iH ft 12;4<$13 

Plums. IS lb 6 a 8 

Pitted, on «tt .... 12'^ai5 

do Extra, it» ;b.. — (gj— 

Raisins, * a> — (a»15 

Black Figs, ^ lb.... — (3(15 

White, do 10 @15 

Prunes 8 cai3 

do lierman 14 (^ — 

•'itron (a 33 374 

Zante Currants. 9 (a — 

Dates 12>4@ 

VEOETAJH.E.S. 

Asparagus .30 (§73 

Beets '20 foi25 

Cabbage, 11 100 lbs.. 50 -a 75 

Carrots, per ton 6 UO(aiO 00 

Caulidower, doz 1 2.5(^1 .30 

(-elery.doz 40 (<s.30 

Oariic.^ lb 18^25 

Green Peas 6 ISIO 

Green Corn ^ doz.. — @— 
Sum'rSquash per ion — \^ — 
Marro'lat Sq'»n,tn 8 OUiOjIO OC 
Artichokes,'** doz.. 73 g(l 00 
StrloL' Beans, ^Ib .. 12'^ail5 

Lima Beans I2,'2al3 

Parsnips 15 (g20 

Shell Beans — l^— 

Peppei^s, green, bo.x — s — 

Okra,(ireen — (§ — 

Uucuinbors. box .. . . — '<$ — 

Tomatoes, box — ^— 

Egg Plani, dox —'m— 

Uhubarb — @— 

Lettuce SO (*40 

Turnips, ton — ®~ 

BTf THE 



American Pig Iron, ^ ton @ 46 00 

Scotch Pig Iron, m ion 42 00 leu 46 00 

White Pig, I* ton «) 46 110 

Oregon Pig, "# ton @ 46 00 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ ft itu — 3)^ 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ^!1> -^ — @— 4 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 @— S't 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 ®— 5S 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 (3— 3'i 

Sheet. No. 14 to -20 @— Ss 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 @ — 09 

Horse Shoes, per keg 7 50 @ 8 00 

Nail Rod — 9}^® 

Norway Iron — 8 @ 

Rolledlron - 6 (§ 

Other irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, eto. ® — 4)t 

Copper.- 

Braziers' — 31 (§ - 32 

Copper Tln'd —45 @ 

O.Niel'sPat — 50 @ 

Sheathing, g ft © — 24 

Sheathing, Yellow a — 23 

Sheathing, Old Yellow m — 12"^ 

Co ir position Nails — 24 @ 

Composition Bolts — 24 @ 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ^ box 13 00 ® 15 (0 

Plates, lOCharcoal 13 00 @ 14 .3(1 

Roofing Plates 12 .5ii (a 15 00 

BancaTic, Slabs, IS ft — 32,'^a - 33 

Steel.— English Oast, ^ ft — 20 @ - 23 

Anderson ,t Woods' American Cast @~ Ifi'-^ 

Drill m— 16'-s 

FlatBar -18 h — ti 

Plough Steel -8.30 la 10 00 

ZiNO (a — II 

Zinc, Sheet — ® — n% 

Nails— Assorted sizes 4 23 



LUMBER. 



Wednesdat m., Dec. 30, 1874. 



CAROO PRICES 
REDWOOD. 



OF PUOET SOUND PINE 

I —Retail Price. 

iRough. -f, M 

Rough, ^ M $16 00' Fencing and Steppins.M 

RoU'„'h refuse, ^ M 12 00 Fencing, 2d qiiafuy,-i* M 

Rough clear, W M 32 30 Fencintr, ^ hnoal loot.. lo 

Rough clear refuse, M.. '22 50 Flooriui,' and Stop, ^ M 30 00 

Rustic, H M 30 00 Flooring, narrow, ■p .M.. 32.30 

Rustic, reluse. H M 24 00 Flooring, 2dquaUty. M..-25 00 

Surfaced,^ M 26 00 Laths, # M 3 23 

Surfaced refuse,* .M... 16 I'O Furring. iS lineal ft.... % 

Flooring, * M 30 00 RED WOOD— KetuU. 

Floorini; refuse, ^M.. '20 00 Rough. f( .VI 20 DO 

Beaded flooring, "^ M... 32 50 Rough refuse, ^ M IS 00 

Beaded floor, refuse, M. 22 -30 Rough Pickets, 1* M.... 18 00 

Half-inch Siding, M 22 .30 Rough Pickets, p'd. M.. 20 UO 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 Fancy Pickets, ^ M 30 00 

Half-inch, Surfaced, M. -23 00 Sidini;, ^ M 26 00 

Half-inch Surf, rel., .VI. 18 00 Tongued and Grooved, 

Hair-ixch Battens, M... 22 50 surfaced, 1» M 32.30 

Pickets, rouKh,1S M.... 13 00 Do do refuse, iS M 22 .30 

Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 Hall-inch surfaced, M.. 40 O'l 

Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 25 00 Rustic,^ M 33 00 

Shingles, W M 2 2.3 Battens, i) hneid foot. . . % 

Bh>ngl«» W M 2 73 



VJlDICKBILVRtl. per ft. 



- - Co) 1 53 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



Wednesday, M., Dec. 30, 1874. 
POCLTRTf, OASfE, 

Spring Chickens 60 (g) 73 
liens. 75 lai no 



Eggs Cal .35 (a 60 

do Easiero 30 @ 40 

do Ducks' — -M — 

do Farallones. — @ — 

Turkeys, 1* «... 20 (a 23 

Ducks, large, pr.l 00 :&2 00 

do small, pr.. 37'^® 50 

Tame, do 1 60 ®2 00 

Teal, ea "25 @ 

Geese, wild, pair. I 00 (ai .30 
Tame, '^ pair.. 3 .3(1 @4 00 
Snipe, i* doz ...2 0.1 g2 50 
do English.. 2 60 (g3 (10 
Quail, per dozen2 25 192 50 
Prairie Ch'k's,ea — (g( -- 
Pigeons, per pr. . 60 la 73 

Wild, doz — ®2 00 

Squabs, doz... 4 00 (g4 60 

Hares, each ... 37S''^i .30 

Rabbits, tame,ea .30 @ ■15 

Wild,do,*dz.2 00 @ _ 

Squirrels ea 10 ca 



10 



Beet, tend. 

Corned, *ft.. 

Smoked, %* ft.. 
PorterllouseSt'k 

Sirloin do 15 

Round do 8 

Pork, rib, etc.. ft 

Ohops, do, ^ft 
Veal, |» ft 

Cutlet, do 

Mutton-chops, tb 
LegMuit.in, ^ ft 

Lamb, i* lb 

Venison 15 

Tongues, beef, .. 60 

do, do, smoked 73 
Tongues, pig, ft 
Bacon, Oal., » ft 
Hams, Cal, ^ ft. 
Hams, Cross' s 



8 ra 



13 ® 

15 a 

15 fa 
12;^ 9 

111 (3 



13 

(9 23 
'5 20 
@ 10 
® 15 
•20 
15 
25 



Choice D'fflAld.. 18 (3 22 
FISH, MEATS, ETC. 

Flounder, "j* lb....— (g a 

Salmon, ^ to — @ 20 

Smoked — <^ 12 

Pickled. ■)» ft.. 5 IS 6 

do Spr'gp'kl'd — M — 

Salmon bellies 13 la — 

Rock Ood, I* ft.. 12^@ 15 

Cod Fish, dry, ft — i^ 10 

Jo fresh — @ J2 

Percn, s water, ft 10 m 12 

Fresh water,lb 10 'a 15 

Lake Big. Trout* '23 S 30 

Smelts.largeSft — gi 18 

Small Smells — f^ 15. 

Herring, Sm'kd. 75 ® _ 

do fresh — (» 5 

Pilchards, "iH ft.. — @ _ 

Tomcod, ^3 tb 10 % 15 

Terrapin ^ doz. 4 00 as 00 

Mackerel, p'k,ea l2:i-^@ 

Fresh, do ft... — ^ _ 

Sea Bass, 14 ft... — % — 

Halibut 62Sa 7 5 

Sturgeon, 1^ ft.. 5 @ y 

Oysters, * 100... 1 00 @ — 

Ohesp. %» doz.. 5U (3 7S 

Clams * lUO _ gj ,50 

Mussels do - (gi 23 

I'urbot - ig^ 75 

Orabs H doz I UO 

do Soft Shell 

Sbrimpa 

Sardines , 

Anchovies 



% 73 

(ml (H) 

I2'4§ - 

18 ® 20 

16 @ 18 

12Ha 13 



VoungTrout.bay 

Young Salmon.. — t 
Salmon Trout eal 003) 

Skate, each 23^ 

Whitebait, ^ ft . — ( 

Crawfish i* ft... 10 ' 

Green Turtle... — ( 
do * ft . 



ca 
ig* 

ISl 50 

35 (3 44) 

10 ca - 

10 ® - 

10 @ 12 

373ia 30 

75 tai 50 



FRITIT.S. VEeeTAULE.S. ETC. 



2 00 

37,'i 

i 16 

® 12 
(S - 
« — 



Lady Apples ^ lbl5 (oi 

Apples, pr lb 6 (^ 

Pears, per !b 8 @ 

Aoriools, to — (a 

Peaches, ft — (^ — 

Plums — (g) — 

PineApples,each 75 (g(l UO 

Crab Apples — (a - 

(irapes 13 ® 23 

Bananas. ^ doz. . 50 a; 73 

Muskmeions ... — (g( — 

Watermelons... — (§ — 

Blackberries — ® - 

do wild — ^ — 

Cal. Walnuts, ft. - (g| 20 

Green Almonds. — (a — 

Cranber'es, Or.,g .30 ;a 60 

do Eastern 73 @ 83 

Huckleberries.. — (a ~ 

Strawberries, ft — f^ 40 

Ohili Stra'berries — (a — 

Raspberries. lb.. — (^ — 

Gooseberries' .. — ® — 

Currants... — ^ — 

do Black — @ — 

Cherries, ^ 'b.. . — '^ — 

Nectarines — @ — 

Oranges.ii doz.. 50 ^1 00 

Quinces.. — @ — 

Lemons 75 g(l CO 

Limes, per doz .. 25 (a 30 

Figs.dried Cal. . W/ia^ 23 

Figs, fresh — (31 — 

Figs, Sm.vrna. ft 
Asparagus, ft.. 
Artichokes, doz. 

do .Jeru-alem.. 

Beets, ^ doz 

Potatoes, Ti4 ft... 
Potatoes, sweet. . 
Broccoli, each.. 
Oaulidower, . .. 



■20 i(:!abbage, per hd.. 10 (g 20 

10 Oyster piaut„bn S'iat 10 

12'-2 Carrots, 'S doz. , — a) 2U 

Celery, 1f*dz 65 ig) 75 

Cucumbers, duz, — ((^ — 

Tomatoes, ^Ib.. — ® — 

Green Peas — fa — 

.String B<?an3 ... — '& - 

Egg Plant, ft — (a — 

Cress, ^* doz Dun 20 

Onions 3 (a 

Turnips, ^ doz 

bunches 20 @ 

Brussels Sprouts i'ii^a^ 

Eschalots — ^ 

Dried Herbs, doz 30 (g( 

Garlic ^ tb 2D (^ 

Green Cum. doz. 40 ;a( 

Lettuce, V doz,. 30 (0 

Mint, ~^ bunch, — @ 

Mushrooms, ^ ft 12NJ .jj „u 

Horse radish, fl ft 13 i^ 20 

Okra, dried, ^ ft ti) Ki U) 

do fresh, irt ft — ^ _ 

Pumpkins. ^ ft. 2,'.^ a 3 



25 



Parsnips, doz ... 20 

Parsley '2U 

Pickies,frsh.l*ft 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sage — 

Summer ,'Squash — 

Marrowfat, do — 

Hubbard, do — 

LimaBe ins.fr'sh — 

do fresh shelled — 

do dry shelled — 

Butter Beans ... 6 

Spinage, |4 bskt. 25 

Rhubarb 30 

Gr.-en Chilies.. — 

do Dry 30 

East Chestnuts.. — 



20 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter, Cal. ch'ice — 

do comnioD. ,.. 40 
Cheese, I'al., ft . . 15 

Lard. Cal.. ft.... 13 @ 17 

Flour, ex.fam, bl 4 73 ra5 00 
Corn -Meal, ft.... 'i'^'^ 3 

Sugar, wn.crsh'd — (a 11^ 

do It.brown.ft 7 (a 10 
Coifee, green, lb.. 2'2)4a 2(>,>4 

Tea, Hne b Ik,. 30, 63,75 (gl 01) 

Tea,tinstJap,.3,3,7.3,90 Ml 00 

Candles,Admant'ei3 @ '20 

Soap, Oal., ft.... 6 ($ 10 



Wednesday m., Dec. 30, 1871. 

Bice, ft 8 la 10 

3'ea8t Powders. d^ 1 Ml^i '»'i 
Oan'dOvster9,dz.200 @3 00 
SvruD.S F.GoPn. — (oi 73 

6 @ I 



(0) 60 

m 2.3 



Dried Apples. 
Dr'd Ger.Prunes 



Dr'd Figs, Oal 

Dr'd Peaches.. 

Oils. Kerosene 

Wines, Old Port 3 50 
do F'r, Claret.. 1 DO 
do '.'al ,dz,bot 3 00 

Whi8ky,0,B,gal.3 .30 

Fr. ISrandv 4 00 



16 
_ 10 

10 (a) 1214 
28 la 33 
5 00 



&\ 50 
W3 00 
@10 00 



FRUITS, ETC., PRESERVED 
AI.DEN PROCE.S.S. 

(whole,)-# ftt Wi 



Apricots, pared, 1^ ft*.. 35 

do unpai ed, "ff* ft t . , . 32 

Peaches, do, ^ lb ■! 16 

do pared. •** ft* 33H 

do do ^ftt 3U 

Bartle.t Pears, pared, ft** 45 



Pears, pared (sliced) ft" 

Pears, 10- lb boxes, family 
use, extra 

Currants, stemmed, ft*. 

Royal AnnCherries pit- 
ted, %* ft*.... 

Kentish Cherries, pitted, 
•*ft 

Apples, pare4(rin|i| lit 



30 



12^ 



do do 
Apples, 10-ft boxes faiu- 

ily use, extra 18 

Plums, pilted.* ftt,... 23 

do do i*»* 40 

Rhubarb. "# tot. 33 

Corn,^ ftt 32,'^ 

Beans, i^ ftt 60 

Potatoes, H* ftt 14 

Sweet Potatoes, ^ ftt ,. 13 

Onion«,iBttt 40 

Beut,^ftt 40 

Tomatoes, « ft t 75 

Squash,* ftt 20 

naeaddles. tia bulk. 



LEATHER. 



Wednesday m., Dec. 30, 1874. 

Otty Tanned Leather, ^ ft 26a.2a 

Santa Cruz Leather, If* ft 26g^29 

Country Leather, |« ft 24(^28 

Stockton Leather, W ft - •25igc2S 

Jodot, s Kil,, per doz «.30 IKKgi .31110 

Jodot, II to Is Kil.,perdoz 66 00(g) iW 00 

Jodot, second choice, U to 16 Kil.* doz .35 00(«l i2 .10 

Oornellian.l2 to 16 Ko .37 0Wg( hi llu 

Cornellian Females, 12 to 13 h3 (lU(a) h7 nli 

Cornellian F, 'males. 14 to- 16 Kll 71 <*>ia) T6 3:1 

Simon lllmo Females, 12 to 13,Kil 60 00(a 61 liO 

Simon Ullmo Females, 14 to 13, Kil ,0 OUai 72 '0 

Simon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 UO » 75 00 

.^imon, IB Kll., I* doz 61 00® hi! "0 

Simon, 20 Kil. V, doz 6.3 00(^ 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. %* doz 72 OU® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and i) Kil 35 OOiw 40 'Kl 

breaon Kips, * ft I 00(* 113 

California Kip, ■» doz 40 OOd^, F' K) 

French Sheep, all colors, '# doz 8 OU,<i 13 Od 

Eastern Calf for Backs, * ft 100® 1 26 

Sbeep Roans for Topping, all oolo'rs, |k doz !i OU® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings, » doz, 4 .30C4 i» ^1 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7.3(a( 4 .30 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 009 3 '26 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, p pair 4 00;g( 4 7. 

French Calf Boot Logs,* pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, * lb 30(g( 37H 

Fair Bridle Leather, « doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, V ft :3a 37)i 

Welt Leather, f. doz )0 OOf* 50 00 

BuH Leather, * foot 17«S — 

Wax Side Leather, V (cot... 17.a — 

■utara Wu Laatber —/a— — 



Hints to be Remembered. 

A note dated on Sunday is void. 

A note obtained by fraud, or even from one intoxi- 
cated, can not be collected. 

If a note be stolon it does not release the maker — ho 
must pay it. 

An indorser of a note is exempt from liability, if 
not served with notice of its dishonor within twenty- 
four hours of its non-payment. 

A note by a minor is void. 

Notes bear interest only when so stated. 

Principals are responsible for their agents. 

Each individual In partnership is re.sponsiblo for the 
whole amount of the debts of the tirin. 

Ignorance of the law excuses no one. 

It Is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 

The law compels no one to do impossibilities. 

An at^reenient without consideration is void. 

Signatures in lead pencil are good in law. 

A receipt for nioiicy is not legally conclusive. 

The acts of one partinr bind all the others. 

Contracts made on Sunday can not bo enforced. 

A contract made with a miuor is void 



©' 



ACiFic Mural 1?ress, 



A flrst-claas 16-page Agricultural Home .loiirnal , filler* 
with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
farmer and ruralist should take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Subscription, $4 a year. 



DE'WEY & CO., 

No. 221 Bansome itreet. 



Publishers, 

SAN FHANOISO*. 



14 



ipmsss. 



[January 2, 1875. 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE CALIFORNIA HARROW, 

— MAinnfAOTDBKD BY THE — 

Kimball Oar and Carriage 
Manufacturing Company, 

Oor. Bryant and Fourth sts.. San Trancisco. 




IN THE FIELD. 

The California Harrow, large nnmt>erB of 
wliiili we nr<^ now ninkins. has seven dintinct and well 
defined Ituprovt^nieutK poBSessed l>y no other Harrow, 
ench of which naves buth time and labor: 

FiEST — This Harrow has an eiisy seat and three wheels, 
all attached to the central section, on which the driver 
rides and manages the Harrow and team with ease and 
comfort. 

Secosd — By means of but three levers the driver in 
his seat on the Harrow can raise the Harrow and him- 
Belf on the wheels, and trot to and from the field, and 
Without leaving his seat can let the sections down and 
proceed with his work. 

Thuid— By the nse of but one lever conveniently 
situated at the right side, the driver in his seat, and 
without stopping his team, can regulate the depth of 
the Harrow teeth in the ground, and can set them deep 
or shallow, as the conditions of the soil require. This 
meets a demand for harrowing Alfalfa or small grain, 
D the spring. 

FonBTU— This Harrow Is made in three sections, con- 
nected by loose hinges. The driver, as he moves aloag 
on the field, can raise any one of the sections, and pass 
a tree or stump, or other obstacles, without interfering 
with the work of the other two sections. 

KiF'rH— By the use of a brace niaile of a board but 3 
feet long and %\i inches, let on the tops of the levc rs 
of the wings, this can be made a stiff Harrow, and the 
driver by lowering the lever at his right can throw his 
■weight and that of the wheels and extra fixtures on 
and off at his pie; sure. 

Complete work can be done up to and all around 
trees, without changing the course of the team. 

We build these Harrows of wood and tubular iron, 
making beautiful and very powerful Harrows, unaffect- 
ed by exposure to the weather. 

Wc have any number of letters in praise of these 
Harrows from farmers who have put them to practical 
use. 




iiUAD. 



The KIMBALL CO. are the owners and sole manu- 
facturers of the celebrated IMPROVED EAGLE HAY 
PKESS, which has become so popular the past few 
years. For farther information send for circulars. 

VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO BAI8& LARGE CROl't) 

YOXJ »1UMT IftlCIO TI^, 

To irrigate successfully, you must ha.*e the power tbat 
doe» noi Kive out wbcn the wind fails. 

Lanfkotter Bros. & Churchman^s Horse-Power, 




[Patkkted Pebboabt 13th, 1.-C2.1 
Never fails to supply more water than four or five Wind- 
mills, even 8Uj)poainff ^ ou bad all the wind you want. It is 
also suitable for runntn'n' 1 ght machinery, such as Karle>' 
Crackt'rs. Corn Khtlltrs. Fannini; Mills, (Jrain Scpirat'-r^. 
or, for SawiUK Wood. They an- never failine. cannot cet 
out of order, easily worked, sulwtantial, and always Rive 
eatiBfaction wherever tlie.v have been used. One hor^e can 
easily work two l>-incb pump-<, with a contiguous tbiw of 
water. Force Pumps. iri>m 3.000 to lO.fiyo tallooB per hour. 

WINDMIUiS ot all kinds manulactured to order. Wells 
Kored, Windmills and llorse-Powers set in any pari of the 
IStat«^, and repairinf; >>f all kinds done. 

Manufactured and fur sale by 

L.AUFKOTTER BROS.. 

v7-2ra-3m Cor. J and 10th Si:*.. Sacramento. 



ir»rnic?rt!* and 'XHresliers 

WISHING TO HAVE 

STRAW BURNING ENGINES 

For next season must engage them soon, as most of 
those now building are already sold. Threshing En- 
gines for Repairs should be sent in now. A number of 
&. coud-ljand Engines— taken in eich.inge for ".straw 
Burners"— for sale cheap. For particulars and prices, 
address: H- W. BIOS!, 

2dv8 dm Haywood, Alameda County, 



KNOWLES' PATENT STEAM PUMP.j THE patent 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




CfUOJIX 



It has no Cranks orFly-Wheel, and has no dead points where It will stop, consequently it Is always ready to 
start without using a starting-bar, and does not require hand- work to get it past the center, Will always start 
when the steam cylinder is filled with cold water of condensation. 

CENTRAL PACIFIC It. R.. Ol'FICK OF THE OEN'L MASTER ME(;HANIC. ) 
SAcnAMF.NTO Cal.. Januari U, 1873. i 

A. L. FISH, KsQ., Agent of the Knowles Steam Pump— Dear Sir: In reply to your inquiry a» to the raerit.; of th« 
Knowles Steam Pump, in use upon this road. I will say that it gives me great pleasure to report that they have per- 
formed their work well whenever called upon. In no instance have they failed. We have now overdo of them in 
use on this road as fire ontrtnes, and pumping water for shop and station us--. I consider the Knowles Steam Pump the 
best in use, and prefer it to any other. Yours, truly, A. J. STEVENS, General .Master Mechanic. 

A. L. FISH. Agent Knowles' Steam Pump—Dear Sir: In answer to your inquiries, we state that the hijhe'*t award 
for Steam Putups at the Eighth or la-t Mechanics' Fairin San Francisco, was a FlKsT PltEMlUM ami Diploma, awarded 
to Knowles' Patent Steam Pump, as published in the Olfioial Li>t September i3d. IS71. 

A. S, HALI.IDIE, President Board of Managers. 

W. H. Wll.LUMs, Sec'y Board of Managers Eighth Indiotrial Eihibition, M. 1. 

WE BTJILD AND HAVE "CONSTANTLY ON HAND 

The Largest Stock of Pumps in the World, 

And for Every Conceivable Purpose, 

SOLE AGENT ON THE PACIFIC COAST FOR THE 

CLAPP & JONES SUPERIOR STEAM FIRE ENGINE, 

Clialleng'iiig' tlie Worlcl ! 

THK CrEJL,KBR.A.TKr> BOOMiER. r»I«,E!!!!SJ, 

For 'Wine, Cider, Lard, Paper, Wool, Hops, Hides, Tobacco, Rag-s, etc.— the Most Powerful 

in Use. 

A. L. Fish, Agent, 

M'os. O and 1 1 JPii^st Street, San Franolsco, Oal. 



p. S. — Ml kinds of new and second-hand Machines on hand. 



4T2!»-lam-bp-3m 



THE CALIFORNIA SCRAPER, 

— M.^NUFACTtlBED BY THE— 

Kimball Car & Carriage Man'f'g Co. 

COR. FOURTH & BRYANT 8T3., 8. F. 




J. WAGIVEK, 

HANUFACTHBEB OF 

FRENCH BURR MILL STONES AND 
PORTABLE MILLS. 



THE CALIFORNIA SCRAPER. 

This Scraper has been long needed in many depart- 
ments of labor. Heretofore all classcg of Scrapers have 
Imposed immerse labor and hardships on the driver, 
but this one is so constructed as to give him a place to 
ride, and yet manage the team and Scraper with ease 
in all classes of 'n'ork. 

The tlriver can throw his weight in front, and force 
the Scraper into the soil, and when he has gathered his 
lr>ad and driven to the place of deposit, he can throw 
his weight on the rear part of tin? platform and leave 
the load all in one place, or deposit it t^radually, as the 
case may require, leaving the ground smooth and level. 

This Imiirovement is well adapted to leveling all 
irregularities on the surface of the soil where parties 
are preparing to irrigate. 

For making roads, removing dirt from ditches, clean- 
ing up barn yards or sheep corrals, it has no equal. 

The EIMBALIi CO. are sole owners and manufac- 
turers of the celebrated IMPROVED EAGLE HAY 
PRESS, also the California Harrow. For further Infor- 
mation send for circular. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 





Oeneral Mill Furnishing. Portable Mills specially 
adapted for Farmers' use. 113 and 115 Mission strest, 
Ban Francisco. 13v7-3m-lam 



Took the Premlnm over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
'jnlred in the construction <jf Qang Plows. It isquickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has varions points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Oang Plow 
in the world. Bend for circular to 



Uv2-3m 



MATTESON 



fc WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Oal. 



0. OBEOO. a. 0. BOWI.FV. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

—or— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Uerchant's Ezchang-ei 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO 

Keep constantly on hand top and open Bnggles, top 
and open Rockawaya, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Bnlkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to eur fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles S. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfleld k Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double B<r- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

C Graham, Now York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
k Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

OREOO k BOWLKT, 

No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, Oalltomia street, 
31v6-3m San Francisco. 




Is one of the greatest improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating grain, while It combines all the 
essential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of grain. It has been thoroughly te.'^ted on all 
the different kinds of mixed grain. It takes out Mus. 
tard. Grass Heeds, Rarley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of Wheat if desired. 
For further information, apply to 



10v8-eow-3m 



R. STONE. 

422 Battery street, S. F. 



THE TREADWELL SULKY 




GANG PLOW. 

Improved for 1874, with BLACK HAWK Plow 
Bottoms, is the best GANG PLOW in the world. 
It is Simple, Strong and Durable, and does its work 
effectually. Has high wheels, running both on nu- 
plowed land; iron axle, wrought iron beams, and is 
built nearly all of iron and steel. No farmer should neg- 
lect to see it before buying. Send for descriptive circular 
and price. We have also the "VICTOR OANG," with 
hard wood beams and heavy cast iron standards; price, 
$75. Also the "GOLDEN STATE GANG." with all 
Iron beams: price $7.5. "PFIEL'S OANG," improved; 
price $60; old style, $25. The largest and best stock of 
Plows, Harrows, Cultivators, Grain Drills, Seed Sow- 
ers, Farm Wagons, etc., in the country. 

TREADWELL & CO., 

18vS-tf San Francisco 



PI 



«®^Black Hawk, 
Collins, 
"Jones," 
Peoria, 



0W5 



Of all kinds and sizes. The largest stock ever oflTered 
In California; all nkw and just received, at low prices. 
Also, Cultivators. Harrows, Seed-Sowers, etc. Sold by 



TREADWELL & CO. 

■T'Send for Price List. 



'San Frftncisco. 

18v8-tf 



Notice— To Tule Land Owners. 

I am manufacturing a Gang Plow specially adapted 
to ploughing Tule Lands. Address 

Vallejo Foundry, J. L. Heald, Prop., 

18v29-3ra VALLEJO, CAL 



POISON ! POISON 

WAKELEES PATENTED 

Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

A NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOB 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending money in experimenting to find a safe, cheap 
and efficient way of ridding their grain fields ot their 
worst enemy, trk sgumnsLs, which destroy Millions of 
Dollars' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
and combined effort is made to kill them off, they will 
become more numerous every year. 

Wakelees Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is Just the thing the farmers of California have been 
looking for. It is sunE death. One or two grains of 
it will kill a Squirrel so quick that if it is five feet 
from his hole it dies before It gets there. The Poison 
Is put up DBT and in granular form, and easily han- 
dled; in one pound tins at $1 per pound. It goes a 
great way, as 10 to 15 grains of it are sufBclent to 
place at each hole. Also successfully used for killing 
Oophers and Bats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
(lifl'erent parts of the country, and gave universal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the country. The following are 
some of my testimonials, viz: 

Santa Clara, April 20th, 1874. 
n. P. Wakei.ee. Esq :— Your Siiuirrel Exterminator was 
used aceordtoR to your directions, on my t^itito Farm with 
excellent success, and in my e>tim;ilioii is just the thing 
the farnierfl want to kill their Siiuirrels. 

J. R. Aboukixo. 

Sak Leandbo. Cal., Apnl 9d. 1874. 
H. P. Wakeleb, Eb<j.— Bmr .Sir.- I liavo given your 
Squirrel Exterminator a fair trial and tlnd it to be an 
ecoDomical and very destructive preiiaration, and 1 can- 
safely recommend It to our farmers. \ ovrs, 

J. M. E8Tcn>ii.u>. 

DonoHEBTT Station, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Mb. H. P. Wakelee, San Krancisoo: I have used yonr 
Squirrel Poison ana found it to be just what you claim for 
It. It Is sure death. Yours, O. M. Dououehtt. 

H. P. VTAKELBE, Dru^ffist, 

Oor. Montgomery and Bush «tre«t*, B. F, 



January 2, 1875.] 



Live Stock Notices. 



Xilmoi\e: 




SULTA>' SKlONl>. 

Angora or Ca'hiD ere Goats of pure lilool and all grades 
for sale in lots to sut purchasers. Ldcalion. four miles 
from Railroad Station, coniie'ting witli all parts of tlie 
State. For particulars, address N Gilmore, El Dorado, 
El Dorado County, Cal. 




We reepectt'uUy invite the attoution of wool growers 
to our flue stock of Cotswool Sheep ami Angora Goats. 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from; 
we have some of the finest Goats in America; we 
guarantee everything wo sell to bo as represented; our 
prices are as low as any in America for tke same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

LANDRUM & BODCJERS, 

13v7-eowtf Watsonville, Cal. 



B, W. Owens, San Frauclsco. | E. Moobe, Stockton, Cal 




COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 



DEAI^BS IN 



WOOL, HIDES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Office— 405 Front street, S. F. 14v7-3m 



U. S. LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, 



S. E. Cor. 5th & Bryant Sts. , 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



m 



Fresh Milch Cows and Cattle 
Saddle, Work and Carriage Horses; Thoroughbred 
Durhams and Devons; Pure Blooded Berkshire Pigs; 
Thoroughbred Cotswold, Southdown and French and 
Spanish Merino Sheep, sold on commission or bought 
on farm for cash. Address, DAWSON & BANCROFT. 
P. S. — Special rates to members of the Grange. 



H. H. H. 

HOItiSE MiEDICIIVE 

IS STILL AHEAD OF ALL OTHERS. 

The Wholesale Druggists of San Francisco, give 

evidence of its appreciation throughout the State, by 

and rapidly increasing orders. We pledge it a cure for 

SPAVINS, WIND GALLS, 

SWEENY, SCRATCHES, 

LAME AND STIFF JOINTS, 
GALLONS, LUMPS, 

AND ALL BLEMISHES, 

SPRAINS OR BRUISES. 
It is a household blessing and no family should be 
without a bottle in the house. For sale everywhere. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's., 

2i5v8-6m Stockton, Cal. 



Nurseries and Seedsmen. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

MsDUfacturerg of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

^1 Fine street, between Montgomery and i 

Kearny, San Fsancuoo. 

21v2.1y 

FOR SALE OR TO LEASE. 

A fine place, well adapted for keeping summer 
Tj arders. Two large houses, orchard, vineyards, nat. 
Ural forest and good springs, water brought iato the 
houses. Location and scenery unsurpassed. 

A. E. BALL, 
Cfllce of Sawyer k Ball. 602 Montg'oniery St. 

24T8-lt 



Established 18S3. 

Stocks for Nurserymen. 



Plum Seedlings, Mirobolan, the best French 

stock, does not sucker $50 per 1000 

Apple Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Cherry Seedlings, Mazzard 12 per 1000 

Cherry Seedlings, Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Walnuts, English, 4 to 6 feet 15 per lOU 

Cork Elm, best Elm. 4 to 6 feet 15 per 100 

Blue Gum or Eucalyptus, in variety 5 to 10 per 100 

Magnolia Grandi flora 

Magnolia Acuminata 

Magnolia Tripotela 

Golden Arborvitas 

Cratagus Arborta 

Swedish Juniper 

Irish .Juniper 

Heath-leaved ArborvitsB 

Heath, Mediterranean .$2 50 perdoz 

Latuistinus.G to 12 in 2 50 perdoz. 

Making the growth of Oranges and Lemons a si^ecial- 
ty, I have imported from all sources the best known 
varieties, and now offer five thousand Grafted Trees 
properly worked and twice transplanted at $18 per 
dozen. Grafted oranges by the 100 or 1,000 at prices on 
application. The amateur in want of large'PALMS, 
large AURICARIAS, large CAMELIAS and large TREE 
FEKNS, a good stock on hand; also the usual large 
stock of fruit and ornamental trees. 



^ LARGE STOCK 



BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHERIN, Agent, 51C Battery Street, San 
Francocis. 24v83m. 



The Au^hinbaugh Blackberry 




This new and excellent variety of Blackberries, 
which begin to ripen frap the first to the fifteenth 
of May, and continue trf^o'duce berries until the mid- 
dle of July, about the time other varieties begin 
to ripen. 

Plants are now ready for transplanting and for sale 
at ray residence on Washington Avenue, west of Euclid 
Street, Alameda, and at Geo. F. Silvester's, 317 Wash- 
ington Street, San Francisco. Price, $25 per hundred 
Pl""'". Q. AUGHINBAUGH, 

23v8tf 



SHINN'S NURSERIES, 

Alameda County, - - California, 



The attention of persons intending to set out Trees 
is requested to the well grown and large variety offered 
for sale by the uudersigued at the above Nur.^series. 
An examination of our stock will satisfy any one of the 
quality, being all that can be asked, and when the low 
prices we have fixed are taken into consideration, we 
believe we are offering the very beat inducements for 
buyers to deal with us. For full particulars we refer 
tu our circular for the approaching season, which will 
be sent, as requested, on application to either Of the 
undersigned. SHINN &. CO., 

Proprietors. 

Address James Shlnn, Niles, Alameda County, Cal., 
or, Dr. J. W. Clark, 418 California street. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 8vl7-4mo. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

San Jose, California. 

We offer this season a Complete Stock of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

SMALL FRUITS AND PLANTS. 

The attention of Dealers, Nurserymen and Planters 
is invited to our Large Stock of Fruit Trees. 

All Leading Market Varieties are grown in large quan- 
tities To all those purchasing largely we will make a 
Liberal Discount. 

Catalogues FREE on application. 

23-v8-tf JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



ALMOND TREES. 



30,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees. 

one and two years old from the bud. This is the only 
Almond planted on a large scale, being hardy, late 
blooming, beautiful tree It bears tho second year 
from planting. The Almond is large and sweet with 
soft shell. Also, two year old Peach and English Wal- 
nut trees. Liberal terms to the trade and persons 
planting large orchards. Send orders to 

■W. W. BRIER, 

21v8.3m Centerville, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Encourage home industry and make a 
saving of at least 30 per cent. 

If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and freshness, why not send your orders 
direct to the grower and make a saving of at least 
thirty per cent, on the prices of other seedsmen. 
Send for catalogue, free, post-paid, and compare with 
prices of other dealers. Just received. 
Grasses, Clover, Alfalfa and Field Seeds, 
Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Shrubs, 
Flowering- Shrubs, and Green- 
house Plants. Cabbage, 
Onion and Cauli- 
flower Plants. 
Large assortment of Bulbs from Holland. Address 
all orders or letters of inquiry, to 

SEVIN VINCENT, 

607 Sansome street, San Francisco, Cal. 
22v8-3m 



Peaclles, Apricots and Prunes are specialties 
at the Viicaville Nursery, SolanO County. California 
Alexander's Early, Thurbpr and Peento in bud, 60 cents 
each , Beatrice, Louise, Rivers' Early, Lord ralmeraion, 
Lrtdy Palmerston, Prince ol WakB, Prinoess of Wales, Pic- 
quet's LUe, Lady Purhani, Italian Dwarf , GcJdeii Dwarf, 
Blotidleavtd and m;iny other varieties of new Peai-hes in 
hud. at 25 oenl- eaoli ; Trees of A leiander's Early. $1 each ; 
Beatrice, Plowden, Freemason and a general aB6ortme><t 
of the le.adin^ varieties, 2i cents each; Apricots, Plums, 
Apples, Pears, Cherries, Almonds, Fies, Olives, Pomegra- 
nates and including most of the leading varieties of fruit 
for sale at low pricea. D. E. Hough. Vacaville, Kolano 
Co., Cal. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES 

TItXJE TO IVyVaUE. 

A' fine collection of Evererreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Australian Gum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or thousand. Monterey Cypress in quan- 
tities and sizes to suit all. Orange and Lemon 
Trees at reduced prices. A general variety of Nursery 
stock. 

Also, Rhubarb an'. Asparagus roots. 

T. CORLEY. 
18v29-tf 315 Washington Street, S. F. 



Semi-Tropical Nurseries. 

LOS ANGELOS, CAL. 

Forty varieties of the Citrus family of semi-trop- 
ical trees, including many rare and beautiful, as 
well as useful and profitable kinds. 

Grafted and Budded Orange Trees a spec- 
ialty. Trees packed to arrive in good order. 
Priced Catalogue sent free. Address me P. O. Box, 
528, Log Angeles city, Cal. 

2.Sv8.Cm THOS. A. GAREY. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

(Established in 1858.) PETALDMA, CAL. 

Green Houses and Tree Depot corner "Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 

4 Green Houses. 3,000 feet of Glass. Fruit Trees a 
Specialty. 

We offer for sale at lowest market rates a general as 
sortment of Fruit and Shade trees, small Fruits, Vines, 
etc. Evergreen trees and Shrubs in grt-at variety. Green 
House, Ocnservators and Bedijimr Plants, Roses, etc. 

We ai e now ready, Nov. 1st, to fill orders for trees and 
planls. Catalogue and price list furnished on application. 
Address, "W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

19v8-t( Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



!!!*0,000 

AUSTRALIAN GUM TREES. 

FOR SALE AT THE CELEBRATED 

GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

Haywards, Alameda Co. 

Address 

JAMES T. STRATTON, 

No. 306 Pine street, over Pacific Bank, S. F. 
22v8-tf 



JAIHES HTJTCIIISOIV'S 

NURSERIES AND SEED STORE, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



Established 1852. 



P. O. Box 331. 



An immense collection of Evergreen trees. Shrubs 
and Flowering Plants wholesale and retail. New and 
rare plants, Roses, Fuchsias, and Carnations a specialty. 
I invite inspection. Catalogues on application 
25v8-3m 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

8AN FRANCISCO, 
Manufacturers of 

Liinseecl a.n<l Oa.Htoi- Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Otttce, 3 and 6 Frontstreet. 
Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. fel5-oow 



BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

418 & 420 Clay Street, S F. 

Blank Books Ruled, Printed and Bound to Order, 
janl-ly 



Orders Wanted at the National Em- 
ployment oOice, COS Market street, room 9; ofllce 
crowded daily with good men and women, seeking em- 
ployment; particvilar attention paid to country orders. 
26v«-ili> A . BRANDT & CO., Prop's 



Grange Notices. 



Tli« S^ e -^iv i n jsT MCacliiii© 

— FOB THE— 

GRANGERS. 

NO COMBINATION! NO MONOPOLY! 



y^lli Hew Improved PLORENCE, \^ 

Side Feed and Back Feed. 

"-^ A;?ency c<<tablishpd on the ParlHc 
toast in 1S63. The ligrliteot run- 
nin;;, most simple, and most easily 
o|>crHted ScavIok Macliiiie in tlie 
.Marliet. Always in order ami ready 
for work. If tliere is a Fioreiice 
Sewins Macliino nitliin one tlioii- 
saiKl miles of San Franeiseo not 
worliin;; well I nill fi.v it uitliont 
any expense to the owner. Samuel 
Hill, A;;ent, 19 >ew Montgomery 
- htreet, Grand Hotel ISuildiu^;, 
San Francisco. 



Mr. I. G. Gardner, State Agent for the California 
Granges, is auihoiized to make liberal terms to all 
Grangers who purchase tho FLORENCE. No c ombina- 
iion against favoring the Granger? has i ve.- been joined 
by Florence Agents. 

7T8.tf SAUUEIi HILL, General Agrent. 



California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Association. 

Office, 6 Leidesdorff Street, . - - San Francisco. 

Directors: 

A. Wolf, G. P. Kelixjqo, I. G. Gaudkhb, 

J. D. Blanohab, W. H. Baxter. 

Finance Committee: 

I. C. Steele, A. Wolf, A. B. Nallbt. 

Trustees: 



J. M. Hamilton, Lake Co 

J.C. MEBBYFIELD.SolanO Co 

G. W. Colby, - - Butte Co 

H. B. JoLLEY, - Merced Co 

A. Wolf, San Joaquin Co 

J. D. BLANCHAR, Pres't. 



I. C. Steele, San Mateo Oo 
A. B. Nalley, Sonoma Co 
O. S. Abbott, S'ta Barb'aCo 
A. W. THoMPsoN,Sonoma Co 
E. W. Steele,SL Obispo Co 
W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 



This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of oafely 
insuring against loss by lire, at actual cost of insurance, 
without being connected with city risks. a822-tf 



Commission Mercliants. 

JOHN H. HEGLER, 

Nos. 412 AND 414 SANSOME STREET, S. Fi. 

Grangers' Dairy Produce 

— AND — 

COMMISSION HOUSE. 

HAS EVERY FACILITY FOR SELLING 

BXJTXEIft, CMEESSE, 

EGG!««, 

POULTRY. 

LARD, 

HAMS, 
HIDES, 
BACON, 
WOOL, 

PELTS, 

POTA TOES, 

Smoked and Salt Fish, 

DRIED & CANNED FEUIT, HONEY, ETO 



H. E. OnMlUUIQS. 

1858. 



H. H. BALSTON. 

1874. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission i 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing • 
ton, San Francisco. 

Onr business being exclusively Ociiimlesloii, we have 

o interests tbat will conflict wUb th iseof the producer. 

tv9.H.\v 

Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for th© sale of Butter, Eg^s ■ 
cheese, Hop^, Green and Dried Fruits, etc., 7.^ Warren 
street, New Yorlt. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Casliier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. : Ellwanger A Barry , . 
Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.; A 
Lusk & Co., facifio Fruit Market, San Krancison, Cat. 
3v^-lv 




I-, O O K. I 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder i»f Fancy Fowls,. 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Egga 
tor hatching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. ggi and Fowls at 
reduced prices. jend for Price 
List. 

ALBERT 1^'. BI7BBANK, 
lv8-3m 43<t4' Ca. .Market S.f 



CHINESE EMPLOYMENT COMPANY. 

We are prepared to furnish at short notice, Doroestio' 
Servants, Hotel Cooks, Laundrymeo Waiters, Common 
Labnrrrs, Fiirin Hands, Uardeiiers, Mechanics, Factory 
Hands, Wood Choppers, etc. .Speci.d attention giveu to 
urnishiDK Domestic Servants. 

PIERCE & CO., 627 Sacramento St., 

4vl7-3ra bet. Montirnraerv and Kearny Sts .8 V 

Geo. W. Chapin, Real Estate Asrent, 434 

Montgomery St., San Francisco, buvs and sells Ranchea 
in all parts of the State, i ity Real Eatat* exchanged for 
Ciuntry Property. Money Loaned. Poet Office Boi liao 



16 



3ir^ 



iS^XQi 



^^l. ^mssi 



[January 2, 1875. 



Will You Help Us Make 

A Good Farmers' Paper 

For 1875. 

A true helper in the field and in the 
household. 

Of real public benefit and credit to 
our Pacific Slope. 

"Write for it. Subacribe for it. Get up 
clubs for it 

Will not §5,000 paid in support of a 
first-class agricultural home journal 
yield more and richer fruits to the Coast, 
than 810,000 sent abroad for cheaper 
journals, supported largely by preying 
quacks and humbug advertisers? Don't 
say you Can't afford it. You can read 
the KuRAL six months out of twelve and 
profit more than by reading any other 
agricultural journal throughout the year. 
Volume nine commences January 1st, 
1875. Single subscription §4 a year. 
In clubs of five or more, $3 each. Old 
subscribers are authorized to get up 
clubs now. Sample copies free. Address 

DEWEY & CO., 

riil>li8lier8, S«. F. 

RATES of POSTAGE— Domestic Postage. 

Os ALL Lettebs throngliout the United StateR, 3 cts. 
for each halfouncp or fraction thereof. 

Dnop OB Local Lettebs, 2 otn. per half ounce where 
there is a free carrier's delivery; other offices, 1 cent. 

Postal Cards, 1 cent., in the United States. 

ViLUAiiLE LErTERS may be regist^-red by payment of a 
rejiistratiou fee of 8 cts. in addition to Postavte. Money 
can bo sent with absolute safety by mail. l>y procnrinn 
a Money Ofler. The fees are; On orders not excee<iinK 
$111, a cts.; $10 to $20, lU cts ; $2U tu $ao, 15 eta.; i3U 1o 
*40. 20 ctf..; $J0 to $5(1, 25 cts. 

Pbintcd Bouu), In one psckage, to one address, 1 cts. 
for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof, not over 4 Ibfl. 

On Transiest Newspapers, or otlier Print'd Matter 
(Books excepted), aiid on Circulars, Pamphlets, HO'ik 
Manuscripts and Proof Sheets, Maps, Sheet Music, 
Chromoh, Engravings and Pbotn^aphs, 1 cent for eich 
2 ounces or fraction thereof, not over 4 Ihs. 

Seeds, Cuttinjjs, Bulbs, Etc.. 1 cent for 2 ounces and 
fraction of 1 ounce, not over 4 )t»a. 

Samples OF Merchandise (Liquids excepted) . Ores, 
Etc.. Flexible Patterns. Paper, Knvelopes and Blanks, 1 
cts. for each 2 ounces, not over 4 pouiuls. 

All Transient Ma rTER, except duly certllied letters 
of Soldiers and Sailors, must lie prep.iid by stamps. 
I^un matter not above speciQjd. same rate as Letters. 
Forelg'n Poatagre. 

Lettebs to Great Britain * Ireland. — For each half 
ounce, or fraction, G cts.. if pripud; if not prepaid (i cts 
extra will b- collected in Great Britain, and (J ctsiu U. S. 

To the German States.— For evi ry loilf ounce, or 
fraction thereof, via N. German I'liiou direct, 6 cts.; 
cIoK(.!l mail, via Enjiland, 7 cts., prepaymtmt optional. 

To FRANCE(paymeut compulsory). 10 cts. for each half 
ounce or fraction thereof, direct mail; 4 cts. (open mail) 
by Enjjland. Fully prepaid, via EnR.. one-third ounce, 
10 cts.: oue-third to one-half ounce, ill cts.; one-half to 
two thirds ounce, 2ilcts.: two-thirds to oneonnce. 2(J cts. 

To THE Dominion of (."anada. Nova Bcotia, Newfoxind- 
land, Ktc, per halt ounce, any distance, Ct cts. if pre- 
paid; if not paid, 10 cts. Postal Cards, 2 cts. 

Any Person receiving this paper after giving an 
order to stop it, may know that such order has failed 
to reach us, or that the papi-r la continued inadver- 
tently, and they are earnestly reqtiested to send writ- 
ten notice direct to us. We aim to stop the paper 
promptly when it is ordered discoDtinned. tf 

The Mining and Scientifio Pbebr, Ban Francisc*, 
we regard as the best paper for miners ))ubllshed any. 
wliere in th» world. Subscribers should be careful to 
put on file each number; and each year's edition, bound 
in a volume, would prove a most valuable book to all 
readini< men en'-taged in mining or in the reduction of 
ores.— BoKi'der Nans. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OP EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLTJE 
GRABS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JOTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
8KEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA QIGAN- 
TEA, PINUS INSIGNI8, Etc. 

For Sale, whole^le or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



{Successor to E. E. Moore) . 
42n Washington St.. San Francisco. 2'iv7-lv 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds. 
Spooner's BOSTON MARKET 

VEGETABLE SEEDS. 



FLOWER 
SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 
SEEDS. 



Descriptive Prifcd Catfilcigiio. 
with overl')!) illnt-tratiouK, mailed 
trtf. to apiilicaiit. 

W, H. SPOONER, Boston, MaB8. 



BETTER THAN MINING STOCK. 

A yaluable Patent for sale. No objection to taking 
real estate in part payment. Keaidence, Wasbiniitan 
street on the levee. P.O., iacramento. 

jan2 bp.tf O. A. BAVTS. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 
® EVERGREEN TREES fi 

— AND— 

Plants for S*«:ile 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets, 
directly opposite Post Office, San Francisco. 

1 NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Larg-est and Beat Collection of Fruit, 

Shade and Evergre'^n Trees and Plants 

ever offered in this market, and at 

Reduced Prices. 

Per.ions laying nut new Rrounda would do well to 
call and examine our stock before purchasing else- 
where. 

ORDERS FROM THE COUNTRY 

Promptly attended to and packed with great care 
A large stock o( Cypress, Pines and Blue Gums for 
sale very low. Send for Price Catalogue. 

Agent for B. S. Fox's Nurseries, San Jose. 
Address 

THOMAS MEHERIN, 
P. O. Box, 722, 516 Battery St.. S. F 




31. FALLON, 



Cor. Seventh and Oak streets, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



Light mid Dark Brahmap, 
Buff, White and Partridi^e Cochins, 
Spangled, Golden and Silver Polish, 
Spangled, Golden and Silver Hainburgs, 
Pure White-faced Black Spanish, 
White and Brown Leghorns, 

Silver Grey Dorkinp;.><, 
Houdans, Silkies, Black-Red Games, 
Broiize Turkeys, Rouen and Aylesbury Duck-;. 

All from Premium Stock of Best Strains 

Fowls of above v:irietie8 forsale; also. Chicks in their 
season. Ekl-s pa<-ked with care and sent in rotation as 
•rders are received. 



REEDVILLE HERD 



S. G. REED. 



PROPRIETOR, 

Portland, Oregon. 



I have for sale. Shorthorns of the moat approved 
and fashionable families; among them are a few one 
year old Bulls of great merit, the produce of Cows 
imported direct from En-jland, and sired by the 
renowned Mantalini bull, GOVERNOR GENERAL. 
10.15(5, *. H. B., Vol. X, p 175. Also on hand, 

AYRSHIRE CATTLE, 

COTSWOLD AND 

LEICESTER SHEEP, 

AND BERKSHIRE PIGS. 

of the highest standarl. For particulars apply to 

S. G. REED, Portland, Oregon, 
Or WM. WATSON, Hillsboro, Oregon. 
Iv9-9w-tf. 



BLOODED STOCK FOR SALE. 

May be seen on board the ship "Qlcrry of the Seas,'. 
They consist of a Bull, three Cows, and six Calves, 
all Jersey stock, with good pedigree. Inquire of the 
Captain on board, or HENRY COTTRELL, 

Grangers' Bank, 415 California street- 

BELLA UNION HOTEL, 

JOHN F. MILLER. Prop.. 
SAN BERNARDINO, CAL. 

This fine hotel is situated in one of the best jiartu nf 
the city, and the proprietor will at all times \iKe hig 
best endeavors to promote the comfort of his giiests. 



!^,20 FINE VERBENAS FOR $1. 

Any of the fnllowlnt: named plants sent by mall, 
■ postage paid, at lOcciitseach. An\ three sorts ior 
IZS cents, oi nrteen for SI- Nporder received lor 
llesa ttiuti ::.s tciiis. Fuchsias. Geranlunis iIKmbli 
IZonale, St I'lited and Ivyj, Ueuonias, Caiii.itiuiiG 
IPInk*. Cdceol.-ireiis. Basket Plants, A):eri>Iuiim, 
lAbutiloii, Ai li\ .aiithes, Coleus. Cannas. Clir.vban- 
Ithemiints. Il.i dy Plilu.v, Ciipbea, Kniutoj «uins, 
ISIcvlas. I'.M'.iv.. H.llotu.in.s. Tleterocentrnni 
ILII«i:iia. M.ilurnla. PlUa.Smilax, DouliL- Pi-tiinlaa, 
ISolai.uin C'ap.Vnastrtini, Veronicas. One pai-ket A»- 
Iter, Halsaiii. Pituiil.t, Phlo.s anil Vertiena for 2S 
Icents.. Al.v Illustvatid Catalogue of Nc-«- Plants 
ISeeils for IST.'i, aid anv tu.i pa. I;c-ts nf the ul.u\ 
liieeds Sent on receipt oi' 1" i . tits. Aihlruss 

C. A. RKESER & CO., Krle, Fa. 



A GOOD GARDEN 

Ian n't be had without GOOD SEE-;!), nn I I hare en- 
deavored in i-verv wav to make mine Till-; KKST. My 
(:AHU|:.\ manual, besides coiitaiTniik- the moat ( O.M- 
I'l, I K TRKAI'ISK i.n iIot-bed= ev rjiullisheil. is H.LL 
iiK PKAt-'fr aL HINTS ana I,ABOR-S tVlNG METH- 
ODS, learned in many years' inarket-Bardeninit. Sent for 
two stamps. J. B. ROOT, Seed-Grower. Rockford.lll. 



GRAPE VINES FOR SALE. 



Roots and Cuttings of the best foreign varieties in 
lots to suit, at ten to twelve dollars for the former and 
three to live dollars for the latter. Thirty thousand 
roota W. Muscat, Alexandria, &c. Ord. rs solicited 
early. 

H. W. CRABB, 

lT9-tf •akTllle, Napa Co., C«l. 



NEW CROP OF 



BLUE G XJ JVI !s» E 10 D , 



OR. ASK A3Vr> 

C IL. O V E K 

ViuO lOT A.ULI3 

tret: atvo 

FRUIT 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OF EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OF THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED AT WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 
»eei>.**m: A. jv , 

No. 317 'Wasbingrton Street, 

2-lv8-tf SAN ni.\NCISCO. 



1874. GUIDE AND CATALOGUE 1875. 
F1*EE. 

To persons contemplatiiiK pnrchasinR I will send 
my Ii.LUHTRATi;n. Descriptivk Catalogue and (irirtE 
to the Vf-oktable and Flower Garden wrrnoin' 
CHAROE. It contains the most extensive and valuable 
list of 



m 



I<'lo'<verin8r Bulbs. Roots and Plants, Seml- 
Tropical Trees, Ornamental Shrabs, Fruit 
and Shade Trees, etc.. ever otlVred in this luarket. 
It tells how to BUi:ceBsfuIly grow the Australian 
Blue Gum. the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., and the proper method ofcCuitivating- To- 
bacco on this Coast. % 

sy.My stock of Meeds is in part my own raising 
and in part direct importations from the best Euro, 
pean and Kastern growers, and is unsurpaasi-d in all 
respects by that offered by any other establishment. 

100,000 Australian Blue Gums and Mon- 
terey Cypiesa in b- xes at from $30 <o $50 per 
1,000, raised at my own Nursery at San Rafael. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 
Seeds, Shrubs, Trees, etc. 




20v»-6m-16p 



427 Sansome street, S. F. 



Gregory's Seed Catalogue. 



My annual catalogue of Vegetable and Fl< wer Seed 
for 1875, will be ready by Jan. Ist for all who apply. 
Custf-'mers of last season need not write for it. In it 
will be found several valtiable varieties of new vegeta- 
bles introduced for the tirst time this season, having 
made new vegetables a specialty for many years. <3row- 
ing over a hundred and lifty varieties on my several 
farms, I would particularly invite the patronage of 
market gardeners and all others who m-e esjiecially 
desirous to have their seed |.ure and fresh, and nf thi- 
vi-ry best strain. All seed sent out from my establish- 
ment are covered by three warrants as given in my 
catalogue. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



an. ETTKE, Napa/ Cnl. 



Bronze Turkeys. 

Erabnas, 




Emden Geese, 
Eoudacs, 



LEGHORNS, .^l^HiEt and GAMES. 

Black Cayuga and Aylesbury Ducks 

Santams; etc 

Eess, fresh, pure, true to name; 'well- 
packed so as to hatch!after arrival. 

ILLUSTRATED CIRCCLAR AND PRICE-LIST FREE. 

14v91Gp-tf. 




I will send 12 Flowering riants for One Dollar 
(yonr choice fro m KiO sorts), by MAIL OR E.XPRESS. 
SRBSSr MY ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 
^^ ^Fl B dencribeatheeulturenf Plinta A Sfeds, 
^maS^S^Sm tn (-uKtnmem free; othere. Itie. Addref« 
WU. E. BOWDITCII, 645 WarreD §t., Boston, Mass. 



FOR SALE. 



A pair of thorotighbred Cheter White Hog's, 
one year eld. A. B. ROWLEY, 

Mayflald, Suit* Clara 0o., 0*1. 



Bj\eedej\s' Oii^ECTOf^y. 



Parties djxirino to purchase Live-Stock will find 
in *his dibeltokv the names 0» sour of thb most 

KELI.\BLE BrKEDF.US. 



Orn Rates.- Oarda of six lines or lets wdl be Inserted 
in this dircrtory at the rate of du cents a line per month 
Payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



Vr. L. OVERHISER. Stockton, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Hom Cattle and Berkshire 
Swine. 



J. D. CARR, Gabilan, Monterey Co., Cal., breeder 
of Trotting Horses, s-hrirt-Horn Cattle, Thoroughbred 
SpaniBl) Marino Sheep and Swine, 



J. BREWSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 

MOSES WICK, Orovllle, Butte Co., Cal., breeder 
of Short-Horn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 



A. MAILLAIRD, San Rafael, Harin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



STANTOIf & POWERS, Sacramento, Cal. 
Choice Jersey Heifers at reaounable rates, Addreaa 
L. O. Powers, Sacramento, Cal. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



THOS. BUTTERFIBLD & SONS., Hollister, 
San Renito, Cal. Importers and breedern of Angora 
Goats and Sheep. 



N. GILMORE, El Dorado, El Dorado Co., Cal., im- 
porter and breeder of Angora Goats. 



SEVERANCE & PEET, Nilcs, Alameda Co., 
(Jal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 



MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, Centerville, near 
Nilea Station, Alameda Co., Cal. Pore-Olooded 
French ileriuo Sheep for sale. 



A. G. STONESIFER, Hillg Ferry, StanlBlana Co., 

Cal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



LANBRUM & RODGERS. Watsonville. Santa 
Cruz County. Pure-bred Angora Goats and Cotswold 
Sheep for sale. 



POULTRY, 



GEO- B- BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Castro reeU, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmaa and other hoice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK. 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Fram-isi-o, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 



M. BYRE, Napa. Brouzn Turkeys. Emden Geese and 

other Fancy Poultry, fcggs in i^ason. 



Mrs. L. J. WATKINS. Santa Clara. Premium 
Fowls. White Leghorn, S. 8. Hamburf;, Game Ban- 
tams, and Aylesbury Ducks. Also, Eggs. 21v8 8t 



Mrs- L. E. MclCAHAN, Dixon. Solano Co., Cal. 
Bronze Turkeys now r. ady f.r sale from the beat 
imported st<'('k: also eight varieties of choice Chick- 
ens; K^gs in season can be purchaaed very reaeonably. 



C- W. WILSON, San Franeiaco. The largest and 
heaviest Bronz-.- I'tirkeys the world ever saw. One 
pair. I'-i mouths old. over 72 pounds now. I offer for 
Kale extra large Toms, old or young; also Eggs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. Address C. W. Wilson, P. O. 
Box, 1H74, San Francisco. 



SWINE. 



A. T. HATCH, Suisnn City, Cal., breeder of Poland 
China Swine. 



DAWSON & BANCROFT. D. 8. Live Stock 
Exchange, S. E. Corner 6tli and Bryant ..treets, San 
Francisco. All kinds of Common and 'Choroughbred 
st'^ck always on exhibition and for aale. 





— CELEBRATEr — 

Worcestershire Sauce. 

Declared by Connois- 
setiri! to be the only good 
SAUCE. 

Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this most 
delicious and unrivalled 
Condiment having caused certain dealers to 
apply the name of *' Worcestershire Sauce" 
to their own interior compounds, the pub- 
tic IS h(-reby informed that the only way 
to secure the genuine is to ask for LEA h 
PERRlNs' SAUCE, and see that their names 
are upon the wrapper, labels, stopper and 
t)ottlo. 

Some of the foreign markets having l>eeD 
supplied with a spurious Worcestershire 
Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of which the namee 
of Lea & Perrins have been forged, L. k P. give notice 
that they have funiiahed their correspondents with 
power of attorney to take instant proceedings against 
manufactunm and vendors of (mch. or any othe mi- 
tations by which their right may be Infrinijed. 

To be obtained of Messrs. CROSS & CO., 
Bab Francisco. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Cor. 16th ft Castro Streets. 
Oakland. Cal. 

A choice selection of Brahmas, 
Cochins, Hondans, Games, Leghorns, 
Bantams, Bronze Turkeys, and Dueks 
constantly on hand and for sale 
at reastmable rates. Eggs guaranteed 
to be fresh, true to name and to reach 
customers safely. Also two linportei Bronze Gobblers 
for sale; weltiht 381hs; price $76 each. Send tor Il- 
lustrated Circular containing a full description of all 
the bebt known and most profitable fowla in the world, to 




20v8.tf 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box eee, San Francisco. 




Volume IX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY g, 1875. 



[Number 2. 



Silk Culture in 1874. 

(Written for the Rdjial Press by Felix Gillet, 
of Nevada City.) 

So little now-a-days is said on this once 
prominent subject, sericulture, that many of 
your readers unaware of the difficulties to 
found such an important industry in so short a 
time and in a State of so sparse a population as 
California, have come to the conclusion, likely, 
that sericulture, like those exotic plants trans- 
ported from foreign lands to our colder 
climate, died away, proving itself to be a total 
failure. 

This is not precisely the case, and silk cul- 
ture, although being at present in a dormant 
state, will in its proper time, when all the ob- 
stacles yet in its way will have been removed, 
redeem itself and add one more resource, I 
hope, to those already developed here, and 
which constitute the brilliant crown of our fair 
State. 

But I must confess th»t our people will have 
to lay aside their delusions of making quick 
fortunes by the selling out of silkworm eggs. 
In former letters to the Rceal Pbess and other 
papers, I have constantly urged silk growers 
not to raise silk-worms with the hope of selling 
their eggs to those countries in need of them ; 
for, said I, even supposing that our eggs were 
healthy and could be raised suPcessiuUy in 
Europe, which was yet doubtful, such a trade 
would not last, the epidemic being bound to 
abate some, as it really did since the writing of 
those lines; therefore I advised people to rai.se 
silk-worms solely for the cocoons or raw fiilk, 
for which article there is an unlimited de- 
mand. 

But to-day, after having paid the closest at- 
tention to the subject, studied the maladies 
which are continuously sweeping like a tor- 
nado over the co30oneries of Europe and gone 
into the business of raising silk-worms of dif- 
ferent races, I more than ever say to our silk 
growers, do not waste your time at raising eggs 
but stick to the less paying business of raising 
cocoons for the silk as more certain; for the 
epidemic which still rages in Europe, that is the 
dreaded pebrine, is iu our very midst; not- 
withstanding our "splendid climate" and 
"healthy food." I had doubts about it last 
year, but they are entirely dispelled this year; 
and I am satisfied that in this county, Tuol- 
umne, Santa Clara, Yuba and other parts of 
the State from which I have got reports, the 
malady does exist, and where ths worms are 
successfully raised the eggs are more or less 
infected and unfit for the great European mar- 
ket. When I say that pebrine has appeared in 
our midst, I do not mean that it is the only 
malady we have to look after and contend with ; 
for, as I pointed out four years ago in letters 
to the Sacramento Union and Los Angeles 
Star, the fiacherie or blight, that other fatal 
disease, had been doing havoc at that time in 
the cocoon&rjes near Sacramento, Los Angeles 
and elsewhere. 

I will, therefore, at this juncture, since it is 
of no use to hide the truth, give you a descrip- 
tiori of both maladies, of their intensity in 
California, and how to remedy their ravages. 

Pebrine 
Is the name of the epidemic which has deci- 
mated the cocooneries of Europe for the last 25 
years. It generally makes its appearance after 
the second molting. Its first symptoms are a 
slowness among the worms in changing their 
skins, a part of them only accomplishing their 
molting in the usual time, while the largest 
part is keeping so much behind that they can 
never be able to spin a ooooon and, therefore, 
have to be thrown away. On the average, one 
tenth to one-twentieth of the worms might 
reach the last molting in good time, but here 
pebrine will develop itself in its worst features, 



taking hold, without mercy, of the poor worm, 
whose body then gets covered all over with 
black spots; from which appearance the malady 
got its name, "pebrine;" the body of the 
worm looking, in fact, as if it had been 
sprinkled with pepper. Besides these spots, 
the candal appendage of pebrined worms looks 
as if it hud been burned; of course, every worm 
that has such black spots, will die before spin- 
ning a cocoon. Altogether, hardly ten per 
cent, of the worms affected with pebrine will 
spin cocoons, light ones, too at that 

Fiacherie or Blight 
Is the name of the other epidemic, which made 



1870. As to Pebrine, I should think that its 
introduction in the State is more recent. Per- 
sonally I did not detect any symptoms of it 
here before last year; and even this year I de- 
tected it only on French yellow-uunuals of 
California reproduction; but no disease what- 
ever among the worms of Japanese and Euro- 
pean origin and of direct importation; though 
the worms were raised in the same room with 
the pebrined ones. 

I shall not enter in this letter on the differ- 
ent theories ns to the causes of these diseases, 
pebrine and flacherie, whether they are couta 
gious or accidental; although pebrine is gen- 




THE KIRTLAND PEAR. 



its appearance in 1868, iind to which the ma- 
jority of failures ever since have been and are 
yet attributed in Europe. It is by far a more 
dreaded malady than pebrine; in this way: 
that when worms are affected with pebrine it 
is at an early stage of their life — that is as 
early as the second molting; the malady keep- 
ing on and advancing slowly with hardly any 
other symptoms than the inequality in sizes of 
the worms and their extraordinary slowness in 
accomplishing their molting, and keeping 
small all the time — while flacherie, in most 
cases, breaks out right in the middle of the last 
age; just a few days before spinning time. 
The symptoms commence with a kind of torpor 
among the worms, who will not eat any, but 
show a disposition to leave the shelves, wan- 
dering on the edges, as if to escape. From 
that time, they cease to touch their food, no 
matter how fresh and nice the leaves will be, 
although in the meantime they keep fat and 
white, finally dying with every appearance of 
health. 

Flacherie has been the cause, I believe, of the 
failures in Sacramento, Yolo, Los Angeles and 
Santa Clara oountieg, in the years 18(39 and 



erally admitted to be contagions, and flacherie 
accidental. But I will now say something on 

The Best Remedies 
So far known, to either get rid or allay the 
intensity of both diseases or epidemics. 
Flacherie being considered as accidental, the 
following recommendations are made to coun- 
teract its effects: 

Ist. Hatch early, so as to avoid the too 
great he it of the summer. 

2d. Do not heat cocooneries except in cases 
of necessity. 

3d. Give the worms plenty air, and keep 
the room well ventilated, and do not let the 
thermometer rise to high. 

4th. Be very careful to remove worms of 
doubtful health. 

As to pebrine, the most scientific silk cul- 
turist is yet to find a remedy against the terri- 
ble scourge, though Mr. Pasteur, after lon;^ 
experiments, has ootije to the conclusion that 
corpuscles, which were first detected in silk- 
worm eggs by Cornalia, an eminent Italian 
savant, are a symptom of pebrine; and, there- 
fore by excluding from hatching all lots of egsfs 
in wbioh corpuscles are found in a certain 



quantity, silkworms of those beiutiful yellow- 
annual races might yet be raised with success. 
Having in my possession a first-class micro- 
scope imported from France for this very pur- 
pose, I examined the epgs raised by me, and 
so fir I have not detected any corpuscles in 
them. In a subsequent letter, it ihe subject 
would be of interest to your readers, I might 
give you the manner to make a microscopic 
observation of i-ilkworm e^gs and moths, with 
a cut of it magnified one th' usand times iu 
di imeter. Any of your readeis that would 
wish to have their eggs examined, may send as 
many as a hundred iu a letter, and I will tell 
tnem whether they are corpuscular or not. 
(OontiDued next week.) 

LoS Angeles Raisins. 

We have before us samples of raisins from 
the Los Angeles Fruit Preserving company of 
which Geo. B. Davis is manager. There are 
two kinds, the Los Angeles Mission Jgrape 
and the white mu-icat. Both will have a 
thorough examination. Those of the Mission 
variety are of medium size only, but are clean 
and glossy in appearance, satisfactory to the 
touch, and are sweet and rich; possessing all 
the qualities of a good cooking raisin. In 
proof, of its marketable value is the fact that a 
large portion of the late crop has been sold at 
15 cts per lb. A sale of 15 t ms was made to 
one purchaser in Arizona at ihe above price. 

The muscats are of largtr sizn and lighter 
color presenting an inviting appearance, having 
an excellent flavor. This variety of grape is 
now figuring conspicuously in the great raisin 
movp/ment and will undoubtedly be one of the 
leading varieties that are to be converted into 
raisins. 

In conversing with a prominent retail grocer 
recently, he expressed the opinion that at the 
expiration of the next five jears there would be 
no foreign raisins offered iu the markets of this 
country. 

The Kirtland Pear. 

The Kirtland pear, an illustration of which 
is shown on this page ia sometimes known as 
the "Seedling Seckel," " Kirtland's Seedling," 
or " Kirtland's Beurre." The tree which bears 
it ia an upright grower with short-jointed stem, 
yellow-brown shoots, and irregular but sharply 
serrated leaves, with s'out petioles. It is a 
hardy healthy fruit, partaking in its habits very 
much of its parent, the Shekel, from seed of 
whic'h it was grown by H. T. Kirtland, of Ma- 
boning county, Ohio. It is an early and pro- 
ductive bearer on the pear root and said to suc- 
ceed admirably on the quince. 

Tbe size of the fruit is a little above the me- 
dium, and is of au obovate form. In color it is a 
rich deep yellow, overi-pread with a cinnamon 
russett; in tbe sun many of the russet spots 
become almost red. The stem is usually short, 
curved, and and of a medium length. The 
core is small and the seeds Khort and blackish. 
The flesh is white, juicy, sweet and aromatic. 
In tbe Eastern States its season is September, 

Population.— It is estimated that the in- 
crease of population in this State, duriri!^ 1874, 
was 50,000 by immigration, and 17,000 by natu- 
ral increase; totil 67,000. A large increase con- 
sidering our distance and isolation from the 
great centers of population. It is estimated 
that fully one-half of this increase has centered 
iu San Francisco and Oakland. The present 
population of San Francisco is about $225,000. 

Work on the Centennial Buildino. — The 
Philadelphia papers report that the work on 
the Centennial building is progressing favora- 
bly. The walls have reached a bight of about 
50 feet, and a portion of the work has been 
roofed over, so as to admit of continuous work 
all winter. 



Barn Bdbned.— The barn of Mr. Root, 
whose place is on the Sacramento liver road, 
some seven miles bt low Soda Springs, Siski- 
you county, was burned Tuesday morning, the 
22nd instant. Loss, including hay burned, 
$1,200. 



18 



[January 9, 1875. 



|£0RRESP0NDENCE. 



[The RuRAi* Press, in openinff the columns of this de- 
partment to it6 correspondents, does not deBire to lay be- 
fore its readers anythiag which is not in keeping with its 
character and position as an agricultural anti family paper. 
Facts are alwiys thankfully receivod : and BUKgestions and 
mat era of npinion on subjects connected with jigriculturo 
are aUo acceptable : tliongh correspondents are to be un- 
derstood auHpeaking for tliomselvesand not for the PuKss.] 



An Agenfs Suggestion. 

Mkssks. Dkwev & Co:— I have drivou round 
one day canvassing for the Press, and the re- 
sult I inclose. I cannot send you my own sub- 
scription for a week or two yet, but I hope you 
won't stop the paper, as I do not want to miss 
a single number. 

You must not think I am criticising your 
paper, for indeed lam well pleased with it; 
but still I think it right to tell you Ihat the 
only objection I have heard urged * against 
it, is the lack of "general news." They may 
be only croakers' ol)j(>ctious, hard up for an ob- 
jection. You will know best what apprecia- 
tion to j)ul upon it. 

1 shall continue to solicit subscribers for the 
Pbkss, and hope to be able from time to time 
to send you a remittance. W. S. K. 

LosNietos, December 30, 1874. 

[Our friend has our thanks for bis friendly 
criticism. We should give more space to gen- 
eral news for the gratification of the class of 
readers mentioned above, were it not that a 
Etill larger portion take some daily or local 
newspaper which gives more of general news 
than we can possibly give without encroaching 
on the space which we are to devote to valnuble 
agricultural reading. It will bo observed that 
for the past few months we have given some 
two columns more of news thau foriutrly, 
which, in a measure meets the wants of "W. 
S. K.," and other readers for whom he speaks.] 
— Eds. PitEss. 



Scarlet fever is following. Usual mortality in 
its route. Geo. Kay Milleb. 

Los Nietos, Dec. 28th, 187i. 



From Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Editors Press: — I have just received your 
paper of Dtcember 12th, and found my article 
about the wild black cherry seed. I now send 
you by mail a small package of the seed, so 
that you can see if they will grow there. The 
farmers here do not take the Press but they 
read mine. 

The weather is very open again and wheat is 
looking well. Many Holds Hre being fed down 
yet, and thus save many of the farmers from 
feeding out their last bit of fodder. Wheat is 
now selling at about $1.07 per bushel; corn, 
75 to 80 cents, and potatoes '75 cents. Butter 
has been bringing a good price most of the time. 
There has been a number of stock vendues hero 
this fall and winter, and stock is very cheap on 
account of being the forepart of winter. Hogs 
dressed are bringing 8% to 9 cents per pound; 
beef 5 to 6. If the weather continues as open 
as it is at present, there will bo lots of wood 
cut, which will muke it very cheap in m;irket; 
many are now selling last year's wood, which 
is well seasoned, at cheap rates. 

Hknrt n. Maher. 

Kalamazoo, Dec. 1I>, 1871. 

[The package of wild cherry seed is received, 
containing about a half pint, and awaits the 
order of parties desiring them.] — Eds. Press. 

Haywards Ahead on Blue Gum. 

Editors Press:— I saw in the Koral of 
December I'Jth, a communication headed, San 
Felipi Bottom, signed J. Begg, saying that one 
Mr. Beck has blue gum trees that will not bo 
two years old till next April, and which meas- 
ure twenty feet in hight, and are three and 
four inches in diameter; and saying if that can 
be beat in this state or anywhere else on this 
terrestrial globe, th it he would like to know 
where. I will say for the edificatien of Jlr. 
Begg, that I have a blue gum tree on my placs 
three miles southeast from Hiy wards, Alameda 
county, that measures 27 feet six inches in 
hight, and fourteen inches in circumference, 
which will not be two years old until next 
spring, and which I think knocks the socks oti' 
Mr. Buck's blue gum about seven feet six 
inches. . Libebtv Periiam. 

Haywards, December 2U, 1874. 



From Los Nietos. 



Editors Press: — Los Angeles has still ils 
steamers and stage lines crowded with passen- 
gers; hotels still full to overflowing; lumber 
auvi firewood not sufficient for the demand; 
freight for the interior mining region piled up 
at the railroad depots; and, noiwithstanding 
the enormous freights oSt red, not teams 
enough to do the business required. Teamsters 
have at this date secured nearly all the hay and 
grain in the county. 

But now lei's take a little peep at the other 
side of the picture. Nine plows out of every 
ten are lying idle for want of rain. On the 
26th, Los Augeles cit,\ had a little shower. El 
Monte, ditto. We, of Los Nietos, had to put 
up witii a hail shower, t^now on the moun- 
tains. Clear and fiosty a^aiu. Diptheria is 
having quite a run through Los Angeled. 



Capay Valley. 

[From our own Corrcspondeut.! 

Capay is said to fiignify flowery ; and those 
who early settled here say the name was very 
appropriate. But the agriculturist h.is greatly 
changed the valley. Now beautiful yard and 
garden flowers are to be found at most of the 
lovely little farm cottages, all the way up the 
vale, even at the highest and last, Mr. Rum 
sey's, you find rare and beautiful plants being 
propagated in flower pots by delicate hands. 
But instead of the wild flowers, are plowed 
fields, and many of them already very green 
with wheat crops. H«re, as in many other 
paits of Yolo county, the grain is getting so 
far advanced in growth that they are obliged 
to pasture it off. The general expression 
among farmers is that this is the most favor- 
able seas jn for extensive cultivation ever en- 
joyed by Yolo. 

The little village of Lauf^town is situated at 
the entrance to Cap.iy valley, and is the center 
for business. Having a postofflcc, two smith 
shops, two hotels (well kept, judging from the 
Aldrich Hou^o); two saloons, two large and 
fully supplied variety stores; one harness 
shop; one public h^dl — 3l)x(!0 and two 
stories high, built by a joint stock com- 
pany and used for Grange and other 
lueotiugs, and now being elaborately fitted up 
with many a volunteer hand for dispensing 
Cliristmas surprise gifts to the entire commu 
uity, but especially to make it a merry Christ- 
mas to the little ones. From the village to the 
head of the vallej' is about 18 niiles, with an 
uvei'iige of one nide in width. The lieautiful, 
clean strtain, Cache creek, riinuing the whole 
length and atVordiug ample means for irrigation. 
As you pass up the valley you raadily get 
th* idea that these unpretentious little houses 
are real homos; and when your invitations to 
dine and have your horse cared for, begin to 
greet you long before iioou, you soon oijoy 
abundant evidence that your first impression 
was correct. Yes, homes with the genuine old 
New Eugland spare ribs, and where pumpkin 
and niiuce pies can bo made without any Mon- 
golian aid. And just here I would say, after 
seeing every portion of Yolo county, that 1 
would not pity the king who was able to have 
only their averagi- farmer's table f ii'<', for it is 
abundant and luxurious. The rich alluvial 
soil of the valley is carefully tilled, and the hid 
and mountain land b:ick afl'ording a good, cou- 
veui' ut range for cattle and sheep. Hi're, as 
^n other pans of the country, some have their 
gardens mostly sowed, and in many instances 
pt as several inches high. Away to the head of 
the valley you lind an old patron of the Kdral 
I'l'Kss, and a splendid specimen of neat, syste- 
matic husbandry — onler and pl.ico being a part 
ot the system. 

Here, having spent a very pleasant night, I 
found myself retracing my steps down the val- 
ley, and fighting aguiutit toe temptation to 
covet my nt iglib jr's farm and quiet home. But 
off to my left I saw a splendid ten-room modern 
mansion not yet completed. Perchance there 
is an excepliou to my ideas of aspleudid. good, 
farming coinmuuiiy, free from higb-toued aris- 
tocracy. So 1 hastened direct to thn noble 
lUiinsion; hut b. lore I could half count up the 
rooms and closets, it was: "come, waik over to 
the house and t.tke some dinner," the family 
yet residing in the old farm house. I accepted 
the invitation, and came away from the table 
pie-ously improssed, and wishing the new man- 
sion may ever enjoy as bountiful a HUi)ply as 
now crowns the table of the old. 

Throughout the whole valley the Sural 
Press is read and appieciated Having now 
finished Yolo county, I desire to visit Napa 
county, by way of the mining camps at Knox- 
ville, away up near the headwaters of Cache 
creek, a distance of only- eight miles from the 
head of Capay valley, and all the way up a 
canyon, whi n to reach the same place around 
tlioroad is about thirty-two miles. 

When wo consider that a portion of the val- 
uable quicksilver mines and works are in Y'olo 
county, ai.d the entire length of ihe required 
road is in Yolo county, and if built would nat- 
urally draw a large portion of the travel and 
trade right direct to railroad at Woodland, in- 
stead of Napa — it is really strange Yolo does 
not immediately open the road. Why the road 
tax now being collected of the hundred men of 
the California Two M company and applied to 
county roads that they never see or use, 
would soim open a road over this natural, easy 
route, that would greatly benefit the taxed, add 
much to the business prosperitj' of the county, 
and bo in itself an act of ju.slice toward the 
taxed. To Yolo Supervi^'ors I commend the 
matter, and hasten on my journey arouijd, and 
will write you agarn from Knoxvillc. C. 

C»pay Valley, Yolo Co. Dec. -.Jl, 1874. 



pOAJLXI^Y Y^*'^. 



Information Wanted. 

Eds. Press;— Will j'our correspondent, .J. C. 
C, tell us tnrough your paper how and where 
sheobtaius paper cuttersof laurel and redwood 
of California and the pictures ot the trees upon 
them? Something of that sort is pretty and 
appropriote for tokens of remembrance to 
Eastern friends if i)rocurable. 

A Weekly Keadeb. 



Practical Poultry Growing. 

[Written for the Press by M. Etbe, Napa, Cal.] 
Very cheap houses for poultry can be made 
,lo answer the purpose perhaps bettor than a 
structure costing far more money. All who 
have used such houses profess themselves much 
pleased with them, and the fowls are not liable 
to colds and disease when so housed. The 
materials are two pieces fine scantling -2x3 by 
12 feet, and two pieces 2x3 by 16 feet, and 200 
foot of inch redwood boards, 14 feet long, all 
costing (at our prices in Napa) $5.13. Cut 
the scantling in half and make two square 
frames 6x8 feet. For the sides I cut the 14 
foot boards in four pieces, and for the roof in 
throe lengths. I sometimes use a piece of 
scantling 2x3 and eight feot long for a ridge 
pole, bat the house can be luide without it. 
The boards in roof projt^ct on the sides six or 
eight inches, and as they are four feet eight 
inches long, this gives the pitch of the roof. 
My man makes a house in one day and a half 
at this time of yeaf . Over the slits or openings 
between the boards I nail laths. A door is 
maile in one end and a small slide door for the 
fowls in the other. For roosts I use fence 
boards, four pieces five feel long, rounded on 
edges and resting on feet made of same boards, 
six inches high. One 24-foot fence board mikes 
the lot. These are merely set in the house, 
and c^m be removed and replaced to clean or 
move the house. 

Such a house will accommodate 25 fowls 
( asily. Poultry will thrive far better in small 
flocks of 2-j to 30 fowls. One of my neighbors, 
whose chickens died of colds and roup, and 
various diseases, was induced to make four of 
these houses. "Though he relished a fat fowl 
well cooked as well as anv one, he would not 
go to the expense ot anything but an old leaky 
honsa, and had never time to have it cleaned 
out. Now he has one of these houses in one 
corner of his largo barnyard, and two more 
about 2t)0 feet apurt, and one near the milking 
pen. By shutting up two cooks and 20 hens in 
each, and koepin« them confined a day and two 
nights, he tiut'.s th-it they return to their own 
houses to roost. Some hens would liy in the 
houses, but boxes were placed for them in cor- 
ners, and the small doors shut during the day 
and opened in the evening. l?y closing at 
night, all fear of vermin is done away with. 
Those too lizy to clean out a hen house can 
lift them over by the c)riiers to new ground, 
removing the roosts. A small quantity of kero- 
sen" pourtid on the roosts, and a half hour's 
work with a whitewash brush inside the houses 
prevents the accumulation of vermin. If at the 
time of our first raius the fowls show signs of 
colds, running at the nostrils or wheezing after 
they go to roost, and before they are lot out in 
the morning, they can be fnmitjated. as I de- 
scribi d in my last article in Press of Decem- 
ber 20th. 

Of course, if more than one variety of chick- 
ens is kept, they must have separate yards; 
because, though each fl >ck will seek its own 
house (with occasionally an exception) at night, 
they mingle in day time. I use moveable 
fences eight feet high, costing me about nine 
cents per running foot. If inquiries as to their 
make and use are sufficiently numerous to in- 
duce nie to believe the description would be of 
general interest, I shall send it to the Press. 
Except for details not mentioned herein, I 
shall refer my correspondi nts, asking about 
houses, to the Press; and if they do not sub- 
scribe for and read this, oar paper, the sooner 
they commence the belter for them. Count- 
ing monthlies, I receive now some 21 periodi- 
cals, and I have never missed reading every 
article in the Pacific Kural Press, and have 
never yet received a single number from which 
I hive not derived some information and 
benefit. 

I reduce the cost of the houses herein de- 
scribed by using second quality or r-fuse lum- 
ber for all bu' the roof. Such lumber is sold 
in Napa at §16 per 1,000 feet. 

Fe«d for Chickens. 

The mother hen, if cooped, cannot scratch 
for insects, minute larvie, etc., that form the 
appropriate food for young chickens. There- 
fore, for the first two or three days they should 
be fed with yolks of hard boiled eggs, chopped 
fine and mixed with an equal quantity of good 
sweet bread-crumbs. This will pay, as it is 
well to give the chicks a good start in life, at 
the cou-nioucoment. Then, for abiut a fort- 
night, feed with two-thirds of the best corn 
meal, add to this a boiled (otato or a hnnUul 
of tender grass, chop the whole togethi-r. 
Calves' lights, hearts will do or anything else 
cheap, if the spot where the chickens run 
affords insects, then gradually leave off the 
meat,* feeling with meal, cracked corn and 
wheat. But if in a city yara or other place 
where the forage is scarce then continue the 
wheat all through. The old-fasbioned way of 
feeding nothing but corn-dough answers very 
well in a place where there are great quanttties 
of insects. At first, feed six or eight times a 
day, and less often as they grow older. Feed 
enough at a time to have a little, and but a 



little left, and when tlds is gone, feed again 
verv soon. Give whole corn as soon as they 
are old enough to swallow it, and as great a 
variety of other things as possible; bran, 
wheat, screenings, oatmeal, etc., all they will 
eat. "There should not be the slightest parsi- 
mony in feeding chickens. You cannot make 
them grow too fast or make them too fat while 
gaining their growth. With adult fowls the 
case is difV>rent in respect to fattening. Grow- 
ing chickens must be supplied with pounded 
shells, bone dust;, or lime in some form, if 
strong frames are desired. — Live Stock Journal. 



TljE VlflEYA,»lD" 



Dr. Blake Reviewed. 

Editors Press: — No doubt many of your 
readers are more or less interested in the vrine 
business, by raising grapes, making wine or 
drinking it. To such the paper read by Dr. 
Jas. Blake, found on p. 350 of the Pbess is 
very interesting. 

While most practical wine makers will agree 
with the Dr. in some of his remarks, especially 
in his quotation f roup Mr. Bender, of France, 
in regard to the adaptability of the soils, 
climates and locations of vineyards to the 
different varieties of grapes, which it will re- 
quire centuries to learn, he is certainly wrong 
in his chemical analysis and deductions there- 
from, or I and nine-tsnths of all wine-makers 
are in a deplorable state of ignorance in regard 
to the component parts of grape juice, which 
for brevity we all "must," and if the Dr. will 
please convince us of onr error, we will be 
under lasting oblig.itions to him. 

If the Dr. will excuse me, I will indulge in « 
criticising his analysis of the most of the dif- 
ferent varieties of grapes in which he gives the 
percentage of sugar as well as malic and free 
acids. Now chemists distinguish the acids of 
the grape as the vinous malic grape, citric, 
tannic, gelatinous and paracitric acids, but we 
simple wine makers confine ourselves by call- 
ing them all combined, fruit acid, without 
paying any regard to the details of its com- 
bination. 

Fruit acid is what gives to cider, or wine 
vinegar its superiority in taste to vinegar made 
of alcohol, which when unadulterated contains 
the pure acetic acid, but which is mostly what 
they call strengthened, by an addition of sul- 
phuric acid, which eats out the inner coat of 
the stomach of those using it. 

According to the Dr.'s analysis the Mission 
grape contains 071. per cent, of acid, 
which is by ns considered a rather full propor- 
tion; but if he only got 21 5 of sugar, his 
grapes were of a worse quality than any I ever 
worked. I have had most of them weighing 
32 per cent, on the saeharometer, and was con- 
vinced of its correctness, by distilling one 
pound of alcohol out of every two pounds of 
sachitrine indicated by the scales, of course after 
the fermentation was ended. Any must con- 
taining l.ss than 25 per cent, of sugar, will not 
make a drinkable wine, without scientific doc- 
toring, as we call it. 

It is an easy matter to correct an excess of 
sugar and also of acid in must, providing they 
are both in the same proportion, whi h is but 
seldom the case; the difficulty is almost in- 
variably, in an undue or di^proportioned excess 
of acid which is not so cheaply remedied. 

If, according to tbe Dr.'s theory, the Mission 
grape contains too much sugar and a deficiency 
of acid, it would be very easy to remedy that 
defect by harvesting it at an earlier stage of 
ripeness, before so much of the acid is con- 
verted into sugar. But I always find the con- 
trary to be the case; that is, an over excess of 
add in the most thoroughly ripened Mission 
grapes. In all my experience I have never 
found the grape th .t was deficient in acid for 
wine making; and it is this excess of acid 
which gives to most American wines that 
harshui-ss which keeps them below par at the 
Eastern markets, by the side of the celebrated 
article imported from the Bhine. 

Contrary to the Dr.'s supposition, that the 
acid splits itself into alcohol and ether, Leibig 
has ascertained that tUe must containing the 
least acid and the most sugar, everything else 
being equal, will produce the wine lichest in 
bouquet as well as alcohol; and, we all know, 
that by the escape of carbon during the fer- 
mentation from the sugar, it is converted into 
alcohol, and the acid will always remain 
acid. 

My experience of five years wine making in 
California teaches me that the superiority of 
the foreign over the Mission grape lor wine 
making, lies in the larger proportion of sugar 
over the acid, which their must contains. 
Fearing of getting too lengthy I will close, 
hoping to hear again from the Dr. H. G. 

Santa Clara, Jan. 1st, 1875. 

First Use of Postal Cards.— Pirof. Emanuel 
Herman, of Vienna, first introduced postal 
cards. They were used in England, Geirmany, 
and Switzerland in 1870, in BelKium and Den- 
mark in 1871, and in Norway, liussia and the 
United Stated in 1872-3. In some foreign 
countries a card is attached on which an an- 
swer may be returned. 



January 




lb 



The Sheep Interest in America. 

The sheep fmsiness is beginning to settle 
down upon a regular basis with vast propor- 
tions. The time has long passed when farmers 
in the Eastern States could grow wool at a 
profit in competition first with Ohio and then 
with Michigan and Illinois. It was wise in 
them, therefore, to breed gooc^ animals to be 
sold for propagating purposes, and thus Ver- 
mont did good service to the sheep interest by 
raising the grade of American merinos to what 
is indispensaV)le — a fixed type. Presently wool 
growers further west competed with the Ohio 
men by producing large quantities of wool, and 
so they of Ohio began breeding fine sheep; thus 
gradually one section after another has been 
superseded as a sp cially wool producing one, 
and found the greatest profit in breeding for 
fine points, and now good rams are produced 
in western Iowa and Missouri to be sent 
to the plains and the Rooky Mountains 
countries 

Some five years ago the Texas flockmasters 
introduced good male animals from Vermont 
and Ohio with speedy favorable results, and 
last year the largo flockmasters of New Mexico 
followed their example. 

The Texas wool of this year is every way ac- 
ceptable to manufacturers, as the total shrink- 
age was only about 40 per cent, and as they 
paid from 38 to 40 cents only per pound, and, 
as most of it is capable of making fine delaines, 
the profits have been handsome. The best 
Texas wool comes from the northern part of 
that State, a region of plateaus, where the 
grass is fine and rich. More care has been 
taken with the flocks than formerly, as good 
blood has come in, and the average gain has 
been over a pound. 

In a few years more it is likely to be increased 
to three and even four pounds. The wool 
comes into market freer from dust and dirt,, be- 
cause it is now largely transported by rail, 
while formerly it was hauled several hundred 
miles over dusty roads for weeks to reach a 
point of shipment. The busmess is now rapidly 
spreading over a vast extent of country, reach- 
ing from Southern Texas to the Missouri river, 
while the advancing large flocks have found 
their way throtigh the passes of the Grand ana 
Gunnison rivers. 

The increase of the wool product of Califor- 
nia has iseen almost miraculous, and it is esti- 
mated that the clip of this year will reach 
60,000,000 pounds, against 32,000,000 in 1873. 
The wool capacity of that country is certainly 
great, and so also is that of the country east, 
including Nevada and Utah; but it is doubtful 
whether the grass will ever produce wool as 
profitable as that grown in the Rocky moun- 
tains country and the plains of Texas. The 
present aspect iu this direction is unfavorible, 
for the shrinkage of California wool is over 50 
per cent., though this may be due to the com- 
paratively low grade and to the extremely large 
flocks, as such do not generally receive the 
care given to the smaller ones. The profits to 
sheep growers in this region is greater than in 
any other part of our country, for it is stated 
on what seems good authority that the increase 
of flocks is from 80 to 90 per cent, per annum, 
leaving the wool, which will far more than 
balance the outlays for herding. As a general 
thing no winter feed is required except for 
ewes. 

But, with stich advantages, the business is 
far from being popular, for the reason that 
constant attention is required. The sheep 
must be in sight of a shepherd all day long, 
and their condition must be watched by an ex- 
perienced eye with a view of providing reme- 
dies in detail whenever needed. This signifies 
that one is to be as faithful as a first-class 
mechanic or salesman; and far want of these 
qualities the losses in sheep growing have been 
so heavy that large flocks have gone to ruin, 
both in the settled States and out on the 
plains. — N. Y. Tribune. 

CaosBiNG OoTswoLDs ON Merinos.— The 
American Farmer, in answer to a question as to 
which would be the better plan, crossing 
merino bucks on Cotswolds, or the reverse, 
correctly says: 

In theory, it has been held that a large male 
should not be crossed upon a small female, 
and, therefore, that a Cotswold ram upon a 
merino ewe would be too violent a cross; but 
experiiuent has shown this incorrect. There 
appears to be, practically, uo objection to this 
cross, as it has been quite successful iu estab- 
lishing several profitable flocks. The lambs 
are found to be sought after by the butchers, 
and bring almo.st the price of Cotswolds, and 
the wool is such a happy medium between the 
fine and the long, as to answer the purpose of 
both. This cross, however, should only be 
made upon two or three-year-old ewes. They 
fatten readily, and, at the proper ago. are as 
profitable to feed as pure Cotswolds. 

To Keep Ick fbom Windows.— This advice is 
hardly appropriate for our California climate 
under ordinary circumstances; but if the cold 
continues to increase as it has for the last two 
weeks, it may be found useful even her: Take 
an ordinary paintbrush or sponge and rub over 
the glass once or twice a day, a little alcohol. 
This will keep the glass as free from ice as in 
middle of summer, and give as fine a polish as 
•an be got in any other way. 



Burs on Horses Mains and Tails. 

[Written for the Eubal Peess.] 

"Hallow! neighbor Jones; good morning, 
sir; quite a fine horse you have been getting. 
Where did you get that fellow?" 

" Get that fellow! How! What is the matter 
with you? May be I stole him."| 

" Well, I don't know, as you stole him; but 
as to whether or not some one hain't palmed 
off a stolen horse on you may be the question. 
For what is that main and tail bobbed off?" 

" Well! Well! I guess we will just have John 
Smith examined and sent off to Stockton. 
Raise a horse, work him seven years, then sell 
him to you neighbor and the first lime you 
meat him don't know him?" 

" Why that ain't old 'Ceilum.' " 

" Well, now, this is old 'Ceilum.' Just had 
him in the cockle burs a little, that's all." 

" Well, if any Stockton is in the case we will 
just give Bill Jones a rub; for a man to go and 
disfigure up as noble a beast as old 'Ceilum' in 
that manner, I hardly think could get clear of 
a conviction of insanity. I have as many cockle 
burs as you have and I always took care of 
that main and tijil in bur time." 

" Took care of it; so did I take care of it. I 
always took out every burr that got in, and you 
see what's the matter — took all the main and 
tail off after a while." 

" H6w did you take care of old 'Ceilum.' 
Were it not for that cow ranch floating down 
burs on us every year we might get rid of burs, 
but I have fought burs till I am tired; and 'tis 
no use." 

"Well, here is just how I have always man- 
aged it; I keep a little tarred hemp on hand, and 
when bur time is on I braid up the main and 
tail mixing in the hair just a little hemp, just 
enough to knot well, and when I drive out to 
town, 'tis about five minutes work to throw out 
to the breeze the main beauty of a horse — a 
beautiful main and tail." 

" Well, but suppose just a thousand and one 
burs already in the main and tail, then how 
about the breeze?" 

" That's no big job; just take a little lard oil, 
put a little on the nape of the neck, and a 
little to run along the tail bone — just enough 
to ' strike the roots of the hair; let 
alone over night and by next morn- 
ing the burs will work out twice as easy. 
Or, for a horse that I am in no hurry about, 
I just pour on plenty of oil, repeat every day 
or two, let them run in the lot and roll in the 
dust as they please, and most of the burs will 
soon work out of their own weight. Work out 
burs in oil, and you need not have much 
trouble, nor make your horse look like the 
'rag-tag and bob-tail of all creation.' " 

Horses and mulej that are well broke and 
well fed bring ready cash in Los Angeles, at a 
good round figures. It they are not large 
enough for the harness, no matter; if th'-y will 
carry a man, or a pack, and not act the bronco; 
they will bring ready cash at the auctioneer's 
block. 



The New Homestead Plan. 

We are requested to call the attention of 
Eastern editors and readers to the following 
"California Letter" from the Corresponding 
Secretary of the State Grange Committee on 
Immigration. The explanations following are of 
interest to readers at home and abroad: 

"California is now attracting about one 
thousand people a week to her beautiful val- 
leys, who are trying to escape from the rough 
climate of their childhood. Many desire to 
make new homes in a land where they can en- 
joy perpetual summer and have their fruit, and 
flower gardens always iu bloom. The rush to- 
ward the Pacific is quite as great now as it was 
in early times, when those who came expected 
to accumulate a fortune from our golden sands, 
and return to their native homes to enjoy their 
suddenly acquired fortunes and spend the re- 
mainder of their days in luxury. At that time 
no one thought of residing permanently in this 
inaccessible territory, where the only exports 
for generations had been hides and tallow. 
Wild cattle roamed at will, through the valleys 
and rendered it unsafe for the pedestrian. They 
sold at a dollar a head, the land thrown in 
hardly worth mentioning. This was the con- 
dition of our country when Americans were 
first attracted to her shores. 

Bread had to be ftnported at great expense, 
until some indomitable Yankee, experimented 
with the cereals and demonstrated that even 
the hills and mountains would bring forth 
abundantly with little or no attention from the 
husbandman. The home demand was soon 
supplied and now we export more wheat than 
all the rest of the United Slates combined. 
It is estimated that we will ship about $40,- 
000,000 worth this year at last year's prices. 
Only about one twentieth of our arable land is 
in cultivation, yet we surprise the world with 
our wonderful surplus. When properly popu- 
lated who can estimate the value of our pro- 
ductions? 

Wheat, barley, and wild oats are used for 
hay in place of timothy, red top and other per- 
ennial grasses, reducing the average yield per 
acre as indicated by those who write on this 
subject from statistics instead of observation. 

We harvest more than one-fourth of all the 
barley produced in the United States. This 



crop yields well, and requires very little labor 
or attention especially where allowed to volun- 
teer from year to year, hogged off, and con- 
verted into pork worth five cents a j ound on 
foot. 

About twenty years ago a joung Ohio shep- 
herd started for this coast with a few hundred 
sheep, and although laughed at by some, and 
pitied by others who regarded him as insane, 
he trudged along after his little flock and ar- 
rived in due time with three or four hundred, 
at his destination. That young man still in his 
prime has the satisfaction of seeing California 
surpass Ohio iu his chosen pursuit, and yield 
about one-third of all the wool produced iu the 
Unitid States. After supplying the factories of 
the Pacific coast this year, we expect to export 
about 36,000,000 pounds. 

More than three-fourths of the wine pro- 
duced in the United States is manufactured in 
the State of California, and the people of Santa 
Barbara have the largest vine in the world, 
more than a foot in diameter, covering a trellis 
60 by 7'2 feet, and yielding annually from four 
to six tons o' grapes. 

Immigration has been retarded in consequence 
of the fact th it about one-twentieth of the land 
in the State, including many of our most de- 
lightful valleys, are owned by private parties 
under Mexican giants, called ranchos, contain- 
ing from one to eleven square. leagues, former- 
ly of nominal value and now iu the market at 
from two to ten dollars per acre. 

Many of these charming little valleys are ad- 
mirably adapted to colonizing and dairying 
under the factory system, where it is desirable 
to prolong the season to ten months by soiling 
with green corn fodder, sorghum, beets and 
squashfS, each of wnich may be made to yield 
from 25 to 40 tons per acre. 

A New Homestead Plan. 
Those vast ranchos often containing 40,000 
acres can only be purchased by colonies or 
companies in consequence of the large amount 
of capital, required. A homestead association 
formed in October last has located in this 
county on Lompoc (Lompoke) rancho in the 
fertile valley of Santa Ynez near Point Concep- 
tion. 

We are to piy $500,000 in ten annual instal- 
ments for about 47,000, acres of land, the valley 
portion of which has been carefully surveyed 
iuto 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 acre lots and sold to 
the bigh-it bidder, members of the association 
having the preference, for which the company 
has already realized about $700,000- and have 
three-fourths of the rancho remaining unsold. 
A town site was selected in the valh y and 640 
acres cut into house lots, one-tenth of which 
brought about $70,000 under the hammer. 
With proper management it is expected that the 
town lols alone will sell for enough to pay for 
the whole rancho so that the agricultural stock- 
holder will ultimately get his farm for his 
sagacity. Twenty-flve per cent, of the fund 
arising from the sale of town lots has, by reso- 
lution of the stockholder.'^', been set apart as an 
endowment fund likely to amount to $100,000 
which is to be used for the maintainance of an 
agricultural college and experimental firm. 
Another fund, which will probably amount to 
$30,000 has been provided, for the erection of a 
modern, elegant, commodius, substantial public 
school building quite as good as people genei- 
ally enjoy at the east after the labor of genera- 
tions. 

Thub-, in a week we have arranged for one of 
themostliberal, enterprising, educational, tem- 
perance towns that can be desired by the most i e 
fined and fastidious, where they may rear and 
educate their families and where the snares and 
vices of the dram shop will never endanger 
the habits and morals of their children. 

Instead of paying two or three hundred dol- 
lars per acre for land near the town in valleys 
already settled the immigrant can join with 
others, purchase a rancho in an unsettled valley 
at five or ten dollars per acre, start a new town 
in harmony with the most advanced principles 
of modern society, divide and settle the valley 
lands and dispose of the remainder to the 
grazier, and in this manner with a small capital 
secure social advantages that are usually en- 
joyed alone by the affluent. 

Already the people of Los Angeles have 
formed a company and are about to subdivide 
one or more of their choicest ranchos, and the 
same thing will be repeated here until these 
charming valleys, once occupied alone by the 
bovines, become the floral gardens of hundreds 
of thousands who flee from their frozen homes 
to dwell where they can enjoy the vino, tig, 
apple, olive, almond, and the orange iu a fairy 
land where December is as pleasant as May. 

At the last annual meetini; of our State 
Grange a Committee ou Immigration was ap- 
pointed and organized for the purpose of aiding 
those who desire our assistance iu selecting 
and securing homes. 

Persons writing letters of inquiry should be 
careful to give their name and postoffice ad- 
dress. O. L. Abhott. 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 



UsEflJL IflfOE^^i^7ION. 



Mtsteuy op the Lakes. — Lake Erie is only 
60 or 70 feet deep; but lake Ontario, which is 
592 feet deep, is 240 feet below the tide level of 
the ocean, or as low as most parts of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and the bottoms of lake Hu- 
ron, Michigan and Superior, although the sur- 
face is not much higher, are all from their vast 
depths, on a level wiih the bottom of Ontario. 
Now, as the discharge through the river De- 
troit, after allowing for the probable portion 
carried off' by evaporation, does not appear by 
any means equal to the quantity of water 
which the three upper lakes receive, it has 
been conjectured that a subterranean river may 
run from lake Superior, by the Huron, to lake 
Ontario. This conjecture is not improbable, 
and accounts for the singular fact that salmon 
and herring are caught in all the lakes commu- 
nicating with the St. Lawrence, but no others. 
As the falls of Niagara must have always ex- 
isted, it would puzzle the naturalist to say how 
the.se fish got into the upper lakes without 
some subterranean river; moreover, any peri- 
odical obstruction of the river would furnish a 
not improbable solution of the mysterious flux 
and reflux of the lakes. 



Use roa Snakes. — A farmer in Washington 
county, Ky., has found a practical use for a 
snake. For two years he has had one shut up 
in his corn crib, and all that time not a single 
mouse has been seen there. 



Blasting Accidents — A Hint Worth Re- 
membekino. — Most people are familiar with 
the fact that friction of the feet on a dry carnet 
or other nonconducting floor is capable ofso 
charging the person with electricity that a 
spark may be drawn from almost any part of 
the body. Thus it is a common tnck to light 
the gas with the finger after shuffling along the 
floor. An exchange calls attention to the cir- 
cumstance that the facts just stiled may prove 
to be a frequent but little understood cause of 
accidents in blasting, and which applies to 
powder as well as nitro-glycerine. The blaster, 
not aware that he is often a walking charge of 
electricity, proceeds to his work, inserting car- 
tridge after cartridge of nitroglycerine, until 
he comes to the last, which is armed with the 
electric fuse. The moment his hand touches 
one of the naked wires, a current of electricity 
may pass from his body through the priming, 
and produce an explosion. Hence, before the 
blaster handles the wires he should invariably 
grasp some metal in moist contact with the 
.earth, or place both hands in contact with the 
moist walls of the tunnel or shaft in which he 
is working. 



European Languages. — A recent calculation, 
relative to the European languages shows that 
English is spoken by 99,000,000 of persons, 
German by 45,000,000, Spanish 55,000,000 and 
French by 45,000,000. 

Eelsuins dried and cut in slips make ver^ 
strong bolt ladings. 



Combustion of Coal.— Combu.stion is a 
chemical process, consisting usually in a com- 
bination of the elemt-nts of our atmosphere 
(the oxyaen) with the fuel. The main sub- 
stance of fuel, espt cially when it is coal, is car- 
bon, and the chemical equivalent of this, 12, 
combines with two chemical equivalents, 2x16, 
or 32 parls by weight of oxygen, which is equal 
to two and two-third parts of oxygen for every 
part of carbon. A pound of coal requires thus 
two and two-third pounds of oxygen for its 
perfect combustion; as now one pound of this 
gas under ordinary atmospheric pressure occu- 
pies a space of some 12 or 13 cubic feet, or two 
and two-third pounds of oxygen a space of 34 
cubic feet, which in the air is diluted with 
four times this amount of nitrogen, it requires 
five times this quantity, or not less than some 
170 cubic feet of fresh common air to furnish 
the oxygen requiied; it is therefore necessary 
to pass 170 cubic feet of air through the fur- 
nace gates iu order to secure the perfect com- 
bu.stion of every pound of coal. If less air is 
passed, the combustion is retarded, while an 
excess of air cools the furnace. 



Spontaneous Fire in Hat. — A somewhat re- 
markable case of spontaneous* combustion 
occurred last fall at Azatlan, Wisconsin. 
Mr. Ji.mes Payne, a well knowr\ farmer 
of that town, some time since cut and 
put into his barn about ten tons of 
clover hay, which was quite in a green condi- 
tion. A few days aferward smoke was seen 
issuing fioui Mr. Payne's barn, and it was soon 
discovered that the clover was ou fire, and only 
by the most strenuous exertions of himself and 
neighbors were the flames finally extinguished. 
The fact of spontaneous combustion from the 
fermentive heat of uncurcd clover, is admited 
by all as being the cause of the fire. 



Detection of Adulterated Wine. — M. De 
Chervillo gives the following useful hints for 
deciding whether red wines are artificially col- 
ored or not: "Pour into a glass a small quan- 
tity of the liquid you wish to test, and dis.^olve 
a bit of potash iu it. If no sediment forms, 
and if the wine assumes a greenish hue, it has 
not been artificially colored; if a violet sedi- 
ment forms the wine has been colored with 
elder or mulberries; if the sediment is red, it 
has been colored with beet root or Pernambuoo 
wood; if violet red, with logwood; if yellow, 
with phytolau berrien; if violet blue, with pi vet 
berries; and if pale viol=t, with sunflower." 



A PHooEss of pulping leather in engines, sim- 
ilar to those used for beating rugs in a paper 
mill, is now in use iu Massachusetts. By 
rolling into sheets under considerable pressure, 
a product of great tenacity, homogeuity, and 
closeness of texture is obtained which is, more- 
over, perfectly waterproof. 

Singular Fact.— When the beautiful feathers 
on the breast of a humming bird are examined 
under the microscope, no colors are to be seen. 
The brilliant tints come from the display of 
light upon the bird under different angles. 



20 



w*s^mwm miWmAJ3^ Twmm 



[January 9, 1875. 



STATE QRANOE HEADaXJARTERS. 

t. a. Gaednf.b, State Agent; Executive Commlttoe 
Blooms: Fruit (Jrowers' Associations, and Farmers' 
Mutual Life Insuraucc Company, all at No. 6 I.iedcs- 
iorf street. W. H. Baxter, State Secretary, «t 
OrangeTB' Bank, 416 California street, 8. F. 



Orang-e Clubs for the Rural. 

The Secretary (or some other Patron) Is invited to 
»ct as club agent for the Pacific Rubal Press in every 
Orange. Circular and sample copies sent free. Five 
or more names will constitute n club, at the rate of $3 
a year. No new ^subscriptions will bo taken without 
payment in advance. We will pay the postage after .Tan. 
Ist, 1876. All club subscriptions in Oranges should end 
•o the last day of the month. Old subscribers 
may join the club by paying the Secretary up to club 
dates. Every Patron farmer should read a reliable 
agricultural paper. We need the support of all on 
this coast. Help the Secretary (or club agent) to make 
up a large list in yovir neighborhood. Don't delay. 



NOTICE. 

From and after this date, all moneys due to the State 
Orange by Subordinate GranKes should be forwarded 
to the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 416 California 
street, San Francisco, together with reports appertain- 
ing thereto, addressed to me. 

JOHN B. CARRINOTON, 

Treasurer State Orange. 
November 4th, 1874. 19.v8-tf 



Installation of Officers. 

Any member of the State Orange is empowered to 
iBStal the offloors of any Suborditate Grange. 

J. M. HAMILTON, 
W. M. State Grange of Cal. 



Extra Copies of the Pacific Rural Press 

Containing Grange addresses, resolutions, obituaries, 
etc., will be furnished post-paid at ton cents per copy. 
Grangers wishing numerous copies should send the 
order for them with the MS. 



Secretaries will be supplied with a printed list of 
BUBcribers for this paper upon sending a list of post 
Offices within the range of their Orange. Also with 
lilank reports, etc., for clubs. 



Grange Directory.— A full list of officers of the 
State Orange, Deputies, names of Councils, Subo rdi 
Date Oranges, Masters and Secretaries will appear in- 
his department on the first ^Saturday of each month . 



Important Trade Movement. 

The Mississippi Vallt y States are now pay- 
ing $15,000,000 annnally to Eastern ioiporters 
for South American goods — such as coflfee, su- 
gar, hi'lcs, wool, etc. Of course a large profit 
accrued to the Eastern importers and cup- 
italists in the way of commissions, high 
freights, etc., to say nothing of the exorbitant 
railroad charges for transporting these goods 
across the country after their arrival in New 
York, all of which the Western producers have 
to pay. 

The Granges throughout the valley have been 
looKiog into the matter, and are now organising 
a movement having in view the establishment of 
a direct and reciprocal trade by the way of the 
Mississippi river, between the South American 
ports and the Mississippi Valley States. This 
arrangement also contemplates the direct ship- 
ment via the same route of a large portion of 
Western agricultural products to Europe, and a 
reciprocal trade in that direction also. In or- 
der to make tbe movement effectual it will be 
necessary that important and permanent im- 
provements should bo made at the mouth of the 
Mississippi river. To this end it is proposed 
to apply the jetty system of Capt. J. B. Eada, 
whicii has buoi;eedecl admirably at the mouth 
of many important rivers in Europe, and 
which eminent scientific engineers have pro- 
nounced perfectly applicable to the mouth of 
the Mississippi. 

Of course this improvement is opposed and 
ridiculed as impracticable by the various com- 
binations of E.istern capitalists, who are iieter- 
mined to maintain their supremacy over the 
Western trade by means of their allied railroads 
T>n the continent and their i^teamship and sail- 
ing fleets on the ocean. Altogether the fight 
promises to be a very exciting and earnest one 
both iu Congress and in the commercial world; 
but by the heavy advantages which the farm- 
era now possess for combined action through 
the medium of .he Grange organizatioQ and the 
paramount interest whicu the entire West feels 
in the matter ef the Mississippi river improve- 
ment, there can be no question but that the in- 
coming Congress will grant all the aid neces- 
sary in that direction; and when that obstacle 
is overcome, the natural laws of trade will need 
to be only slightly pushed to effect all that is 
desired to make the entire country bordering 
upon the Mississippi quite independent oi 
either New York or Baltimore. 

Such a result cannot fail of working great 
advantage to Western producers, and will be 
the indirect means of introducing extensive 
manufactories of cotton and wool into that por- 
tion of the Union. The Executive Committee 
of the Missouri State Grange has taken hold 
of this work in earnest, and, as a first step in 
the furtherance thereof, have called upon the 
Granges of all the Valley States to memo- 
rialize tLeir Senators and Kepreseutatives in 
Congress, at once, to give their earnest and cor- 
dial support to Capt. Eads' jetty plan for the 
immediate improvement of the mouth of the 
Mississippi, 



Report of State Grange on Labor and 
Education— Resolutions of Subordi- 
nate Granges, Etc. 

[Written for the Press by Mrs. C. 1. H. Nichols.] 

Like the old lady in the back-woods, who 
"fi'lt as if her soul had eaten something" after 
reading a chapter in Baxter's Saints' Rest -I 
gave thanks over the "Report on Labor and 
Education" adopted by the State Grange in its 
late annual session. 

The waking up of the Grangers to an active 
participation in the educational interests of 
the State, with a view to greater practical effi- 
ciency, is ono of the most, if not the most hope- 
ful feature of the movement. For practical ed- 
ucation carries with it every other material 
condition of social prosperity. It is the Archi- 
medean lever that moves and governs the 
world. 

I have, 88 a matter of course, been an inter- 
ested observer of the school-book question 
as presented by subordinate Granges through 
preambles, resolutions and comments in the 
columns of the Press and (Irawier. And a 
point to which I wish to call attention is the 
fact that these resolutions and comments cul- 
minate in the expense involved in the chang- 
ing of books, and not in the relative value of 
books as educational aids. In common with 
those having children to educate, I have 
felt the inconvenience of changes involving ex- 
pense without equivalent advantages. 

But there is a broader view of this subject 
which I am persuaded is the proper view, 
since the expense incurred in the purchase of 
books — as in the salaries of superior teachers- 
is inconsiderable, compared with the time and 
money wasted iu the use of those ill adapted to 
the thorough development of the capabilities of 
the pupil. 

The report adopted by the State Grange calls 
for more and better books^books that instead 
of cramming the memory to a condition of in- 
digestion, with tongues and sounds, give it di 
pestible knowledge in practical and technical 
directions. Such books, appealing to the natu- 
ral tastes of the pupil, would dt vclop his natu- 
ral endowment^if such he have — for some par- 
ticular pursuit, trade or profession, and by pre- 
occupying his mind with congenial topics, 
would prevent the formation of a morbid appe- 
tite for trashy literature. By discovering the 
natural bent of the child's mind, such a course 
of instruction would often save the parent 
from the too common folly of spoiling thi- man 
in a blind effort to make of hitn a "figure 
head." 

Children are eager to understand the myste- 
ries of plant and animal life as they encounter 
it in their daily walks. I have seen the boy of 
four summers, lie on his f.ice for hours beside 
an ant hill, returning to the same spot day af- 
ter day — watching the ants as they came and 
went, or repaired breaches and opened new 
pas!<ago wavs to their underground homes; iind 
he could tell .til that his unaided eye could 
discover of their habits and belongings. ".Mam- 
ma," asked a little three year old girl, "how 
can flies walk on the ceiling? I would fall." 
Fortunately the mother could explain and the 
child comprehended enough to deepen its in- 
terest in the animal economy. 

In my childhood I sought eagerly, but iu 
vain, for some work on architecture to make 
intelligible the descriptions of pHlaces,churches, 
ships, fortifications, etc., found in my histori- 
cal readings. Neither public nor private 
libraries, nor the schools, furnished anything 
of the kind. I went to the hou.se carpenters 
for information, Imt beyond biiseboards and 
mouldings and cornices, they could tell me 
very little. Many a mischievous pair of little 
hands would give profitable and enjoyable oc- 
cupation to restless constructive faculties, if 
they were allowed safe and simple tools, and 
elementary inslruotion directing their uses. 
With his pick and shovel, his spado and ham- 
mer, the young prospector would "pan out" 
an intellectual currency of lifelong value. With 
eyes alight and eagi r tones, our children chal- 
lenge the various phenomena of the heavens, 
the fields and the ocean. Answer their chal- 
lenge with illustrated elementary works — iu 
connection with lessons in drawing — and the 
result will be seen, not alone in the increased 
numbers and skill of workmen in the arts, and 
teachers in the sciences; but iu a general diffu- 
sion of the cheerful self reliance, which is born 
of conscious equipment tor one's life work, 
whether it be professional, mechanical, or 
farming and its kindred occupations. Wo are 
all cowards in the diirk, and th< re is no dark- 
ness so appalling and impervious to cheerful 
endeavor as the iynorance that broods over its 
task, painfully doubtful of results. 

So much I have felt impelled to say in behalf 
of more books, as called for in the report 
adopted by the State Grange. 

The reeolutions of certain subordinate 
Granges, in declaring that the books in use are 
sufficient in number and good enough in qual- 
ity, it will be seen, are in conflict with this 
report, and seem to imply thiit perfection 'n 
the common school course of instruction, has 
beenalnady attained; or that to change its 
methods, or add to its topics, or set aside a too 
elaborate or complex treatise, if any such in 
use — will not pay ! 



The need of better books and better teachers 
is not a point to be argued. We have an ex- 
perience that teaches the deficiencies of both — 
from the common to the high schools — not in 
California alone, but as represented by official 
reports of school boards in nearly every State 
of the Union, and in providing normal schools 
and educational boards, we are but giving ex- 
pression to our consciousness of the fact. As 
culture approximates without attaining to ab- 
solute perfection— there can be no "good 
enough" way station to warrant a dead halt in 
our progress. 



The Grange as a '• Separator." 

It is to be feared that too many of our 
Granges lose sight of its educational advanta- 
ges in devoting too much time to bnginess and 
to mere routine work, initiations, etc. Much 
time must necessarily be taken up in initiating 
but all reasonable efforts should be made to 
have that part of the work done in as large 
classes as posf-ibic, to give time for the im- 
provement of the members in discussing ques- 
tions of practical interest. An exchange in al- 
luding to the importance of this part of our 
Grange work, very properly remarks that almost 
every farmer has ample time. to prepare at his 
leisure his experience in some specialty of 
farm work, so that when he comes to the 
Grange he may have something to say which 
shall be of practical profit to his brothers, and 
iu turn will be repayed by listening to the ex- 
perience of others. It is thus that the Grange 
may be employed a sa "separntor," to winnow 
from the chaff of impracticability and secure 
the pure wheat of sound and valuable facts. 
Con.^ultation and comparison will enable the 
Pation to reject what is unsound and modify 
what is extreme. 

In agriculture there are very few if any trade 
'secrets discovt red and jealously guarded by In- 
dividuals. When the farmer has discovered 
some new and useful fact, he generally hastens 
to mako his brother farmers acqminted with 
his knowledge. E-peeially is this the case 
among Patrons. This fraternal feeling, which 
cannot be too highly recommended, should bu 
encouraged by our Order. Let every subor- 
dinate Grange become an agency for such work. 
Let discusions >e everywhere inaugurated and 
encouraged. They will soon be promoiive of 
good in many ways. Every Grange should 
find ample scope and time for a free and fra- 
ternal interchange of opinions on practical sub- 
jects, at least once a month. Some of the 
Mississippi Granges, in the furtherance of this 
idea, have adapted the plan of app. inting one 
of thtir number at every meeting to open the 
discussion, either by a short speech or written 
essay, on some given question at the next meet- 
ing. He is expected to study the question dur- 
ing the interim, and his ideas — crude, perhaps, 
on. the whole — can never fail to contain some 
wheat from which the chaff is sure to he win- 
nowed by his brother Patrons, during the dis- 
cussion which follows his reading. 



The Collegeville Fire. 

It will be seen by the following account from 
our agent that the Collegeville Grange, though 
suffering severely by the late fire, is not dis- 
heartened. The sympathies of the whole 
Order aro with them in their severe trial, and 
the zeal and enorgy manifested by them is 
highly commendable. Our agent sends us the 
following in connection with the fire ; 

On Monday, December 14th, the College of 
Collegeville, was destroyed by fire. It was a 
two and a-balf story building, built in 1867; 
cost, $8,000; size, 40 by 70 feet. The second 
story was occupied by the Collegeville Grange, 
They lost all books, regalia and everything 
except the Treasurer's book, which he had at 
home— no insurance. Mr. Andrew Wolf is the 
greatest loser; his loss is $'2,500. Mr. Gar- 
wood and Mr. Anglin also lose. The Grange 
met at a neij^hbor's house on Wednesday, the 
30th, and have concluded to build a hall in<lhe 
spring. It is considered a great loss to the 
neighborhood. I was introduced in the Grange 
by Dr. Chalmers. I enjoyed the hospitality of 
Mr, A. Wolf over night, and found him a jovial 
fellow and a good farmer. His farm is the 
best managed farm I have seen thus far in San 
Joaquin county. All the stables and other 
buildings are whitewashed and present such a 
good appearance that travelers often mistake 
his place for Collegeville. He raied in 1874 a 
crop of 17, (WO bushels of wheat, or 400 acres. 



A Good Faemeb. — Some one, in reply 
to the query of "what is a good farmer?" has 
said that he should be a man of good common 
sense; should possess care, skill and a faculty 
of good management — and one who never looks 
back except to see that his furrow is straight. 
The question was admirably answered, and we 
may add that these are most essentially the 
points that are taught in the Grange, Neither 
the Agricultural College n-r the actual expe- 
rience of the farm itself, can do so much to- 
ward impressing such a lesson as this upon the 
mind of the average farmer as the teachings of 
the Grange. 



Notes of Grange Travel. 

Not only do the farmers of this portion of 
San Benito county raise the flneat of small 
grain and of tobacco, but also excellent fruits 
of many varieties. As I wrote iu a former 
letter, I slopped with Bro. Uriah Wood, near 
San Felipe, and some ten miles from Hollister. 
His farm is immediately adjoining the farm of 
the Consohdrtted Tobacco Co., where Mr. Cnlp 
has made so famous a name by his method of 
curing the Havana weed. 

I enjoyed an opportunity to examine Mr. 
Culp's plants and curing houses. Though 
driven all over his place 1 saw nothing but the 
small-loafed, or 

Cuban Tobacco. 

All concede that he is makin a good article. 

Bro. Wood is also experimenting in a Chinese 
method of curing, which certainly promises to 
make a very superior tobacco. He had about 
six acres of the large-leafed or Connecticutt 
tobacco only. Many of his plants were six ind 
seven feet high. Some of the largei leaves 
were two feet nine inches long, and eighteen 
inches wide. 

For one, I thall be surprised if his method 
of curing does not produce more choice tobacco 
from a sialk than Culp's. By his method all 
leaves can be well matured before curing; by 
Mr. Culp's method all leaves on a stalk are 
cured at once, whether mature or not. 

Grand old sycamores abound along San 
Felipe creek, some at least 5 or G feet in diame- 
ter. Mr. Buck has an excellent nursery near 
Mr. Culp's. He is trying oranges, lemons and 
limes 8ucce::8fully, ahhongh his trees are young 
yet 

This is a great country for 
Artesian Wells. 

On his place of 150 acres he has five escer' 
lent flowing wells, and one hut has ceased tc 
flow. They are but little deeper than 100 fret. 
They make the smallest bores for these well» 
that I have ever seen. Their plan is to sink 
thick iron tubing, like ^as-pipe, 2 or 2^ inches 
in diameter, and bore In^ide of them, as they 
sink them, with a IJi or 1^ inch auger. This 
method furnishes an abundant and 3.ife stream 
of unfailing water. It is not safe here to bore 
wilh large augers, as Mr. Buck found to his 
sorrow by his well that has ceased flowing. 
And now for the biggt st artesian well story 
that it has been my privilege to hear. But I 
will tell it to you about as it was told to me. 
Plenty of reliable men can vouch for its truth: 

Mr. B. had a large well made, seven inch 
bore, I believe. The yield of water was all he 
could ask. He made a fine tank over it, some 

14 feet in diameter. It is supposed that by 
some means the water mun.iged to work out- 
side the pipe and thoroughly undermined the 
ground, for, suddenly, one day, tank, casing, 
and everything near sank out of sight. Never 
have they seen or felt that tank from that day 
to this. Its place is now occupied by a pool of 
water and sand. 

Y'on understand,theD,why they bore no more 
large wells in that reeiion. 

On the place of Bro M. Nason, Worthy Lee-- 
turer of Hollister Grange, wita whom a large 
party of us dined, I saw a new species of apple, 
which, without exception, is the finest fall 
apple I have ever met with anywhere. He calls 
it tbe 

Skinner Seedling. 

He and ono of his neighbors have both a 
few trees of them. From numerous inquiries 
since I was with him, I learn this apple is even 
a much rarer one here than he supposed. The 
apple, when fully grown, mf-asures 12 inches 
in circumference, is of a uniform shape and 
straw color, and of exquisite flavor. It is not 
so large as the Olori/i Muudi, which I have seen 
when fully grown, in Contra Oosta and San 
Luis Obispo counties, with a circumference of 

15 inches; but it is a better apple in many 
ways. The trree is a fine bearer, and has re- 
markably strong, upright branches. It is an 
apple that well deserves to be more generally 
cultivated. 

This letter, however, is getting long enough". 
About tbe Capay Grange meeting, September 
lOth, and the Council meeting at San Jose on 
the 14th, your columns have already contained 
such full acoounis of them that I shall only 
say here I shall always recollect them as most 
agreeable Grange meetings, such as I hope to 
enjoy again some day, with their participants. 

Yours fraternally, 

J. W. A. Weight. 

Dec. 29, 1874. 

That Circular. 

Editoes Pkess;— I observed the commtnif- 
cation in your last issue relative to a certain 
circular, the matter of which was taken from 
the California Grattger. Said circular was 
printed with my knowledge, and said matter 
was used with my consent. It did not purport 
to come from the Seetretary of the State 
Grange, nor from any person in authority; but 
it did suggest that the Granges throughout the 
State should take immediate action on the 
Text Book question, and forward their reports 
to the Secretary of the State Grange. The 
object was simply to get the many voices in 
one, 60 that no advantage could be taken of 
the various and iu some respects dissimilar ex- 
pressions of the Bubordiuate Oranges. With 
this explanation of a matter for which I am 
not responsible except as indicated above. 

Fraternally, Gio. W. Hennino. 



January g, 1875.] 



21 



Funeral at Santa Rosa. 

Editobs Pkess:— Christmas day, brif;ht and 
beautiful, aye, charming; all nature dances in 
the glorious sunlight of the most charming of 
days, old and young are happy and gay ; but 
among the happy millions, some are called to 
mourn, 'tis always so, and your humble ser- 
vant having been warned a long time ago of a 
dissolution to transpire speedily if not sooner 
of a certain organization which sprang up in a 
night only to vanish like dew before the morn- 
ing sun, and known aa the Grangers. Did you 
ever hear of them, Messrs. Editors? Well they 
do, or did exist prior to this funeral, and as the 
prophets prophesied the aforesaid speedy dis- 
solution of the aforesaid "Diabolical Granger 
Organization," and havicg been instructed 
from my youth up to reverence the prophets, 
I had been prepared, lo! these many days for 
the event when the angel of death should sum- 
mon to the final disruption. The summons 
came, and I prepared myself for the solemn 
occasion. I dared not trust myself alone, I was 
anxious to have company, so I took my wife 
along to support, comfort and take care of me 
in case of an attack of debility you know. 
Well, on this beautiful brilliant Christmas day 
we started for Santa Kosa; steamer to Donahue, 
rail from there on. We arrived just in time 
for our supper, at our hospitable Bro. Coulter's. 
Was'ntthat hupper good? Well the next day, 
Saturday, at 10 a. m., was the time appointed 
for the obsequies of the aforesaid diabolical, 
defunct, deceased, demised, dead, "Diabolical 
Granger Organization" and thither we wended 
our way at an early hojir, to witness the first 
droppings of the mighty shower that should 
deluge U3 with sorrow on that occasion. Drop 
No. 1 — two horse wagon, mourners, diabolical 
Gi anger, wife, eleven joung diabolicals, oflVr- 
ings, one big box, then another big box, no end 
to big boxes, one had "punkin pize" big as cart 
wh^els, (come from Bennet Valley, that's the 
kind they make there) t'others bad chickens 
and turkeys, (bronzed turkeys, you've heard 
of them no doubt; Col Eyer, of Napa Grange, 
imports them for such occasions) others bad 
figs and grapes and fruits of all kinds, milk and 
fioney and wine, and will you just name 
S'lmeihing they did'ut have if you can. Drop 
No. 2, ditto; 3, ditto; 4 and more, tljicker and 
faster until the d luge climaxed; north, south, 
east and west, came to mingle their sympathies 
on this occasion, and such a funeral, such a line 
of carriages, such a flow of what d'ye call it, 
whenever you raise your elbow, you open your 
mouth? Sorrow, Oh yo-;, sorrow, I felt sorrow 
for them chickens, turkeys, "punkin pize." 
milk and honey and wine — you will please re- 
member these are Christmas times, and the 
approaching dissolution of ISTl, not the dis- 
solution of the Gianaers. Ah, no, Messrs. 
Editors, these prophets of Baal are false 
prophets, and such funerals shall continue till 
time shall end, so long us the people whose 
honest intent shall spur ihem on in the work 
worthy of Patrons. 

There must have been near 250 present to 
participate in the festivities, to see each other, 
to learn something more of, and become better 
acquainted, to foster the fraternal feelings 
springing vigorously into existence, to cultivate 
the acquaintance and confidence ro essential to 
success, and which is now permeating every 
avenue of the social feature of our Order. 

Then we had addresses. Bro. Cressey, Vice 
President of the Grangers' Bank of California, 
interested the audience for about an hour with 
the condition of affairs connected therewith, 
and explaining what he wanted and expected 
them to do, and I beliove they all did it, every 
one, if Ihey did'nt they ouglit to, and I know 
they will; if they don't I know they'll be sorry 
for it. Then we had soup and toasts, with the 
bountiiul repast provided by the Sisters of 
Sonoma, it all came o'lt of the big boxes before 
mentioned. Then more songs, more speeches, 
until the close of the services when with happy 
hearts and cheerful adi. us each hied theni 
away to their homes on the farm, to cherish 
the thoughts of the happy meeting of the 
Granges of Sonoma County. 

Bennet Valley Grange, 

The pioneer of old Sonoma, the banner county 
of the State desires no eulogy but her works. 
Lo 'k at her beauuful hall nestling in the ever- 
green grove on the hill side, contemplate her 
noble 34, all told, that's all there is, sisters and 
brothers; a hall 30 x60 costing between $2,500 
and $3,000; aye there's a Grange whose funeral 
knell shall never awaken the silence of the 
mountain valleys surrounding it. Come up, ye 
listless, idle, beetle headed drones, who si e no 
good in aH this, and are dead; come up and 
see the De Turk, the Carr's, the Whittaker's, 
the Lacqua's, and all the Bennet Valleyites, 
then praise the Lord that he has given to the 
eanh such as they, who dwell in the lands, and 
walk in the buttered paths of Sonoma. 

Fraternally, W. H. B.4xteb. 

Ths State Grange of Michigan meets at 
Grand Rapids, January 21st. The Executive 
Committee has rescinded the resolution reduc- 
ing the representation one-half, 



The State Grange Purchasing Agency. 

Editors Press: — I observe in your last num- 
ber a letter from " Hoosier Patron," showing 
the work that is being done by the State Agent 
in Hoosier land. While reading that letter it 
occurred to me that perhaps I had been negli- 
gent in my duties in not letting the public 
know what we are doing here. Since the fail- 
ure of E. E. Morgan's Sons our business has 
shown a decided increase. Prior to the failure 
of the above named house the Executive Com- 
mittee had ordered all consignments of grain 
and wool to be turned over to them for sale. 
Since the failure those articles of produce have 
come to me, thus largely increasing my busi- 
ness. I am a member of the Merchants and 
Grain Exchange, and have in my employ as 
good a E.alesman as San Francisco affords, and 
nm in every way prepared to transact such busi- 
ness to the entire satisfaction of those consigu- 
iog their produce (o me. 

I am making many purchases for Patrons 
from various parts of the State, from a pocket 
knife up to a gristmill, and have received nu- 
merous orders from Oregon, Washiapton Ter- 
ritory and Nevada. I have enquiries from 
Tennessee for Alfalfa seed. Have ordered in 
large quantities, strychnine from Philadelphia. 
I would respectfully call the attention of all 
Patrons to my repent published in the proceed- 
ings of the State Grange at Stockton, showing 
the very large savings made during last year's 
operations, and ask that all give us a trial and 
enable u-i to show with what promptness their 
orders will be filled. Let them begin with the 
new year and purchase all they can through 
the (jrrange Agency, and at the end of another 
year compare the prices with the bills of last 
year's purchases in the old way, and observe 
tbe difference. We feel certain that in the 
future the agency will be fully appreciated. . 
I. G. Gardner, Agent. 

From the Granges. 

Temescal Grange. 

Saturday last Mrs. A. D. Colby was re-elect- 
ed Pomona and Miss Elnora Bagge re-elected 
Flora, after which the officers elect for 1875 
were duly installed by Pa t Master A. T. Dewey. 
J. V. Webster, the newly installed W. M., 
made some very sensible remarks for the good 
of the Order. Ho urged that those who accept 
office, no matter how humble the station, 
should be diligent and faithful in performing 
their duties punctually. That all should learn 
their work by heart, citing how much more ef- 
fective are the beautiful lessons of our ritual, 
heartily repeated from memory, than when 
read school-boy fashion. He encouraged all 
to study the woA. It will enrich the mind 
wiih lasting treasures, besides adding much to 
the pleasure of our meetings. 

Seveial members urged promptness in at- 
tending and opening meetings We believe 
that whenever a few of the officers :n each 
Grant;e will meet and open the session at the 
fixed hour, promptness will soon become the 
rule with members generally. Next meeting, 
Saturday, January 16tb, at one o'clock. Tem- 
escal Grange has an excellent list of officers 
and cheerful prospects. 

Livermore Grange. 

This Grange is to give a hop on Feb. 22d for 
the relief of the grasshopper sufi'erers of Kansas 
and Nebraska. These Grangers evidently think 
that one hop deserves another. Mr. Towne 
will be interviewed to see whether he will tur- 
nish a car to be loaded at Livermore with pro- 
visions and forwarded to the needy. This 
Grange sent $50 to the Louisiana sufi'erers, and 
last Saturday sent $26 75 to the Kansas people. 
There was a small attendance Saturday, or the 
last amount would have been larger. 

Crop prospects good; never better. All we 
want is rain. People got their crops in fine 
order, though some of them stopped on account 
of the drouth. There have been decisions on 
some of tho leading cases of land litigation. 
There are two or three cla>ses of cases involv- 
ing different points of dispute. 

Pescadero Grange 
Held a full meeting Saturday afternoon last. 
In the evening, joined by a large audience of 
friends, the ofBcers were publicly installed by 
Bro. I. G. Gardner, State agent. A fine lec- 
ture on agricultural education was delivered by 
Bro. Dr. E. S. Carr. The public installation 
was attentively li-;tened to with apparent favor. 
The pleasures of the evening coucluded with 
dancing and social festivities. The visitors 
from abroad speak of Pescadero as a California 
village of rare attractions. 

Cache Creek Grange and Text Books. 

At a meeting of the above Grange, January 
1st, 1875, the following resolution was passed 
and ordered to be sent to the Eueal Pkkss for 
publicaticn: 

Resolved, Tbttt wc, the members of Cache Creek 
Qrauge, No. 82, P. of H.. oppoHe the change of any text 
books uow iu U8e iu the public HCbools of California. 
It. B. Bqtler, Sec'y pro tem. 

San Mateo Grange. 

Editors Press: — I presume you have hardly 
heard of San Mateo Grange. We are progress- 
ing slowly but surely. Enclosed you will find 
list of ofi&cers. The Rural comes to hand 
punctually; will do all I can for it. I find 
y iUr directory correct for San Mateo Grange, 
with the exception of the Secretary, which 
should be your humble servant, 

Chas. E. Rowk. 

San Mateo, January 4, 1875. 



Election of OffiGers, 

El Monte Grange, No. 43. — Tuberville Gor- 
don, M.; Peter Penfold, O.: Geo. C. Gibbs, L.; 
L. M. Kasmussen, S.; Stephen Penfold, A. S.; 
R.J. Floyd, C; A. H. Hoyt, Sec'y; J. H.Gray, 
T.; G. D. Stallcup. G. K.; Mrs. Geo. C. Gibbs, 
Ceres; Mrs. Geo. H.Peck, Pomona; Mrs, R. J. 
Floyd, Flora; Mrs. S. Penfold, L. A. S. 

FtJNK Slough Grange, No. 99.— L. D. Mc- 
Dow, M,; Geo. H. Able, O.; Geo. P. Hardin, 
L.;Wm. Dalv, S.; J. G. Wolfe, A. S.: A. L. 
Fulton, C; T. B. McDow, T.; E. C. Hunter, 
Sec'y; M. Harbord, G. K. ; Miss Emma Ben- 
jamin, Ceres; Miss Eugena I?eujamin, Pomona; 
Miss Anna Sutton, Flora; Miss Ida Pulton, L. 
A. S. 

Mt. Whitney Grange, No. 231. -G.W.Duncan, 
M.;Chas. Lawless, O.; O. H. P. Duncan, L ; 
Henry Witt, S.; T. J. Snyder, A. S.; J. W. 
Moore, C; A. F. Thompson, Sec'y; O. G. 
Foot, T.;L. W. Gregg. G. K.; Miss S. B. 
Murray, Ceres; Mrs. M. Duncan, Pomona; 
Miss M. Catlin, Flora; Mrs. L. A. Duncan, L. 
A.S. 

Confidence Grange, No. 14, Santa Barbara 
Co.: J, A. Norris, M.; John Newlove, O.; 
James Morse, Jr., L.; W. T. Scott. S.; John 
Miller, W.S.; B. O. Walker, Sec'^ ; A. Cope- 
land, T.; J. A. Austin, C; Archa McKechine, 
G. K.; Miss Mary Johnson, Ceres; Miss Sarah 
Whevlis, Pomona; Miss Angle Morse, Flora; 
Mrs. S. L. Walker, L. A. S. 

Calaveras Grange. — M. F. Gregory, M.; 
0. Gall, O.; B. Thompson, L.; R. Thompson, 
S.; T. J. Kirk, A. S.; H. Rogers, Sec'y; S. 
Kirk, G K. ; Sister E. A. Kirk, C. ; J. Kirk, T. ; 
Nancy H irpcr, Ceres; Louisa Aightower, Po- 
mona; Mary Cooper, Flora; Mrs. Gall, L. A. S. 

Yountville Grange.— J. M. Mayfield, M.; 
A. D. Grigsby, O.; J. S. Edington, L.; J. T. 
Cooper, S.; 'r. L. Rigsdalo, A. S.; J. R. Davis, 
C; Wm. Locker, 'I'.; Frank Gritfiu, Sec'y; 
John Forrester, G.; Mrs. A. F. Davis, Ceres; 
Mrs. E. E. Griffin, Pomona; Miss J. Carson, 
Flora; Miss Lue Ragsdale, L. A. S. 

San Mateo Grange.— A. P. Green, M.; D. 
S. McLellan, O. ; Orriu Brerin, L.; W. Price, 
S.; John Spaulding, A.S.; W. N. Newhall, C; 
J. E. ButUr, T.; C. E. Rowe, Sec'y; Levi 
FlagJ, G. K ; Mrs. J. E. Butler, Ceres; Mrs. 
Orrin Brown, Pomona; Miss Mary J. McLel- 
lan, Flora; Mrs. W. Price, L. A. S. 

St. Helena Grange. — John Lewelling, M.! 
J. W. Sayward, O. ; G. B. Crane, L. ; C. Wheeler. 
S.; J. C. Weinberger, A. S.; D. Edwards, C; 
Charles A. Storey, Sec'y; William Peterson, T. ; 
John Howell, G. K.; Mrs. H. M. Allen. Ceres; 
Mrs. G. B. Crane, Pomona; Miss Kate Edwards, 
Flora; Mrs. H. A. Peller, L. A. S. 

Los NiETOs Grange. — E. B. Grandiu, M.; O' 
P. Passeiis, O,; John Condra, L. ; Thomas Isbeil' 
S; M. B. Condt, A. S; E. Stockton, C; A. S" 
Raylaud, T.; W. S. Reavis, feec'y; Robert Tabor, 
G. K. ; Mrs. L. E. Reavis, Ceres; Miss M. Stock- 
ton, Pomona; Miss Jane Passeus, Flora; Mrs. 
E. Condt, L. A. S. 

New River Grange. — AV. Newton, M.; W. H. 
Settle, 0.; T. J. Kerns, L. S. T. Corum, S.;M. 
J. McGouch, A. S.; D. S. Wardlow, C; D. M. 
Harlow, T.; S. G. Baker, Sec'y; N. H. Price. 
G. K. ; Miss F. F. Houghton, Ceres. ; Mrs. Greaves 
Pomona; Miss E. J. Sackett, Flora;Mrs. Meeks, 
L. A. S. 

Franklin Grange. — Amos Adams, M.; J.M. 
Stephenson, O.; W. S. Runyon, L.; J. W.Moore, 
C; Isaac F. Freeman, T.; P. R. Beckley, 
Sec'y; Thomat> Anderson, G. K. ; Mrs. A. E. 
Freeman, Ceres; Miss Cassie Manpin, Pomona; 
Miss Belle Johnston, Flora; Mrs. W. Daniels, 
L. A. S. 

Antelope Grange.— JohnlSites, M.; William 
Rosenberger, O.; R. A. Clark, L.;A. A. Shearin, 
S.; John Taylor, A. S.; M. H. Shearin, C; H. 
A. Logan, T.; P. Peterson, Sep'y; J->hn Rosen- 
berger, G. K.; Mrs. A. A. Shearin, Ceres; Mrs 
R. A. Clark, Pomona; Mrs. M. H. Shearin, 
Flora; Miss Alice Oleghoru, L. A. S. 



Work Schools for Girls. — To show how 
they manage these institutions in Switzerlandt 
we give the following extract from the Repor, 
of the Commissioners of Education for 1873 : 
Instruction in these schools is gratuitous, and 
embraces "knitting, sewing, mending, cutting 
and fitting, common housekeeping, the princi- 
ples of economy and sanitary laws. To teach 
how to distinguish the different kinds of goods 
an album of samples is used. To instruct in 
sewing, patterns are drawn on the black board. 
All the members of the class do the same work 
at the same time. Theoretical knowledge of 
many branches of housekeeping is imparted, 
the why and the wherefore of many subjects 
connected with .the wellfare of the home ex- 
plained and illustrated. Methods of cooking 
and preparing food, the relative digestibility 
and wholbsomeness of diflerent kinds, getting 
up simple dinners, how to use a fixed income 
so as to keep out of debt, are some of the 
points of a Swiss girl's education. A girl thus 
trained knows when she marries just how her 
husband's income may be used to the best 
advantage, and the great evil of living beyond 
one's means is thus entirely avoided. 

Calistoqa Springs. — The Calistoga Spring 
property and real estate are to be turned over 
to a joint stock company, of which Colonel 
J. P. Jackson, Samuel Brauuan, Julius Wetz- 
lar and throe other persons will be directors. 



General News Items. 

Congress. — A large amount of work is in 
preparation for Congress, during the recess 
and upon the reassembling there will be 
a rush of business as well as great politi- 
cal activity. The Arkansas Investigation Com- 
mittee's report wdl then be forthcoming; to be 
followed sooQ after by the reports of several 
select committees now in various sections of the 
South, and the Civil Rights bill must be acted 
npon shortly, as it is at the top of the pile on 
the Speaker's table. The new finance bill 
comes up by special order on January 7th. 
The Senate Caucus Committee will make their 
report on cheap transportation. The Com- 
mittee on Appropriations expect to have the 
remaining Appropriation bills completed by 
tho time of re-assembling, and their considera- 
tion will be pressed upon the House fortwith; 
indeed, all the most important subjects are m 
such a shape as to be presented almost simul- 
taneously for action. 

The Spanish Revolution. — A very sudden 
termination has been given to the Spanish Re- 
public, by the proclamation of the son of ex- 
Queen IsabfcUa, as King of Spain, under such 
circumstances as secured his immediate recog- 
nition by almost the entire army and navy and 
a large majority of the leading civilians 
throughout the country. Even Castellar, it is 
understood, with other leading Republicans, 
gives in his adherance. There seems to have 
been a very general impression that nothing 
else could restore that distracted country to 
tranquility. The European Governments ap- 
pear to be very well satisfied with the result, 
and will recognize the accession of the young 
Prince of Astaria to power, as soon as he ar- 
rives and assumes the reigns of Government, 
which will be iu a few days. The Prince is 
now about 16 years of age, but well educated 
and possessing a full understanding of the re- 
sponsibility he is assuming. 

Terrible Explosion. -Two miners were in- 
stantly killed in the Sutro tunnel on the 30th 
ult., and a number of others seriously injured 
— one fatally. The accident was of quite a sin- 
gular natuie, and should be studied and borne 
in mind by all persons using uitro-glycerine: 
It happened at the time of changing shifts, and 
a blast was about to be exploded in the face, or 
header, of the tunnel. The men retreated 
back about six hundred feet, where the battery 
used in exploding blasts was situated. Several 
boxes of giant powder bad been left near the 
battery, and when the blast in the header was 
touched off, the powder near the battery also 
exijloded, by what means is not fully under- 
stood. 

The Pacific Mail investigation makes slow 
progress. The testimony thus far looks bad 
for somebody, and especially for Mr. Congres- 
sional ex-Postmaster King. A Washington 
special says: If the testimony given in New 
York concerning Mr. Kmg proves true this 
gentleman has subjected himself to the punish- 
trent attached to perjury, since in his examina- 
tion before the committee in the last Congress, 
he testified then that he did not receive one 
dollar, either directly or indirectly, in behalf of 
the subsidy schemes. Efforts are evidently be- 
ing made on 'the part of certain persons to 
cover things up. 

Thrown From a Wagon and Killed.— The 
body of A. Roscoe, a farmer, about 70 years of 
age, residing about a mile from Sheridan, Pla- 
cer county, was found Friday morning on the 
plains, north of the Rancho de Passo. The 
jury of inquest decided ttiat he was killed by 
being thrown from his wagon. 

Garibaldi. — After all that has been said and 
done Garibaldi cannot be induced, even in his 
poverty, to accept of aid from any source — 
either public or private. He has just refunded 
the substantial aid which the Italian Govern- 
ment offered him, on the plea that that the 
finances of the Government were suffering. 

Cold Weather.— Halleck station, east of 
Elko is said to be the coldest point on the Cen- 
tral Pacific riijlroad. The mercury went to 9 
degrees below aero there a few days Bino«. 
Considerable floating ice from above was seen 
in the Yuba river at Marysville, yesterday 
something unusual in that region. 

Fire in the Tules. — During last week the 
tules on the Sacramento river, directly west of 
Marysville, were on fire, giving forth lurid 
flames at night, and clouds of smoke during 
the day time, when viewed from Sacramento 
city. 

Spontaneous Combustion. — Some wool in 
the Oregon woolen mill at Portland took fire 
from spontaneous combustion, last week, but 
was extinguished before much damamage re- 
sulted. 

The Bkeoher-Tilton Case.— Five hundred 
witnesses were subpoenaed for the Beeoher-Til- 
ton case which went to trial on Mondav. It is 
said thai Beecher received 1,000 calla on New 
Years. 

Vasquez.— The trial of this noted bandit com- 
menced on Tuesday last. The law's delay 
could not be forced any farther. 

Deaths prom Faminb. — Accounts from Asia 
Minor show that distress from the famine ia in- 
creasing, and that many deaths occur daily. 

New PoBTMasTEB at Qdinov.— T. F. Hersej 
has l^een sf^ointed postmaster at Qninoy. 



22 



[January 9, 1875. 




Tired Mothers. 



A little plbow reBls upon your knee. 

Tour tired knee that Iihr bo much to bear, 
A ebllil'B dear eycR are lonking lovincly 

From unrierneath a tbatch of taDglcil hair. 
Perhaps you do w>t heed the velvet touoh 

Of warm, moist 'Bngere holding 3-ourR so tight; 
Tou do not prize this blessing overmueh ; 

Tou almoBt are too tired to pray to-uight. 

But it is blessedness ! A year ago 

I did not see it as I do to-day— 
We are all so dull and thankless, and so slow 

To catrh the sunshine till it slips away. 
And now it seems surpafsing strange to me 

That, while 1 wore the badge of motherhood. 
I did not kiss more oft and tenderly 

The little child that brought me only good. 

And if, some night, when ynu sit down to rest, 

You misB the elbow from the tired knee— 
This restless, rurly head from off your breast. 

This lisping tonaue that chatters cnnstantly; 
If from vour own this dimpled hand had slipp.id, 

And ne'er w<mld nestle in your palm again; 
It the white feet into the grave had tripp(Ml. 

I could not blamo you for your heartache then. 

I wonder so that mothers ever fret 

At little children clinging to their gown; 
Or that the footprints, when the days are wet, 

Are ever black enough to make them frown. 
If I c ■uld find a little muddy boot, 

Or cap. or jacket on my chamber floor; 
If I could kiss a rosy, restless foot. 

And hear it patter in my house once more. 

If I conld mend a broken cart to-day. 

To-morrow make a kite to reach the sky — 
There is no woman in God's world could say 

She was more blissfully content than I. 
But ah ! the dainty pillow next my own 

Is never rumplid by a shining head; 
My singing birdling from its nest has flown; 

The little boy I used to kiss is dead ! 



"Where There's a Will There's a Way." 

[Written for the Press by Mbs. C. I. H. Nichols.] 
'•Tell ns a story grandma, about when you 
were a little pirl." 

"Yes, grandma do. Did you have to speak 
pieces and write compositions when yo.. were 
a little girl like us ?" 

"I did not have to do so my dears. But I be- 
gan writing composiiioaa at home before my 
teacber required it of my class ot school." 

"O, grandma tell us all about it. Is it a 
story ?" 

"Yes, it ia a story." 
"A true story ?" 

"Every word of it is true. And if you listen 
yon may learn how to write stories aod com- 
positions." 

"Oh, that will be nice ! I do so want to know 
how !" 

And the children drew up their chairs and 
smoothed their aprons and prepared to listen 
to grandmother's story of how she learned to 
lyrite compositions when she was a fittle girl, 
and as there are many other little girls and 
boy-i, and pretty large ones too, who are anx- 
ious to know how, I will write out my little 
story for their amusement and instruction, and 
send it to the Kubal Press: 

When I was a little girl attending district 
school, more than fifty years ago — books and 
papers cost more than they do now. Every 
family made its own ink, generally from maple 
bark boiled and set with copperas; and our 
pens were made of goose quills; and little girls 
didn't have pen-knives to make them with : 
and the boys couldn't make them with jack- 
knives. So you see it was not easy to learn to 
write without the help of parents in getting 
ink and paper, "and a teacher or some older 
person, to make our pens. M"" father wrote a 
be.iutiful hand and was anxious that I — his 
oldest child — should write a good hand. So 
he refused me pi-u and paper, thinking in this 
way to prevent my learning to write until I 
should be old enough to acquire a handsome 
style of penmanship. It grieved me very 
mucii to b'i prevented from le »rn ng to write, 
for I did not like to fall behind my school- 
mates in anything, and they ail had their 
"copy-books" at S'hool and wrote a page every 
day. I had besides a taste for the instructive 
uses of the pen and pencil. So, after a good 
deal of silent grieving, I set myself the task of 
learning to write without instruction. To ac- 
complish this I carefully gathered every bit of 
waste paper; tore out ihe fly leaves of old 
books; cut off the white margins of the weekly 
newspaper and when this material was used up, 
I would go into the garret, where the hired 
men had stored large rolls of white birch-bark 
for torches, when they went fishing nights in a 
boat, on the river close by ; and I cut off pieces 
of the bark and wrote on that. I liked writing 
on the bark, the letters were so smooth. I 
would take u penful of ink from my father's 
ink-stand and skip into the garret where a pine 
board, supported on two bottomless chairs, 
served for my writing desk. For copies I 
looked at the letters in the headings of my 
father's ledger, which were written in a plain, 
bold hand. When my father was away from 
home, on the warm pleasant days, I would 
take his pen and ink-stand out to a ^large pile 
of shaved pine shingles near the house, and 
■r'nlling out the shingles, one by one, I wrote on 



the smooth ends and then drove them back in 
place with a stone. 

One day when I sat there in sight of the 
road, there came along two neat looking col- 
ored women; one was quite tall and dark, with 
good features, .ind carried a bundle; the other 
was a young woman, short and almost white 
and carried in her arms a pretty, smiling baby. 
"My little girl." said the old lady, "can yon 
tell ns the road to Canada ?" I pointed north- 
ward, to the road that turned up the long, Ions; 
hill and said, "that is the way to Canada." I 
then got up and made them the prettiest court- 
esy I could, for I knew they must be slaves 
running away from their masters in New York, 
which State then held in slavery such as were 
born staves before it passed its first act of 
emancipation. Well, I was sitting there again 
the next day when a tall, fine looking colored 
man came along and said, "Little girl, have 
you seen two colored women, one of them with 
a baby, go by here within a day or two ?" 
"Yesj sir," said I. "and they went up that road 
to Caniida." Again I courtesied, and he took 
off his hat and made a low bow and said, 
thank you!" O, how glad he looked as he 
turned away, thinking— as I guessed— that his 
mother, wife and dear little baby, were safely 
on their w;iy to a land of freedom. My home 
was in Vermont about forty miles from the New 
York State line, and the slaves near the 
boundary line, often escaped through Vermont, 
which never held slaves, to Canada, where 
their masters could not take them; for Canada 
was a British province and its laws protected 
everybody in their freedom if they once got 
there. 

Now my dear children, I wrote this incident 
on the smooth ends of the shingles, with some 
scathing comments on the wickedne-is of New 
York masters, which would have made their 
hair stand up had they read them. And this is my 
first remembered composition. Thirty years 
later, neighbor who had bought of mj' fa' her, 
the shingles for his house roof, took them off to 
re-shiuele, and there, bright as at first, was 
this "Story of (lie Bunaicay Slaves," with my 
nam" and age — "Clarina I. Howard, aged 7 
years" — written at the end. The story covered 
half a dozen shingles and was in two parts. 
"Was that yottr name, grandma, when yon 
were a little girl ?" "Yes, my dear, that was 
my name." 

"And how came it to be Nichols ?" "Well, 
I married when I had grown to be a 'woman. 
And when women niarrv they are called by 
their husband's name. Now go to bed little 
ones and don't ask any more questions to- 
night. In the morning tell me if you dreamed 
about the little girl— grandmother writing on 
the shingles." 

Potter Valley. Dec. 25th, 1874. 

Extravagance. — The first lesson in economy 
is to learn to "do without." The second is to 
use what one has without waste. These two 
lessons ate very hai»l to be learned by a people 
which has always been accustomed to have 
whatever it wanted, and to treat costly things 
as if they were common, for fear it should not 
be supposed we are familiar with thtm. One 
thing has much contribuied to this — the ab- 
sence of anything like class styles of expendi- 
ture. Abroad, a man will not allow his wife 
and daughters certain modes of dress, unless 
he can have other things in keeping. A camel's 
hair shawl and diamonds require a cirriage 
and servants in proportion. 'I'he habits of life 
■a hich fit a particular income are well known. 
No one goes beyond them without censure. In 
America there is no such rule. People live in 
hotels where waste is the order of the day, and 
where children are educated in want of care, 
and the habit of unlimited ordering. 

California Childbbn. — Bayard Taylor pays 
this just tribute to the robustiousnesa of Cali- 
fornia children: "Nowhere can more rosy 
specimens of health and beauty be found. 
Strong limbed, rod-blooded, graceful, and as 
full of happy, animal Jife as young fawns; they 
bid fair to develop into admirable types of 
manhood and womanhood." This is all true. 
Our children are simply immense. They are 
on the top of a great heap of all the children. 
Even our hoodlums are ahead of anything 
of their kind anywhere. As for the young 
fawns, go along Kearny street any eve- 
ning, and you'll see 'em. How could it be 
otherwise in our genial clime ? Even oldish 
people grow and expand here, if we may believe 
a brilliant Los Angeles journalist, who said 
some time ago that men often increase a (Siuple 
of inches in hight after a brief residence in that 
wonderful region. . 

TjsuE Hospitality. — She is not the best 
hostess, who is ever going to and fro with hur- 
ried action, and flurried manner, and heated 
countenance, as if to -ay: "See how hospita- 
ble I cau be;" but rather the one who takes 
your coming with quiet dignity and noiseless 
painstaking; who never obtrudes attention, 
yet is very attentive all the while; who makes 
you, in one word — the most expressive word in 
the English tongue — to be at home. There is 
no richer, deeper, larger hospitality than that. 

Truth is always consistent with itself, and 
needs nothing to help it out, it is always near 
at hand, and sits upon our lips, and ia ready to 
drop out before we are aware; whereas a lie is 
troublesome, sets a man's invention upon the 
rack and needs a great many more to make it 
good. 

To make a penny go a great way, draw it 
out into 2,700 ftet of wire, as was lately done 
in Scotland, 



Spiritual ^volution. 

The consciousness of ignorance, which is 
painful, is the first step of knowledge. The 
man or woman, of whatever age, satisfied with 
attainments already made, ceases to make pro- 
gress, and loses ground. A noble discontent 
with one's self is an essential element of 
growth. When coupled with this there is a 
ceaseless effort to improve to the utmost op- 
portunities offered, progress is inevitabl ». 

The foremost champion of the age in science, 
boldly throws down the gaunlet of materialism, 
and says "There is no God." "Canst thou, by 
searching, find out God ?" Y'et he admits 
there ix a power he cannot explain which Far- 
adiy, fully his intellectual peer, hesitites net 
to call Divine. Tyndall frankly admits there 
is in the human soul wants not satisfied with 
what meets all the demands' of the under- 
standing. Faith is as much a faculty of the 
soul as reason. "Render therefore unto Ciesnr 
the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the 
things that are God's." Let reason have its 
own, and faith its own. The cultivation of 
one set of faculties to the exclusion of others 
produces inordinate growth of the one and 
atrophy or dwarfing of the rest. The man 
who will take no testimony save that of his 
sense, will soon be incapable of seeing anythinq 
with the eye of faith. But every man and 
every woman who has a soul large enough to 
furnish a battle-ground for these elements, 
must go through this conflict, must study and 
think for themselves, weighing evidence, sound- 
ing depths, balancing arguments, giving to rea- 
son the things that are reason's, and to faith 
the things that are faith's. Though in every 
age there have Joeen infidels and skeptics, the 
brightest names upon the roll of literature, of 
art, of science, are of men who embraced with 
humility the teachings of the sacred scriptures 
and accepted the record therein given by God 
of Hims.elf . — PhrenologiixU Journal. 

How TO Make Hard Times. — We give a 
recipe for kepii;g the times hard: Let every- 
body talk depressingly. When any one fails 
in business, put it in all the papers. Let 
business men keep np perpetual complaint. 
Let us have occasional editorials inciting bread 
riots, and political speeches on the wrongs of 
the laboring classes. Let everybody prophesy 
a hard winter, an awful winter. Let us talk 
down instead of up. Let ns lake no account 
of the fact that flour is cheap, and the harvests 
are larse, and God is good. We shall in this 
way be able to take another fapgot from the 
poor man's hearth and knock another pane of 
glass out of his window, and hinder the manu- 
facturer from employing him. All together 
now — ministers, editors, capitalists and labor- 
ers-let us give a long, deep groan, and keep it 
going till next spring, and the times will be as 
hard as we could reasonably exptct. — Chris- 
tian at Work. 



What a Woman can Do. — Mrs. Phebe Bene- 
dict, of Antioch, Cal., has solved the question, 
"What can Woman Do ?" Some two years 
since she took out papers as sole trader, gained 
the consent of her husband to allow htr com- 
plete management of the farm and transact all 
the business of the place, and at a time when 
the farm was mortgiiged for several hundred 
dollars, and farming implements out of repair. 
Now, by economj', close attention to business 
and shrewd management, she has paid off the 
mortgage and interest, purchased a new culti- 
vator, plows and other implements, treated 
herself to a sewing machine, repaired the 
buildings, and will shortly loan money; and 
Mrs. Benedict is, besides this, a leading advo- 
cate of suffrage for women. 

A hatefui^ bachelor thus impeaches women" 
"I impeach her in the name of the great whale 
of the ocean, whose bones are torn asuudsT to 
enable her to keep straight. I impeach her in 
the name of the peacock, whce stmt without 
his permission she has stealthily and without 
honor assumed. I impeach her in the name of 
the hor-se, whose tail she has perverted from 
it use to the making of wavy tresses to dec- 
orate the back of the head and neck. I im- 
peach her in the name of the kangaroo, whose 
iieautiful figure she, in taking upon her the 
Grecian bend, has brought into ill-favor and 
disrepute." 

Whipping Women. — A few hundred years ago 
any one had a right to whip a woman, unless 
she was married, then, being her husbaud's 
property, he had the sole right of chant isament. 
The proverbs of that day show the utmost con- 
tempt in which the wife was held, being full of 
contempt, insolence and absolute soorn. 
Times have changed. 

Value of Kinpness. — It seems strange that 
corporations have so little faith in a certain 
old fashioned contrivance for securing fidelity 
in their employes, called kindness. There is 
no patent for" it. It makes no noise and was 
never counterfeited. But after millions of 
trials, through thousands of years, it has stood 
the test, and has never been improved upon. 

Cotton and Paper Sheets. — A malicious 
person says that cotton sheets and newspaper 
sheets are alike in the respect that a great 
many people lie in them. 

The FirisT. — A medical gentleman who has 
cured a very bad case of "fits" considers it an 
illustration of the Darwinian doctrine of "the 
survival of the fitist." 



Don't Stay Long. 

"Don't stay long, husband," said a young 
wife, tenderly in my presence, one evening, as 
her husband was preparing to go out. The 
words themselves were significant, but the look 
of melting fondness with which they were ac- 
companied spoke volnmes. It told all the vast 
depths of a woman's love -of her grief, when 
the light of his smile, the source of all her joy, 
beamed not brightly upon her. 

"Don't stay long, husband" — and I fancied 
I saw the loving, gentle wife, sitting alone, 
anxiously counting the moments ot her hus- 
band's absence, and every few moments run- 
ning to the door to see if he was in sight, and, 
finding that he was not, I thought I could hear 
her exclaiming in disappointed tones, "Not 
yet!" 

"Don't stay long, husband" — and I again 
thought I could see the young wife, rockins: 
nervously in the great arm-chair and weeping 
as though her heart would break, as her 
thoughtless "lord and master" prolonged his 
stay to a wearisome length of time. 

"Don't stay long, haBband"—and the young 
wife's look seemed to say — for here in your 
own sweet home is a loving heart whose music 
is hushed when yon are absent; heroisasoft 
breast to lay your head upon, and here are pure 
lips, nnsoiled by sin, that will pay you with 
kisses for coming back soon. 

Oh, you that have wives to say "Don.t stay 
long," when you go forth, think of them 
kindly when yon are mingling in the busy hive 
of life, and try, just a little to make their 
homes and hearts happy, for they are gems too 
seldom replaced. Y'ou cannot find amid the 
pleasures of the world the quiet, joy that a 
home, blessed with such a woman'ii presence 
will afford. 

Husbands, would you bring, sunshine ^nd 
joy into your homes? Then spend your leisure 
hours with your families, and employ the time 
in pleasant words, and kind actions and you 
will realize in all richness what is so beautifully 
described by the poet: 

Domestic happiness, thou only bliss 
Of Paradiae that luts snrriTed the Fall. 



A Brave Woman. 

The following st'jrv is told of Mrs. John 
Wilson, of No. 145 Bleecker St., N. Y: 

Her husband to whom she is devotedly at- 
tached and who loved her so ardently as to be 
consumed by a chronic jealousy of her, re- 
turned home one night, and, producing a re- 
volver, told her be had made up his mind to 
shoot her. Hastily realizing the fact that there 
was no chance for escape the brave little wo- 
man closed her eyes and awaited her death. "I 
was certain," says she, "I was going to be 
killed, and oh, how I dreaded the shot." It came 
but she frit no pain. A second and a third fol- 
lowed until five shots had been fired. She did 
rot know but that the first had killed her and 
the other four were perforating her inanimate 
corpse. Everything being quiet after a little, 
she opened her eyes to find herself still living, 
and her stupid husband with a bnllet in each 
hand, and another in his stomach, while two 
others had lodg d in the wall. The calm re- 
signation of the woman had averted the danger 
from herself and turned the hostile weapon upon 
her would be murderer. He was conveyed to 
a hospital, and will probably recover, to respect 
for life the silent courage which saved him 
from a murder most foul and most unnatural. 



Natural, Religion.— Come quietly away 
with me, and we will walk up and down the 
narrow path, by the sweet-briar hedge and as 
we listen to the low song of the blackbird, the 
fresh air will cool our aching brows, and we 
shall find comfort. In these things fresh air 
and the birds' song, and the fragrance of the 
lovely flowers, God has given a blessing; like 
sleep, they are His medicines — "balm of sweet 
minds." We will walk to and fro under the 
shade of those elms, and we will be calm; bitter 
recollections shall be made sweet by the thought 
of His mercies; and, in the midst of the sorrows 
we have in our hearts. His comforts shall re- 
fresh our souls, and our minds shall be stored 
with many thoughts, sweet, like the perfume 
of these flowers. 



Women's Training School. — A movement 
has been st irt^d in this city, under the auspices 
of Rev. Mr. Gibson and his congregation, look- 
ing to the establisment here of a training school 
for women, which it is hoped may result in 
aiding and ednoating large numbers of poor 
women, who are desirous of supporting them- 
selves, but whose unskilled labor in any 
special department of industry renders their 
employment at present hopeless. This is a 
movement in the ri;^ht direction and one which 
we trust will be eminently successful. 



A NosB Show. — They have been having a 
nose show in Austria. Eighty persons com- 
peted for the prize offered for the most extra- 
ordinary nasal prominence in form, size and 
color. The jury decided that only three out 
of the whole could be admitted to compete for 
the prize, which was finally adjudged to a com- 
petitor from Vienna, possessor of what is stated 
to be a "gigantic nose, of a deep violet-blue." 

A Rich Firm. — It is said that the present 
market value of the mining stocks owned by 
Flood & O'Brien is over $100,0110,000. The 
stocks held by them doubled in value during 
the month of December. They are large owners 
in the newly discovered Washoe bonanza. 



January g, 1875.] 



.wmAi*^ 



23 



A Novel Cure for Quarreling. 

An old gentlemen living in the Western part 
of the State, had two sods who were always 
quarreling about their play or whatever they 
were doing. All threats to punish were of no 
avail, and at last the old gentlemen hit upon 
this novel method : One day while they were 
engaged in one of their busiest quarrels, he 
quietly cut three birch limbs. The two boys 
seeing him, suddenly ceased quarreling, and be- 
gin to look frightened at the pro^^pective chas- 
tisement. The old man stepped up and said, 
"John, you and Jim have quarreled long 
enough, now each take one of tliese limbs, and 
whip each other well, or I'll whip you both," 
the same time, giving each of them a limb, 
keepnig a good one for himself. Tbe boys 
looked at each other and smiled. "Well begin, 
or I will," said the father. They each struck 
a slight tap and then hesitated. "Goon," said 
the fathers, and they began again, each stroke 
harder than the former. The old man laughed at 
at his strategy. The boys finally took both 
hands and went at it true rap-jacket style, un- 
till suddenly they both stopped and burst out 
Cluing. It was hard to decide which was tbe 
most completely whipped, or how he was whip- 
ped whether by his brother or his father's strat- 
egy. It is needless to add, that those boys 
never quarreled again in their father' spres- 
ence. 



Who Are Rich? 



The man with good, firm health is rich. 

So is the man with a clear conscience. 

So is the parent of vigorous children. 

So is the editor of a good paper with a big 
subscription list. 

So is the clergyman whose coat the children 
pluck as he passes thf-m by in their play 

So is the wife who has the whole of the heart 
of a good husband. 

So is the child who goes to sleep with a kiss 
on its lips, and for whose waking a blessing 
awaits. 

So is the maiden whose horizon is not 
bounded by the coming man, but who has a 
purpose in life, whether she meets him or not 

So is the young man who, laying his hand 
on his heart, can say, "I have treated every 
woman I ever met, I should wish my sister 
treated by other men." 



A Good Mother. — Sometimes one hears of a 
good wife and mother, that "she's a regular 
home body." The plirase is simple, but what 
a world of ennobling qualities it indicates, and 
what a universe of frivolity it excludes ! The 
matronly home body is indeed "Heaven's best 
gift to man." Dashing ladies, whose mission 
it is to set the fashions, won't you look in upon 
your gentle sister as she sits in her well ordered 
nursery, making her children happy with her 
presence ? Note how she adjusts their little 
diflSculties, and admonishes, encourages, in- 
structs, or amuses them as may be. Do you 
think any nurse maid could produce such har- 
mony in their little circle 't Is'she not an en- 
chautreess ? Verily, yes, and her charm is 
"love stronger than death" for those sweet 
faces, where you may see her smiles and frowns 
(though she has seldom occasion to frown) re- 
flected in glee and sorrow, like sunlight and 
cloud shadow in a quiet pool. What she is, 
she will teach her daughters to be; and blessed 
are the sons who have such a mother. 



Y©'^!*^ Folks' GonJfifi. 



Frogs at School. 

Twenty froggies went to school, 
Down beside the mshy p'lol, 
Twenty Ittle coats of green; 
Twenty vests all white and clean. 
*'We must be in time" said they; 
"First we study, then we play; 
That is how we keep the rule. 
When froggies go to school." 

Master Bullfrog, grave and stern. 
Called the classes in their turn; 
Taujiht them how to nobly strive, 
Likewise how to leap and dive; 
From his seat upon a log. 
Showed them how say "Iter-chog I" 
Also hffw to dodge a blow 
From the sticks whi'jh bad boys throw. 

Twenty froggies grew up fast; 
Bullfrogs they became at last; 
Not one dunce among the lot — 
Not one lesson they forgot; 
Polished in a high degree, 
•As each froggie ought to be; 
Now they sit on otlier logs. 
Teaching other little frogs. 



Qo©D He^>-TH° 



Esjic Ec@|4®||AY. 



Street DRESSES, at the present time are made 
to clear the ground, so that the untidy and ex- 
travagant habit of g ithering up the dust of the 
pavement and mud of the crossings, with the 
velvet, silks and French Cashmeres can now be 
avoided without offense of the mode. Skirts 
are about three and a half yards in breadth; 
formed of a front gore, one or two sides gores, 
and a full width behind, with all the fullness 
drawn back by strings or stout elastic bauds, 
set underneath. Tfcie trimming no loug« r dif- 
fers in front and buck, but is alike all urouud. 
The pardesses is either the somewhat inevitu- 
ble polonaise modified somewhat from the org- 
inal design, which found form in the Margue- 
rite; or the liasque and tubilier, finished with a 
sash looped so as to couceil the gathers of the 
apron. 



Don't Give Up, but Try. 

A gentleman travelling in the northern part 
of Ireland heard the voices of children and 
stopped to listen. 

Finding the sound came from a small build- 
ing used as a school-house, he drew, near; as 
the door was open, he went in, and listened to 
the words th^ boys were spelling- 
One little fellow stood apart, looking very 
sad. 

"Why docs that boy stand there?" asked the 
gentleman. 

"Oh, he is good for nothing!" replied the 
teacher, "There's nothing in him. He is the 
most stupid boy in school." 

The gentleman was surprised at this answer. 
He saw that the teacher was so stern and rough 
that the younger and more timid were nearly 
crushed. Aft'ir a few words to them, placing 
bis hands on the noble brow of the little fellow 
who stood apart, he said: 

"One of these days you may be a fine scholar; 
don't give up; try, ray boy, try." 

The boy's soul was aroused. His sleeping 
mind aw 'ke. A new purpose was formed. 
From that hour he became anxious to excel. 
And he did become a fine scholar, and the 
author of a well-known commentary on thf 
Bible; a great and good man' beloved and 
honored. It was Dr. Adum Clarke. 

The secret of his success is worth knowing: 
"Don't give up; but try, my boy try." 

The Sabbath School. 

It was one of the most pleasant aud hope- 
ful reflections that the Sabbath School, as an 
institution, is so highly regarded in California. 

So far as our observation goes there is 
scarcely a mind to be found in all this great 
state, so debased, so narrow and bigoted as not 
to look with favor on tha Sabbath School. 

Setting the question of religious influence 
entirely aside, no one will fail to see the utility 
of a place like the Sabbath School, to draw all 
the children together, of a Sibbath afternoon, 
with their neat apparel and smiling faces, to 
join in pleasant sonsrs and agreeable exercises, 
and to learn their duty to God and to each 
other. 

Here they are put upon their best behavior, 
and with proper instruction acquire a species 
of knowledge essential to success in life. 

We are glad that all our people value the 
Sabbath School, and would be still more pleased 
to see a larger number of the professedly re- 
ligious portion take an active personal interest 
in its success. 



Wet and Dry Bathing. 

If any one in these days will exercise in the 
open air, so that each day he will perspire 
moderately, and if he will wear thin under 
garments, or none at all, and sleep in a cold 
room, the functions of the skin will suffer little 
or no impediment, if water is withheld for 
months. Indeed, bathing is not the only way 
in which its healthful action can be maintained 
by those living under the conditions at present 
existing. Dry friction over the whole surface 
of the body, once a day, or once in two days, 
is often of more service than the application of 
Witter. 

The reply of the centenarian to the inquiry 
to what habit of life he attributed his good 
heabh and extreme longevity, that he believed 
it due to 'rubbing himself all over with a cob 
every night,' is significant of an important 
truth. If invalids and persons of low vitality 
would use dry friction and Dr. Franklin's 'air 
l)ath,' every day for a considerable period, we 
are confident they would often be greatly bene- 
fited. Cleanliness is next to godliness, no 
doubt, and a proper and judicious use of water 
is to be commended; but human beings are 
not amphibious. Nature indicates that the 
fnnclioDs of the skin should be kept in order 
mainly by muscular exerci-ie, by exciting 
niturid perspiration by labor; and, delicious as 
is the bath and healthful, under proper regula- 
tion, it is no substitute for that exercise of the 
body, without which all the functions become 
abnormal. 



Poisoned Confectionkby. — A glosm was re- 
cently thrown over the town of Placefield, 
Conn., by the death of a twelve-year old 
daughter of Mr. Edward Markland. 'The im- 
mediate cause of her dtmise was the eating of 
candy in which there was arsenic. Some three 
weeks ago the girl in company with two sirls 
named respectively Miss Bunnell and Miss 
Hemmiugway, attended an evening ])arty, at 
which, by way of entertainment; was offered 
confectionery purchased in the town of Forrest- 
ville, a portion of which was originally mann- 
fiiclured in the city of New Haven. They par- 
took heartily of the same and soon after were 
taken violently sick. The sufferers were at- 
tended by Dr. Woodward of this place, -who, on 
examining the symptoms, pronounced the 
poison to be arsenic, and that it was contained 
in the candy. Under his treatment the two 
last named girls were partially restored to 
health, though they are not yet considered out 
of drtuger. But with Miss Markland the case 
was different. Medicine seemed to have no 
healing efi'ect upon her. Previous to death 
she literally suffered many deaths. Her tongue 
became frightfully swollen, and some time be- 
fore she breathed her last inflammation seized 
upon her eyes and rendered her totally blind. 
During it all tbe little creature was perfectly 
conscious, and paiiently endured the most ex- 
cruciatiug pains till death l)rought relief. 



Importance of the Inorganic Constituents 
of Food. 

The bodies of animals in a state of health, 
though chiefly composed of organic substances, 
contain, nevertheless, always certain inorganic 
salts, either in combination or solution. The 
soft parts of the bodies are here intended, and 
not the bones, which are, of course, largely 
composed of inorganic matter. Mr. J. Forster 
has recently described some interesting experi- 
ments on the effect of gradually reducing the 
quantity of these salts in the system, by feed- 
ing pnimals with food of an entirely nutritious 
description, but completely deprived of such 
salts. The food employetl consisted of albu- 
men, standi and fat, with entirely pure water. 
Animals thus treated suffer gradual derange- 
ments of the functions of various important 
organs, which derangements go on \intil the 
power of assimilation of the food taken is so 
tar reduced as to prevent the proper repair of 
the ordinary waste of the system. The natural 
cou'^equence of this would be to produce decline 
or death. But death usually ensues before it 
could be brought about by a cause so slowly act- 
ing, since the deficiency of salts, by arresting 
some of the processes necessary to life, precip- 
itates the destruction of the organism before it 
could perish by exhaustion. Exhaustion is the 
efl'ect produced unon the muscles by withhold- 
ing salts, but in the nerves there appear, first, 
increa-ed excitability, and then paralysis of 
the nerve centers. The quantity of salts nec- 
essary in the food is less than has heretofore 
been supposed, but further experiments are 
necessary to determine its exact amount. 



Cocks' Combs as Food. — The combs of Span- 
ish and Leghorn fowls are sold in some parts 
of Europe as choice delicacies for the palates 
of those who sigh for fresh appetizers. Under 
the name of "Cretes de Coq," a supply of 
these morsels has been recently imported from 
Paris. The combs are of large size, both single 
and rose, And are put up in white vinegar, in 
long tubular glass bottles, holding about a pint, 
sealed with black wax. When we say that 
these small bottles cost at wholesale in Paris 
more thmi a dollar in gold each, the reflection 
is forced that many a large combed rooster 
may in future be sacrificed to Mammon, as 
many were oft'erc d up to Esciilapius. There 
are enough large combs in the yards of some of 
our breeders to make a fortune if they could be 
utilized. We hope, however, the combs on the 
Mediterranean class will be reduced in size, 
as many large ones amount to positive deform- 
ity. — PoxiHry World. 



No Time for Frivolity. — "I am busy plough- 
ing aud cannot entertain company now," is 
the substance of a note recently written by a 
Macoupin county, 111., girl to a St. Louis ex- 
quisite who had met her at a fashionable party 
in the latter city and wished to visit her at her 
home. The maiden is a graduate of an Illinois 
seminary and her lather gave her an eighty acre 
farm on condition that she should help work it 
herself, which she does. 



Employment op Pkmales. — The census 
shows that 873,332 women in this country are 
employed as agricultural laborers, (nearly all of 
whom are colored, of course); 22,681 are far- 
mers, 867,354 are domestic servants, 81,017 are 
school teacbers, 64,398 are cotton mill opera- 
tives, 90,490 are milliners and dressmakers, 
97,207 are tailoresses, and 27,723 woolen mill- 
operatives. 



Jenny Lind's daughter is said to possess a 
most superior voice aud taste for music. She 
is receiving a most careful musical education. 
Mapleson, the well know London eiiipresarU>, 
offers to give her foui years' instruction, and 
$2,000 per year in money, provided she will 
contract bar servjce» to him fov six years as ai) 
opera singer. 



How to Treat Bad Boys. 

Many years ago in a country town in Mass- 
achusetts a teacher saw a boy come into his 
school, whom he knew to be one of the wor.^t 
boys in town. He determined, if he could, to 
make a good boy of him, and he behaved well 
that day. The next morning the Prudential 
Committee (as he was called) came in and 
said: "Mr. Towne, I hear that bad fellow, Bill 
Marcy, has come to your school. Turn him 
out at once. He will spoil the rest of the 
boys." "No, sir," replied the teacher, "I will 
leave the school if you say so, but I cannot ex- 
pel a boy so long as he behaves well." So he 
kept him and encouraged him, coiilided in him, 
till Bill Marcy became one of thi' best boys in 
school. And aftei wards, wheueviT William L. 
Marcy came from Washington, he took pains 
to go and see his old teacher, Salem Towne, 
and thank him for having been the means of 
saving him and making the iiian he was. 



A Singular Case. — The Chicago physicians 
are puzzled by Michael Fiunegan, a patient in 
one of their hospit.als. During more than two 
months he has lain rigidly in bed, seldom mov- 
ing a m' scle, and yet shows no other signs of 
illness than this strange impassiveness. He is 
fed with liquids poured down his throat; his 
limbs are moved with difficulty by the attend- 
ants, as though the muscles had become fixed, 
and he never speaks, although his eyes move, 
and at times he seems to be sensible. Tbe 
physicians believe it to be a genuine case of 
catalepsy,- or of hysteria aud simulated cata- 
lepsy. There have been instances of cure 
of both these disorders by fright, and an ex- 
periment was made on Finnegan. The physi- 
cians talked in his presence of cutting his 
jugular vein, so as to kill him and end his suf- 
fering, and after a great show of preparation 
scratched his neck with the point of a knile, 
but he exhibited no fright. 



Miss Sedgwick has asserted that the more 
intelligent a woman becomes, other things 
being equal, the more judiciously she will 
manage her domestic concerns. And we add 
that the more knowledge a woman possesses 
of the great principles of morals, philosophy 
and human happiness, the more importance 
she will attach to her station, and to the name 
of a good housekeeper. It is only those who 
have been superficially educated, or instructed 
only in showy accomplishments, who despise 
the ordinary duties of life as beneath their 
notice. Such persons have not sufficient clear- 
ness of reason to see that domestic economy 
includes everything which is calculated to make 
people love home and be happy there. — Ger- 
mantown Telegraph, 



Fotdre Men and Woiukn. — The boys and 
girls are what the men and women will be by 
aud by. The good sisters make the good wives, 
and the good brothers iiiake the good husbands 
of tbe after time. If you want to know with a 
{air certainty what each will be in the unalter- 
able relation and solemn responsibilities of 
married life, you can see it all mirrored in the 
life that as child and youth they led. The 
affectionate kindness, considerate attention and 
unselfish devotion which made brother and 
sister dear to oaci other, aud made the home 
calm and beautiful, will not have exhausted 
themselves when the old home is left, but on 
nearer and dearer ones will po«r out their 
treasured of grace and goodness. 



Cure for Corns. — The safest, the most ac- 
cesible, and the most efficient cure of a corn on 
the toe is to doutile a piece of thick, soft buck- 
skin, cut a hole in it large enough to receive the 
corn, and bind it arouud the toe. If in addi- 
tion to this the foot is soaked in warm water for 
five or more minutes every night and mowing, 
aud a few drops of sweet oil or other oily sub- 
stance, are patiently rubbed in on the end after 
the soaking the corn will almost infallibly be- 
come loose enough in a ftw days to be easily 
picked out with a fingernail. This saves the 
necessity of isaring the corn which operation 
has sometimes been followed with painful and 
dangerous symptoms. If the corn becomes in- 
convenient again, repeat the process at once. — 
Hall's Journal of Health. 

Healthfulness of Apples. — The frequent 
use of apples, either before or after meals, has 
a most healthful effect upon digestion. Better 
eat less meat and more fruit. An eminent 
French physician thinks that the decrease of 
dyspepsia and bilious afl'ections in Paris is 
owing to the increased consumption of apples, 
which fruit he maintains is an admirabh pro- 
phylactic and tonic, as well as a very nourish- 
ing aud easily digesied article of food. The 
Parisians are said to devour one hundred rail- 
lions of apples every winter — that is. they did 
before the war. Whether this estimate is true 
or not, the French are exbravagantly fond of 
apples and other fmit. 



Beef Tea. — Take one pound of juicy, lean 
beef — say a piece from the shoulder or the 
round — anil mince it. Put it, with its juice, 
into an earthen vessel containing a pint of 
tepid water, and let the whole stand for one 
hour. Then slowly heat it to the boiling point, 
and h t it boil for three minutes. Strain the 
liquid through a colander, and stir in a little 
salt. If preferred, a little pepper or allspice 
may be added. 

Mutton tea may be prepared in the same 
way. It makes an agreeable change when the 
patient has become tired of beef tea. 



Beep Clues.— Beef clubs are in ordsr in 
some pans of the west. A dozen or 20 farmers 
combine and each one agrees to furnish a fat 
steer at a time allotted him. This is divided 
among the members of the club. Accurate ac- 
counts are kept, and at the end of the year a 
settlement made. The quality of the beef is 
regulated by the proportion of tallow to' the 
meat, a fine being levied if it falls below a cer- 
tain per cent. 



Sponge Gingerbread. — One cap of somr 
milk, one cup of molasses, one half cup of 
butter, two eggs, one and one-half teaspoonfuls 
of salaratus, one tablespoonful of ginger, flour 
to make it thick as pound cake. Put the but- 
ter, molasses and ginger together and make 
them quite warm, then add tbe milk, flour 
and salaratus and bake as soon as possible. 



Dripping Cake. — Mix well together two 
pounds of flour, a pint of warm milk, and a 
tablespoonful of yeast; let it rise about half an 
hour; then add half a pound of broken sugar, 
a quarter of a pound of currants, and a pound 
of good fresh beef dripping; boil the whole 
well for nearly a qurater of an hour, and bakf 
in a moderately hot oven. 



24 



[January 9, 1875. 




PUBI.ISHKD BI 
Ji, I. DIWXI, W. B. EWKB. O. H. 8TBONO. J. h. BOOKE 

PRiwoifAl. Editob W. B. EWER, A. M. 

OrnoE, No. 224 Sansome street, Southeast comer of 
alHomia street, where friends and patrons are invited 
t o our SoiENTiFio Pbebs, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establishment. 

Bub-ckiptions payable In advance— For one year, ti; 
six months, $'2. !5: three months, $1.'25. Remittances 
by registered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
ADVKKTiszNa Rates. — I week, Imonth. ^moTiths. lyea 

Per line 25 .HO $3.i)0 $5.0 

One-half Inch $1.00 $3.00 $7.60 2*.0 

One Inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 10.0 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 



In tlie^e column.*!*. 

We Will Prepay All Postag:e 

On this paper aftir the 1st of .January. 1875, us the law 
dema'ds. Ihis is equivalent to reducing the sub- 
scriptl' n price 20 cents per annum. Besides, it will 
save subscribers the anuoyauce ol paying petty post- 
ge bills every quarter. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January g, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OENERAIi EDITORIALS. — Silk Culture; To 
Our (J )rrespindei:ts; The Rutland Pear. 17. Los 
Angeles Haisi s; Farewell! The ('astor liean; The 
Ccut'i nlal Exhibition Building. Philadelphia, 1876, 
24-25. Patents and Inventions, 28- 

ILL,U3TRATIOVS.— The Kirilnud Pear, 17. In- 
ternational Exhibition; The Oeutennial Art Gallery, 

25. 

CORRTSPONDENCE. — An Agent's Suggestion; 
From Kalamazoo. Michigan: Uaywanls Ahead on Blue 
Oum; From Los Nletos; Oapay Valley; lufomation 
Wanted, 18. 

POULTRY "YARD.— Practical Poultry Growing; 
Feed for I'liickeiis. 18. 

THE VINEYARD.— Dr. Blake Reviewed; First Use 
of Postal Card-i. 18. 

SHEEP AND WOOL,.— The Sheep lutcrest in 
America: Cr ssing Ooiswulds on Merinos, 19. 

THE HORSE.— Burs on Horses' Mains and Tails, 
19. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — Mystery of the 
Lakes; Blastinii Accidents— .\ Hint Worth Remem- 
bering: Cotiibustion of Coal: Spontaneous Fire in 
Hay; Detection of Adulterated Wiuo; Singular fact, 
19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.-ProgresB of the 
Patrons in Calitornia; New Granges; Meetings; 
Etc. 20-21 

HOME CIRCLE.- Tired Mothers (Poetry): "Where 
There's a Will There's « Wny;" Extravagance; Cali- 
fornia Children: True Hospitality; Spiritual Evolu. 
tion; Uow to Malce Hard Ti nes: What a Woman Can 
Do: Whipping Wnmen; Value of Kindue.-s; Duu't 
Ptay Long: A Brave Woman; Natural Religior,; 
Women's Training School: A Nose Show; A Rich 
Firm, 22. A Novel Cure for Quarreling: Who Are 
Rich? A. Good Mother: No time for Frivolity; Em- 
ployment of Females, 23. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN -Frogs at School 
(Poetry): Don't Give I p. but Try; The Sabbath 
School; How to Treat Bad Boys; Future Men and 
Women, 23. 

QOOD HcALTH. Wet and Dry Bathing; Poisoned 
Conl'Ctionery; A Singular Case; Cure for Corns: 
Healthfulneeg of Apples, 23. 

DO vlESTIC ECONOMY. — Importince of the 
Inorganic ('onstituents o Food; Cock^' Combs as 
Food: Beef Tea: Bt-ef Clubs; Sponge Gingerbread; 
Dripping Cake. 23. 

AQRICULTUaAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California. 23. 

MISCELLANEOUS*.— To Keep Ice from Windows; 
The New Homestead Plan; Use for Snakes; E iropeau 
Languages, 19. Cotton; R-mnrkable Cree Growth 
in Man Bernardino; A New Shell; Miigalar Ciuse of 
Boiler Kxplnsion; Cutting and Pickling Pork; Im- 
provement in Map MaRiug; Chinese Fish Hatchiug- 
The Un-iic Lauteru in Diseise, 26. Agricultural 
Items; Industrial Items; Friedlander's Seioi-Anuuul 
Grain Circular. 28- Geological Puzzle: Glass for 
Veneering, Paneling, Etc.; Professional Stiiistics. 
30. Economic Use of Fu 1; The Mysteries of the 
Human Throat; Imitation Patents; Improving lUver 
Navigation, 31. 



On File.—" The Grange and Public 
Schools." I. C. C; "The Grange bocially," J. 
T. ; " From Sacramento Grange," G. E,; "Note 
from Livermoru Gra' ge;" "Lindsonpe Gar- 
dening," F. P. H.; "bilk Cultur* in 1874 " 
(nontinoed) F. G.; "Profits of Fine Sheep," 
W. A. S ; "Biise a Pinespple," W.; Notes 
from Yotintviile and Berr>essa valley by our 
own ourreBpondeut. 

Babley and Wheat at the North Mr, 

Lniidstord, of Adin, reports to the J/odoc Inde- 
pendent, that at least one-tbird ol the trt p 
of barley aud wheat in Big valley was lost in 
oonsequence of the late storms. He states, 
also, that it 1 irge amount of grain is spoiling 
in the granaries since it was threshed. ° 

Tbaining Hobsks.— Rockwell's lectures on 
the "EducatioQ of the Horse," at Oakland, 
were well at:euded, and much valuable informal 
ion imparted to the audience. 



Fabmebs who do not wish to "pay for all," 
should a 'quaint themselves virith ths advan- 
tages oSerrd i y ihn "Fari-ueis' Mutual Fire In- 
surance Co.," No. 6 Leide-dorflf street, S. F. 

GoAVA. — The fl St guavas grown in this State 
have b tn brought into Santa IBarban by Colo- 
ne' Dinsiuore, wuo raised them on hia place at 
&JL utecito. 



Farewell ! 

It seems somewhat odd to go first and say 
farewell afterwards, but circumstances may 
make it more appropriate thus than otherwise. 
I had expected to make an aunouucemtnt in 
the Granger last week to the effect that it had 
been consolidated with the Bdbal Pbess, but 
when the day of issue arrived, the bargain had 
not been concluded, and of course I had noth- 
ing to i^ay in public. On New Year's d y, how- 
ever, while our hearts were big with new born 
hopes and high purposes, Brothers Dewey, 
Ewer, and I embraced, and henceforth the 
Orangtr and Rubal occupy the relative posi- 
tion of the lion and the lamb, the lion being on 
tbe outside, as usual. 

The reasons for thus uniting our projects, 
acd retiring the Granger from the field are: 
First, we believed that the interests of ihe Or- 
der could be better subserved by one paper, 
upon which tbe sympathy and patronage of the 
Order could be concentrated. Second, like all 
similar projec;8, the publication of the Granger 
cost a great deal of money, and having such a 
competitor as the Rural, it was likely to cost 
a great deal more before any dividends could be 
declared. Third, Messrs. Dewey & Co. promise 
to make as much better paper as their increased 
faciliti(s will enable them, so that those wbo 
receive the Rural in lieu of the Granger will 
have no reason to complain, and if Ihey do not 
keep their promise, our old friends will please 
tiotify us at once. 

Solomon, I think it was he, said "of making 
many books there is no end; but much study is 
a weariness to the flesh." If he were alive now 
what Would he say of the newspapers? No loyal 
member of the Order feels like throwing ofl on 
a paper devoted to his interests, but the ex- 
pense that is involved in taking a dozen or two 
is quite burdensome; and in these hard times 
should be avoided— of course, without sacrifi- 
cing anything of fealty to the c^use. Need we 
say that no loyal Patron on the Pacific coast 
can now ignore the claims of the Ruual Pbkss? 
Finally, brothers and sisttrs, do not Kt the 
impression be entertained that the Granger bus 
failed in any sense, or that by its mergment 
into the llu al any discre lit attaches to the 
Oriler. It may be that it will be announced as 
a failure by our enemies, and a little gloiifica- 
ti lU indulged in in consequence at our expense. 
I distinctly authorize aL.y one to give such re- 
port the lie, and send the author of it to me 
tor satisfaction. Nor will you idlow your.-<elves 
to entertain a fear that Bro. Henniug has 
abated one jot or tittle of his ardor in the 
Grange cause. He don't surrender worth a 
cent, and will never be wounded in the back. 
Thanking you all for your generous support, 
and for the many evidences of your hearty 
sympathy (all undeserved) during the past 
year and a half, the " little Granger" bids you 
a long farewell. Yours, fraternally and ever- 
lastingly. Geo. W. Hennino. 



[ The editors and publishers of the Rural will 
do their best to meet the anticipations raised 
by Bro. Henning in retiring his lively paper. 
His old patrons are referred to the business 
notice on the last page of this issue, which ex- 
plains fully our business transactions regard- 
ing their interests. ] 

To Correspondents. 

0. H., of Walla Walla, asks the following 
question: 

How much water will discharge through a 
pipe 4Vi iDoh oiliber (on bone), IJ^ miles long 
with 70 feet fall nearly a gradual descent, i; d 
by a reservoir five feet deep (or five feet 
measurement at head ?) 

It will di.scharge 160 gallons per minute. 

Our Danville correspondent does not handle 
the subject of dress relorm as deftlv as we 
could have wished. The article is not up to 
oor standard. 

The ommunication of C. A. is somewhat 
lengthy, and contains the elements of a discus- 
sion which we apprehend will do no good We 
therefore decline to publish it. 



The recent rains were much heavier in the 
southern portion ol Ihe State than here This 
rain, u will be recollected, fell here on Christ- 
mas eve AViih a light rain in February or 
March, the farmers of Los Angeles and San 
Diet^o «ill be sure of a crop. At present eve- 
rjtbiug looks encouraging •there. 

The Santa Cruz powder mill, it is announced, 
will suspend operations for a short lime in 
consequence ol which over 300 persons will be 
thrown out of employment— for a short time 
only, we presume. 



The Castor Bean. 

The importance of diversifying our system 
of farming was duly recognized and advocated 
by us, long before the occurrence of the late 
reverses in wheat; and if these reverses have 
not occasioned any somersaulting on our 
part, as with some of our contemporaries, it is 
because we firmly believe that the change from 
one dominant crop to an established system of 
diversified farming is already progressing as 
rapidly as a prudent regard for the health of 
California agriculture would desire. 

Among the crops now receiving increased at- 
tention from the farmers of this State is the 
castor bean. A good deal of interest has been 
manifested by some of our subscribers in 
regard to this product, and inquiries for prac- 
tical informatiou have been sent to the Pbicss. 
Answers to the following questions have been 
requested in this connection: When should 
the beans be plantid ? What quantity of seed 
per acre? What is the cost of seed? What is 
the market price of the product? Which is 
the most profitable to raise, the large or small 
variety ? And is there a ca'-tqr oil manufactu- 
ring company in San Francisco? 
• Time of Plantitig. 

All members of the beau family are extremely 
sensitive to fiost, aiW in localities where frosts 
occur, planting should be delayed until this 
danger is passed. About the first of April is 
the best time for planting. In districts where 
there are no frosts the castor bean becomes an 
annual, and in such localities maybe planted as 
soon as the groun 1 is in proper condition. In 
the very early stages of its growth it is subject 
to injury from certain insects and worms, but 
it soon out^-rows such danger. 

About five pound. I of seed are required per 
acre, the cost of which will vary from six to 
eight cents per pound. The aver ge crop may 
be estimated at from 1,2(10 to 1,500 pounds per 
acre. In regard to the market price of the 
crop, we would state thai the only available 
returns are for 1872, when the crop sold at $70 
per ton. The demand for this product is ap- 
parently steady; and in answer to the question 
as to whether there is a castor oil manufactory 
in San Francisco, we would state that there is 
such an establishment, known as the Pacific 
Oil and Lead Works; and also that it announces 
its willicigness to eontr.ict for ca-tor beans at 
rates that with proper eubivation on suitable 
land, will make thorn one of the most profitable 
crops giown. 

We have been asked whether the largo or 
small varieties are most profitable. We are 
assured that the small beans are tbe most 
profitable. 

Having answered the above questions to the 
best of our ability, we will give some general 
hints ''or the benefit of those who wish to en- 
gage in growing thi:, croi>, beginning with 
Preparing the Ground. 

Commence plowing as early as the ground 
will break up light and mellow. Plow di ep 
and harrow thoroughly. Five feet apart is the 
proper distance. Five or six beans should be 
dropped in a hill, and when the plants are 
about six inches high, go through with the 
hoes, an! clean everything in and around the 
hill, leaving only one stalk. Keep them clean 
for the first four to six weeks; after this they 
will t-ike care of themselves. 

When the i^pikes are fit to pick, which can 
be known by the color changing from green to 
red, and by their commencing to pop, com- 
mence picking iit once. They have to be picked 
several times as they ripen. The first bunches 
will ripen about the middle of July. They 
should be picked as soon as they are ripe, or 
great waste will ensue by this popping of the 
beans. This period of the castor bean croi> 
furnishes 

Wcrk for the Young Folks. 

A large share of the cost of production is 
incurred in the picking season, and this work 
can be perf >rmed by young b)y8 and girls as 
well as by any parties. There are other desir- 
able contingencies growing out of this crop 
which are woith considering; one of the most 
important of which is the condition in which 
the cul.ivation of the castor bean leaves the 
land. Those who are experienced in the mat- 
ter declare that land improves under ibis crop. 
This is probably owing to the depth at which 
ih • roots reach; and, as incidental to this, we 
would stale that objnctious are raised to castor 
bean culture on the grounds of being difficult 
to era iicate; but those who have triad it declare 
that they have found no diflSculty in eradicat- 
ing the roots wiih a barley crop. 

We will give at an early daie further inform- 
ation for the benefit of those interested in this 
product. 

Wheat for Pios.— Mr. I. T. V>Ay, of Mann 
county, Oregon, luruishes the liecord his expe- 
rience last season in fattening pigs on wheat, 
by which means he made a good- pay for his 
stock hogs, and realized $1 per bushel for his 
wheat, though working at a disadvantage. 

Wilmington. — Affairs are lively in Wilming- 
ton, Los Angeles couiity. Some 200 men are 
now empl lyed there by the railroad company 
in building lighters and a new wharf, and in 
the machine and car shops. 



The Centennial Exhibition Building, 
Philadelphia, 1876. 

We will suppose that all the readers of the 
Rural Press have already heard of the manner 
in which it is proposed to celebrate the hundredth 
anniversary of the existence of the United States 
as an independent nation, and of the magnificent 
building in which all the nations of the earth are 
invited to exhibit their products. Of this build- 
ing we give a splendid illustration, as also of the 
Art Gallery, which it is expected will contain 
some of the most distinguished works of painting 
and sculpture to be found in Europe or America. 
The whole structure will be supported on piers 
of massive masonry, while the superstructure 
will consist of wrought iron columns with roof 
trusses of the same material. The columns will 
be of rolled channel bars with plates riveted to 
the flanges, while the roof trusses are straight 
rafters wijh struts and tic bars. The building 
in shape, a parallelogram, extends east and west 
1,688 feet, and north and south 464 feet. 
Should necessity arise, these dimensions will be 
increased. 

The Principal Buildings 
Are the Main Building, the Art Gallery, the Ma- 
chinery Hall, the AgricuUuial and the Horticul- 
tural Halls. In the aggregate they cover a floor 
space of about 46 acres. 

The larger portion of the structure is one story 
in highth, and shows the main cornice upon the 
outside at 45 feet above the ground, the interior 
hight being 70 feet. At the centre of the longer 
sides are projections 416 feet in length, and in the 
centre of the shorter sides or ends of the building 
are projections. 216 feet in length. In these pro- 
jections, in the centre of the four sides, are locat- 
ed the main entrances, which are provided with 
arcades upon the ground floor, and central facades 
extending to the highth of 90 feet. 

Upon the corners of the building there are four 
towers 75 feet in highth, and between the towers 
and the central projections or entrances, there is 
a lower roof introduced showing a cornice 24 feet 
above the ground. 

In order to obtain a central feature for the 
building as a whole, the roof over the central 
part, for 184 feet square, has been raised above 
the surrounding jiorlion, and four towers, 48 feet 
square, rising to 120 feet in highth, have been in- 
troduced at the corners of the elevated roof. 

The areas covered are as follows: 

Ground Floor 87i,;tiO eq.feet 20 02 acres. 

Upper Floors la projections. 37,344 •• •■ .85 

'■ in towers afi,W4 '• " .60 " 



Total. 



»36,i)U8 

Ground Plan. 



2i.l7 



The general arrangernent of the ground plan 
shows a central avenue or nave 120 feet in width, 
and extending 1,832 feet in length. This is the 
longest avenue of that width ever introduced into 
an Exhibition Building. On either side of this 
nave there is an avenue 100 feet by 1,832 feet in 
length. Between the nave and side avenues are 
aisles 48 feet wide, ..nd on the outer sides of the 
building smaller aisles 24 feet in width. 

In order to break the great length of the roof 
lines, three cro -s avenues or transepts have been 
introduced of the same widths and in the same 
relative positions to each other as the nave and 
avenues running lengthwise, viz: a central tran- 
sept 120 feet in width by 416 feet in length, with 
one on either side of 100 feet by 416 feet, ahd 
aisles between of 48 feet. 

The intersections of these avenues and transepts 
in the c ntral portion of the building result in di- 
viding the ground floor into nine open spaces free 
from snpport.ng columns, and covering in the 
aggregate an area of 416 feet square. Four of 
these spaces are 100 feet square, four lOO feet by 
120 feet, and the central space or pavilion 120 
feet square. The intersections of the 48 foot 
aisles produce four interior courts 48 feel square, 
one at each corner of the central space. 

The main promenades through the nave and 
central transept are each 30 iect in width, and 
those through the center of the side avenues and 
transepts 15 feet each. All other walks are 10 
feet wide, and lead at either end to exit doors. 

The Art Gallery. 

Is located on a line parallel with and northward 
of the Main Exhibition Building. 

It is on the most commanding portion of great 
Lansdowne Plateau aud looks southward over the 
city. 

It is elevated on a terrace six feet above ihe gen- 
eral level of the plateau — the plateau itself being 
an eminence 116 feet above the surface of the 
Schuylkill River. 

The entire structure is in the modern renais- 
sance. The materials are Granite, Glass and 
Iron. No Wood is used in the construction, and 
the building is thoroughly fireproof. The struc- 
ture is 365 feet in length, 210 feet in width, and 
59 feel in highth over a spacious basement 12 feet 
in highth, surrounded by a dome. 

The dome rises from the center of the structure 
to the highth of 150 feet from the ground. It is of 
Glass and Iron and of a unique desif n ; it termi- 
nates in a colossal bell — from which the figure of 
Columbia rises with protecting hands. 

A figure of colossal size stands at each comer 



January 9, 1875.] 



26 



of the base of the dome. These figures typify 
the four quarters of the globe. 

The main entrance opens on a hall 82 feet 
long, 60 feet wide, and 53 feet high, decorated 
in the modern renaissance style; on the farther 
side of this hall, three doorways, each 16 feet 
wide and 25 feet high, open into the center 
hall; this hall is 83 feet square, the ceiling 



14 feet wide, which opens on its north line into a 
series of private rooms, thirteen in number, de- 
signed for studios and smaller exhibition rooms. 
All the galleries and central hall are lighted 
from above; the pavilions and studios are lighted 
from the sides. The pavilions and central hall 
are designed especially for exhibitions of sculp- 
ture. There will bQ 



Dept. VII. Apparatus and methods for the in- 
crease and diffusion of knowledge. 

Dept. VIII. Engineering, public works, arch- 
itecture. 

Dept. IX. Plastic and graphic arts. 

Dept. X. Objects illustrating efforts for the 
improvement of the physical, intellectual and 
jporal conditiori of mart, 



In this connection we may mention that the 
San Francisco Jouynal of Commerce has ap. 
plied for a space 50x50, wherein to represent raw 
materials and staples produced on the Pacific 
Coast. 

How Ihe Work Progresses. 

Philadelphia papers represent the work as pro- 
gressing favorably. The contractor is trying to 




of the dorrie rising over it 80 feet in highth. 
From its east and west sides extend the galler- 
ies, each 98 feet long, 48 feet wide, and 35 feet 
in highth. These galleries admit of^temporary di- 
visions for the more advantageous display of paint- 



Ten Departments 

Of classification, divided into one hundred and 
nine groups, subdivided into one thousand and 
ninety-nine classes. The departments of classifi- 
cation will be as follows: 



The Pacific Coast Commissionersl ,-. 

With their alternates are as follows: ^^^?t '**' 

California — j DunbarCreigh, San Francisco; al- 

ternaie, Benj. P Kooser, Santa Cruz. Oregon — J 

W '."••■Uie, Baker City; alternate, A J Ditfur, 



place the Memorial Hall under temporary cover' 
to allow work inside during the winter. The 
interior walls have reached a highth of about fifty 
feet, or above the span of the arches which form 
the entrance to the magnificient vestibule. On 




THE ^CENTENNIAL ART GALLERY. 



ings. The center hall and galleries form one 
grand hall 287 feet long and 85 feet wide, capa- 
ble of holding eight thousand persons, nearly 
twice the dimensions of the largest hall in the 
country. From the two galleries, doorways open 
into two smaller galleries, 28 feet wide and 89 
feet long. These open north and south into pri- 
vate apartments which connect with the pavilion 
rooms, forming two side galleries 210 feet long. 
Along the whole length of the north side of the 
main galleries and central hall extends a corridor 



Dept. I. Materials in their unwrought condi- 
tion — mineral, vegetable and animal. 

Dept. II. Materials and manufactures the re- 
sult of extractive or combining processes. 

Dept. III. Textile and felted fabrics — apparel, 
costumes and ornaments for the person. 

Dept. IV. Furniture and manufactures of gen- 
eral use in construction and in dwellings. 

Dept. V. Tools, implements, machines and 
processes. 

Dept. VI. Motors and transp'ortation. 



Portland. "iNevada—W W McCoy, Eureka; al- 
ternate, Jas W Haines. Genoa. Utah— John H 
Wickiyer, Salt Lake City; alternate, Oscar G 
Sawyer, Salt Lake City. Idaho— Thos Donald- 
.son, Boise City; alteniHte, Christopher W Mooie, 
Boise City. Mont.ina — W II Claggett, Deer 
Lodge City; alternate, Patrick A Largey, Vir- 
ginia City. Washington Territory — EUvood Ev- 
ans, Olympia; alternate, Alexander S Abernelhy, 
Cowlitz county. Arizona — Hon. Richard C Mc- 
Cormick, D. C.; alternate, John Walson, Tucson. 



IheTexterior walls all the rough granite up to the 
warer-table is in place, and on the southwest 
corner the masons have laid a considerable quan- 
tity of the fine Richmond granite which is to 
form the su])erstructure. Enough is now laid at 
the Memorial Mall to indicate its beauty and dem- 
onslate the imposing diameter of the edifice. The 
granite at the southwest corner is about six feet 
above the water-table. Itisbacked with brick, 
laid in cement, the entire wall being five feet thi;k 
and is to be continued to the full highth. 



26 



^Amwm mjwMM^ i^miss^ 



[January 9, 1875. 



Cotton. 

There is scarcely any agricaUural product iu 
which the readers of the Press have manifested 
more interest during the present season than in 
cotton. Being aware of this we shall continue 
to lay before them such information on the 
subject as we are able to obtain. It is essen- 
tial that the people of California familiarize 
Ihemselves with the manufacturing and com- 
mercial aspects of this imi-ortaut product, as 
well as to learn how to grow it. We therefore 
give the following digest of the Departmental 
report of the cotton crop of 187i. It will be 
well for the California cotton grower to note, 
in reading this report, where allusion is made 
to the condition of the crop in June, with the 
statrmeut that "vigilance, stimulated by fears 
of utter failure kept the fields entirely clear of 
grass, "etc., for though the crop here is not liable 
to sufifer from floods, it will probably pass 
through other trials or succumb to them, if 
its owners are not alike watchful and vigi- 
lant. Following is the digest of the report re- 
ferred to: 

" The cotton product of 1874, as estimated 
by the correspondents of the Department of 
Agriculture, somewhat exceeds thiee and a half 
millions of bales. The yield per acre is re- 
potcd less than in 1873 iu most of the States. 
The weather for ripening and gathering the top 
crop has been very favorable. The reports are 
nearly unanimous iu stating that the propor- 
tion of lint to setd is large. The percentagfes 
of last year's aggregate of bales in the princi- 
pal cotton State.s are as follows: Virginia, 89; 
North Carolina, 89; South Carolina, 92; Geor- 
gia, O'.i; Florida, lUO; Alabama, 95; Missi.s- 
sippi, 9U; Louisiana, 85; Texas. 90; Arkansas, 
60; Tennessee, 57. This result corresponds 
very closely with the indications of the monthly 
BtiitementB of condition made by the Depart- 
ment. 

The October statement, which has been mis- 
interpreted, or misrepresented, as indicating 
3,000,000 bales or less, makes the average for 
10 cotton State,-, 71 per cent of normal con- 
dition, or an impairment of 29 pt-r cent, from 
all causis, ag.iiusi 79 p.-r ceut. las' j'ear. So 
far .as condition in O^itober indicittes final 
results in b<los, the propurtiou would be: As 
79 is to 71 so is the aggregate \iold of last to 
that of the present i-e ison This would make, 
wiihiu a fraciion, 3,7-18,000 hales on the same 
Bcrcitg.-; but un an area 10 per cent, less it 
would mean 3 373,000, or witu the outlying 
area, fully 3,400,000, The tine season' for 
ripening and gathering during the last two 
months accounts (or the slight increase in th'- 
fiual returns, and reudeis th':? accuracy of judg- 
ment in the two retnrus almost absolutely 
ideutical. 

As to the necessity that all the monthly reports 
of c.iiiditiou thruutjhout the growing season 
should be ideutical in their p^Iceutaiies, it is 
an absurdity and an impcissibility, which no 
man of sense would sut»gest, as there must 
ever i<e a constant warfare bt-tweeu the vital 
and di-stroying forces of n-iture, the current 
results of which it is the business of our cor- 
respondents to report from month to month. 

The statement of condition, (100 represent- 
ing normal condition of healthy development, 
»b .ve which exiraordinary vigor and growth 
may sometimes be written, while all luipair- 
meut of vitality or redaction of healthful 
gri wth are represented by lower figures), dur- 
ing the growing season of 1874, has been 
reported as follows, the figures beiny iu each 
o ise an average, for the State namid, of the 
county percentage of normal condition, by the 
side of which are placed similar State aver- 
ages for 1873: 





June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 


October. 


# 


1873 


1874 


1873 


1874 


1873 


1874 


1873 


1874 


1873 


1874 


N. C 


85 


89 


91 


102 


SIS 


9.S 


9.5 


87 


8H 


Ki 


8. C 


88 


81 


82 


88 


87 


97 


86 


88 


80 


80 


Georgia. 


M4 


80 


9i 


91 


'.15 


94 


90 


77 


82 


80 


Florida.. 


102 


9(1 


99 


9B 


103 


102 


85 


77 


76 


HI 


Alabsmk 


■W 


82 


85 


92 


91 


90 


85 


81 


78 


75 


Miss 


92 


78 


83 


87 


88 


89 


82 


74 


75 


74 


La 


9t 


7U 


80 


73 


8li 


m 


80 


r.2 


65 


62 


Texas.. . 


86 


■JO 


78 


102 


83 


10,5 


92 


65 


80 


7(1 


Arkansas 


9i 


90 


101) 


94 


93 


87 


93 


47 


83 


s.--. 


Tenn.... 


9U 


86 


96 


97 


96 


83 


92 


S2 


90 


56 



The condition of the crop in June was re- 
ported lower than in the same period of 1873 
in every State except Texas and North 
Carolina.^ Louisiana, which suffered most 
by flouds, made the lowest average ; Mississippi 
next; Georgia, South Carolina and Alabama 
coming next in ftrder. Saturating rains, caus- 
ing overflows cf every spring-branch as well as 
larger streams, left cotton more unthrifty, 
irregular, and stunted iu appearance than for 
years at the early stage of its growth. The 
writer of this visited most of the cotton States 
and can testify to the reliability of the first 
report. 

After the rains came exceptionally fine 
weather; stands were perfected by replanting; 
the plants took root more firmly in the warm 
soil; growth became rapid; and vigilance slim- 
ulattd by recent fears of utter failure kept the 
field unusually clear of grass, so the .July 
returns everywhere indicated improvement, as 
tbo> 'f the previous year had shown decline 
of condition, A comparison of the two years 



in July shows higher condition in 1874 in 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, 
Misj^issippi and Texas. In August a record of 
continued improvement was made in all the 
States except North Carolina, Alabama, Arkan- 
sas and Tennessee, deterioration being notice- 
able in the latter two. At this point in the 
comparison with 1873, a decline comnjences in 
the condition of cotton of the present season, 
though it is mainly seen in Arkansas and 
Tennessee, very slightly in Georgia, Florida, 
Alabama, and Louisiana, while in South Caro- 
lina and Texas a higher condition is marked 
than in August last yea--. 

In Septi^mber this slight difference is evi- 
denced, especially by the low returns of 
Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas, 
resulting from drought and other causes which 
would have made still greater reduction of pro- 
duct but for the fact that losses from the cater- 
pillar were far less than ia 1873. In October 
there appears a slight improvement in Georgia. 
Florida, Texas, Arkansas and Tennessee; small 
reduction iu the Carolinas and Alabama; and 
in Mississippi and Loui,iana no change is 
indicated. The general average for this month 
is 71." 



Remarkable Tree Growth in San Ber- 
nardino. 

We give the following from the Santa Bar- 
bara Guardian of December 12, 1874: "We are 
not going to exaggerate. We went into Dr. 
Barton's champion nursery with a pole in one 
hand and a tape in the other. We made the 
measurements; can vouch for their correctness; 
and invite the skeptical to go and satisfy Ihem- 
.-elves, that we simply give the bare facts. In 
this wonderful nursery are Sicily lemon trees 
which have grown from bud since last spring, 
nine feet seven inches high each and three 
inches in circumference. And yet those trees 
have been "clipped" ofi' over two feet of "top" 
each. In the orange nursery we measured sev- 
eral trees over five feet high and three inches 
in circumference, each. And, in general vigor 
and lusuriance of limb, we know those trees 
are unequaled fir their age. Fig trees budded 
on other fig stocks last Mirch show an aston- 
ishing, nay, incredible growth. Scores of them 
are each over six feet high, with splendid 
yield of figs, and good figs too. The two year 
old fig trees average about nine feet in bight, 
and ten and a halt inches in circumference, 
lanted fro m six inch cuttiugs. Slips planted 
ast March have borne excellent fli<s — we tasted 
them — and average probably about five feet 
six inches in bight and three inches in circum- 
ference. These from eight inch cuttings 
Several are over seven feet in hight. Pear 
trees are of ibis year's growth, many of them 
seven feet high, each. Almond buds grafted 
om yearling peaches have since last spring pro- 
duced trees many of which are each over six 
ioches in ciicumference, -^ith fri)m seven to ten 
strong limbs in proportion. Hundreds of al- 
mond trees from seed last spring are each over 
ei^ht feet high and about three and a half 
inches iti circumference. There are 2,500 of 
thexe splendid trees in all. We were shown a 
peach budded on another peach last spring, 
whii-h has grown from the ground, to the in- 
credible hif^ht of eight feet and two inches, and 
strong and vigorous, too. • Of the two years' 
walnut trees many of them are each over 13 
feet high and aljoat ten inches in circumfer- 
ence. This year alone, hundreds of them av- 
erage 11 feet six inches in hight. There are 
about 4,000 in the nursery. We have not 
space to notice the remaining varieties in de- 
tail, but we can honestly say with Baillie 
Sampson, that their general growth is prodi- 
gious, Alt -gether, we doubt if there is a nurs- 
ery in Southern California can make such a 
splendid showing, by rule and tape. 



A Nkw Shell. — Various experiments have 
been made by a War Committee on explosives, 
with a view of ascertaining the practical effect 
of Professor Abel's proposed plan for the 
bursting of common shells filled with water, by 
means of a detonator, consisting of dry com- 
pressed-gun-cotton enveluping a small cap of ful- 
minate of mercury. Some moiitbs ago the practi- 
cabilityof exploding 16-lb comirion shells iuthis 
manner was .satisfactorily established, and the 
result of such an arrangement was the bursting 
of a shell into 300 fragments, whereas only 
about thirty pieces were produced by the ex- 
plo>ion of an ordinary bursting charge of gun- 
powder. The eftect of such an explosion 
among troops in the field could not be other- 
wise than di--astrous in the extreme. Lately, 
however, experiments have been made with 
9-inch common shells, which far exceed in ef- 
fect that of any conducted with the field service 
common shell. On this occasion the bursting 
element employed was wet gun-cotton in lieu 
of water. The result was extraordinary, the 
shells bursting literally into thousands of 
pieces. 



SiNouLAii Cause op Boiler Explosion.— The 
tube of a boiler recently exploded iu a 
foundry at Liege, Belgium, was caused, as 
shown on examination by the corrosive 
action of ferrous sulphate and sulphuric 
acid, derived from the sulphur in the coal fuel, 
Tliis discovery strangely points to the necessity 
of carefully and frecjuently cleaning the for- 
ward portion of the boiler tubes, and other 
p.irts which do not come in direct contact with 
the flame. 



Peak traes are blossoming at Santa Cruz, 



Cutting and Pickling Pork. 

L. W. Babbitt, of Council Blnfi'-i, Iowa, in a 
communication to the Western Rural, says the 
first essential in pickling pork is a good, sweet 
barrel — not a molasses barrel, but a new barrel 
made from well-seasoned, white oak staves, 
without any sap iu them. If there is any sap 
in the staves the brine will leak through, and 
the pork will be spoiled with rust. Good salt 
is another requisite for pickling pork. 

When the hogs are killed and the flesh per- 
fectly cold, lay the hog on his side and cut 
straight down the center of the back until the 
knife strikes the bone. Then turn him on his 
back and cut through the ribs close to the back- 
bone, so as to meet the cut m.^.de from the 
other side. Cut off the head and your pig 
will te in halves; cut the leaf lard from ^he 
ribs; cut off the shoulder and ham; cut out all 
the lean meat from the side; then cut the side 
iu strips about three inches wide, cutting across 
from back to belly. When you have your sides 
all cut in this way, take your barrel and cover 
the bottom three-fou1fths of an inch deep with 
salt; then take your pieces of pork and stt 
them on edge, the skin next to the barrel, mak- 
ing the circle smaller and smaller, until you 
have a perfect laj-er, and as close together as 
you can well press each piece with the hand : 
then fill all open spaces with salt. Then, with 
a square-ended stick, or maul, pound the pork 
down until it is smooth on the top. Then 
cover with salt about five-eighths of an inch 
deep. Then proceed with another layer as 
before, and so on till the barrel is filled to 
within three or four inches of the top. Then 
make a brine as strong as can be made with 
salt and boiling soft water; skim the brine and 
let it cool, when cold pour it on the meat 
until the barrel is filled to within two inches of 
the top. Put a board, cut to tit the inside of 
the barrel, on top of the pork, and lav upon it 
a rock weighing about forty pounds. Keep the 
barrel in a cool place, if you have one; if not, 
keep it almost anywhere out of the sun, and 
you will have good pickled pork as long as yon 
keep it completely covend with brine. I have 
never lost any pork put up in this way, and I 
have kept it in cellars, on the first floor and in 
the garret. 

Impkovement in Map Making, — Lloyd, the 
famous map man, who m ide all the maps for 
General Grant and the Union army, has in- 
vented a way of getting a relief plat>i from 
steel so as to print a map 40x50 inches in size 
on a fast working power press. This will .so 
much cheapen the price of luap-maknig a.s to 
enable hiim to furnish an unmounted map of 
the above size on bauk nota paper, plain and 
unvarnished for 10 cents, or 25 cents colored 
and varnished. 



Chinese Fish Hatching. — A curious mode 
of fish-hatching is said to be followed in China. 
Having coUectid the necessary spawn from tue 
water's edge, the fishermen place a certain 
quantity in an empty hen's egg. which is sealed 
up with wax and put under the sitting hen. 
After some days they break the egg. and empty 
the fry into water well warmed by the sun, and 
here nurse them until they are sufficiently 
strong to be turned into a lake or river. 

The Magic Lantebn in Disease. — Dr. Bal- 
mano, a Lundon surgeon, has successlully ap- 
plied the magic lantern to the study of diseases 
of the skin. A transparent photograph of the 
skin is taken and then placed in a magic 
lantern. A strong hydro-oxygen li^ht casts the 
picture enlarged on a white sheet, and in this 
way the smallest details are brought out with 
astonishing minuteness. 

The Brooklyn tower of the Eas! river Brook- 
lyn bridge was completed on the IGih of 
December. Its total bight is 268 feet— 48 feel 
higher than Bunker Hill monument It pre- 
sents a very imposing appearance; we hope it 
will not prove a tower of fdly. 





Self-Fasten liii? ^ ^T^T^ Double-Spiral 

Bed-Spring. BeU-Spring. 

We niauuf actnre all sizes of BED and FURNITURE 
SPRINGS, (rorii No. 7 to tlio smallest Pillow Spring; 
also, the Dfaible Spiral Spriup, which is the most dura- 
ble Bed Spring in uso. It is adapted to upholstered or 
skeleton beds. We have tlie sole right in this State to 
make the celebrated Obertuann Self-Fastening Bed 
Spring. Any man can make his own spring bed witli 
them. They are particularly adapted to Farmers' and 
Miners' use. Send for Circulars and Price List to 

WARNER & SIIiSBY-, 

14v28-eow-bD-3m 147 New Montgomery St., S. F 

COMIPTOIV A: BI]V£'01tl>, 

REAL ESTATE BROKERS 

Employment and Intelligence Otiiie. Horse and 
buggy free t« see property. Ofllces at Comptin, and 
at corner of Court and Sjiring sireets, Los .\nt'eles, Cal. 
25vs-ly 



CHINESE EMPIiOYMENT COMPANY. 

We are prepared tn furnish at short Dotiee, Domestic 
Servants, Hotel Cooks, Laundrymen, Waiters, Conimon 
Labnr,-r.s, Kiinn Hands, Giirdenerii. Mechanics, Factory 
Hands, V\ ood Choppers, etc. S)iecial attention Kiveu to 
urnishiQfc Domestic Servant/t, 

PI FUCK i CO.. t27 Sacramento St., 

4vl7-3m hot. Montffomervand Kearny Stfl , S 1- 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

htovea and Mettils, Tinlier«' Goods, Tof Is and Machines, 
111 and m California, H and 19 DavU strecU, S»ii i'^an- 
clsco, and 178 J street, Sacramento 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



POISON ! POISON 

WAKELEES PATENTED 

Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

i NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOR 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending money in experimenting to find a safe, cheap 
and eflicient way of ri.lding their grain fields of their 
worst enemy, the syunui2LS, which destroy Millions of 
Dollars' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
and ca/iU>ine(i effort is made to kill them off, they will 
become mure unmerous every year. 

Wakelee's Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is just the thing the farmers of California have been 
looking for. It is sube death. One or two grains of 
it will kill a Squirrel so quick that if it is five feet 
from his hole it dies before It gets there. The Poison 
is put up DKY and in granular form, and easily han- 
dled: in one pound tins at $1 per pound. It goes a 
great way, as lo to l.'i grains of it are sufficient to 
place at each hole. Also successfnlly used for killing 
((ciphers and Rats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
different i)arts of the country, and gave universal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the country. The following ar« 
some of my testimonials, viz: 

S,\NTA Claba, April 20th. 1874. 
H. P. Wakelf.e, Esq :— Vour Squirrel Exterminator was 
ttsed according to your directions, on my 9"(fo y-iniL with 
excellent success, and in my estimution is just llie tlliog 
the farmers ^^■a^t to kill their Squirrels. 

J. R. Abgcrlui. 

San I.eandbo, Cal., April 3d. IS7I. 
H. P. Wakf.lke, Esy.-/><ir .S'lV,- I have given your 
Squirrel Exterminator a fair trial and llnd it to be an 
economical and very destructive preparation, and I can 
safely recommend it to our farmers, \ours, 

, J. M. EsTtron-irf). 

DoncHEBTY .Statiox, Alameda Co.. Cal. 
Mr. il. P. Wakelkk. San Francisco: I have used your 
Squirrel Poison and found it to tie just what you olaim for 
it. It is sure death. Yours, C M. Douoa»3rT. 

H. P. WAKELEE, Brugreist, 

Cor. Montgomcrj and Busk streets, 8. F. 



ARE YOU GOING- 
TO PAINT ? 



Tiii-::iv Tj.«tE i^iiE res;t. 



THE AVERILL CHEMICAL PAINT 

WILLLAST THREE TIMES AS LONG as the l)eft lead 
and oil. without CHALKINO; is of any desired color. 
It is jirepnred for immediate application, requiring no 
Oil, Thinner or Drier, and does not spoil by standing 
any length of time. It is equally as good for inside as 
outside work: over old work as well as new: iu fact, 
where anj paint can be used the AVERILL CHE.MICAL 
PAINT will be found superior to any other. Any one 
can apply it who can nse a brush, which tnjy makes it 
the FAR.MER'S FRIEND. 

IT IS JUST THE PAINT FOR THE AGE. 

IT IS SOLD BY THE GALLON ONLY. 

One gallon cqvers 20 square yards 2 costs. 

For further informatiOD send for sample card and 
price list. 

MANCFACrUKED BT 

The Oalifornia Ohemical Paint Company. 

TYLER BEACH, Pres't. M. C. JEWELL, Sec'y. 

OfHce — Corner Fourth and Townsond streets, San 
Francisco. 16v7-eow-bp-.Sm 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 
Hanufactuiers of 

ILiiiitsced and Cftistor OilH, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid lor Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 5 Front street. 
Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. telS-eoyi 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBAR.V, CAL. 

A Boarding School for Boys and (»irl-, offering all the 
advantages of a thorougli mnd, rn education. French 
Corman. .-^paiil^h. Latin. Greek, Drawing, the Natural 
Sciences. Gymnastics and Dancinu taui;lit without extra 
charge Vocal unA InstruiiieiiMl Munic receive particuiar 
attention. Pupils furnish '>»,/// a pair of heavy blankets. 
Next lerin opent^ January tith, l:i74. 
Write for Oatalogne to ELWOOD COOPER, 

22t6-1t President Board of Director!. 



STOCKTON, CAL. 
JAMES COLE, Proprietor. 

This House contains all modern improvements: Sa- 
loons, Bath Rooms and Telegraph. 
The only firs t-class Hotel in Stockton. 



BELLA UNION HOTEL, 

.TOIIN F. MILLER, Pruji., 
SAN BEKNAEDINO, CAL. 

This hue hotel is situated in one of the best parts of 
the city, and the proprietor will at all .times use big 
best endeavors to promote the comfort of his ^ests. 



BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BIjANK BOOK MANUFACTI"RER. 

418 & 420 Clay Street, SF. 

n 1 auk Books Ruled, Printed and Bound to Order, 
janl-ly 



Orders Wanted at the National Em- 
ployment iiOice. IK'8 Jlarktt street, room Si: office 
crowded daily with good men and women, seeking em- 
ployment: psrtisnlar attention paid to country orders, 

Q6v8-8m A. BRANDT & CO., Prop'd 



January 9, 1875.] 



(IPJExjJSSj^ 



27 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveati? filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignmente 
procTired; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained ; Interferences Prosecuted ; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventore 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secures 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents,' including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales. Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European conn- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule pi-ices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We c/in and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
BooNEB than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise apphcants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applications 
which wUl interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual confei-ence of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are famiUar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by the extra time consumed in transmit 
ting specifications from Eastern agencies back 
to this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
• confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facihties for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons in bringing their valuable is- 
coveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining *and Scieatitic Press and the 
Pacific Jlural Press, 224 Sansome St., S. F. 



Banking and Insurance. 



The Pacific IVIutual Life Insurance 
Company of California. 

No. 41 Second street, - - - Sacramento 

ACCUMULATED FUND, NEAELY 
^l,^^ 0,000.00. 



$100,000 Approved Securities, deposited with tlio Cali- 
fornia State Department as security for 
Policy holders everywhere. 



LELAND STANFORD President 

J. H. CARROLL, Vice-President 

JOS. ORACKBON Secretary 

All Policies issued by this Company, .and theproceeda 
thereof, are exempt from execution ity the laws oS Cal- 
fornia. THE ONLY STATE IN THE UNION that pro- 
vidcB for this exemption. 

>E?"Policie8 issued by this Company are non-forfeita- 
ble, and all profits are divided among the insured. 

Policies may be made paj'able in Gold or Currency, 
as the applicant may elect, to pay his premium. 

Executive Com.inittee : 
Leland Stanford, J. H. Cabbou., 

RoBT. Hamilton, Samuel Lavenson, 

Jas. Cabolan. 



SCHKEIBEB. & HOWELL, 

IX-2!)-eow-bp-3ra General Afients, Sacramento. 



Anglo-Californian Bank. 

LIMITED. 

Successors to J. Selierman & Co. 

London Office No. 3 Angel Court 

San Francisco OfQce No. 412 California street. 

Authorized Capital^ock, $6,000,000, 

Subscribed, $:^,O0n.(MJ0. Paid in, $1,500,000. 
Remainder .-subject to call. 

D1RF.GTOR8 IN London— Hon. Hugh McOuUoch, Rtiuhpn 
D. SasBOOD, William F. Soboltield, Isaac Sclismiin, Julius 
Sinf^ton. 

Managers: 



F. F. 



r.OW nnd IGNATZ STEITfHART, 

San Francisco. 



The Bank is now prepared to open accounts, receive dc- 
Dosits, make collections, buy and sell Kxchaiise, and issue 
Letters or*Crodit available thiougbout the world, and to 
loan mone.v on proper securities. 2v27-eowbp 



Commission Merchants. 

~JOHN H. HEGLER, 

Nos. 412 and 414 Sansome Street, S. F. 

GRANGERS' 
DAIRY PR O D U C E 

— AND — 

COMMISSION HOUSE, 

HAS EVERY FACILITY FOR SELLING 

BUTTEK,, C!H:EE!«E, 

LARD, HAMS, 

HIDES, BACON, 

•WOOL, PELTS, 

POTATOES, 

DRIED & CANNED FRUIT, HONEY, Etc. 



H. K. OCMMUIGS. 

1858. 



H. H, RAXSTON. 
1875. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce CommissioD 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corlier of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Our buBlness being exclusively Ooiumlsslon, we have 

o interests that will conflict with th me of the producer 

4v23.lv 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for tiie sale of Butter. Eggs 
('heese, Hop^, Green and Dried Fruit!*, etc., 7o Warren 
street, New York. Refnr to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank. N, Y. : Ell vvanger A Barry . 
Rochester, N. Y. ; 0. W. Reed. Sacramento, Cal.; A 
Lusk A Co., Pacific Fruit Market, San Francisco, Cal. 
3V-lv 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Msnufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

' MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 
421 Pine street, between Montgomery and f 
Kearny, San FaANOiROO. 
21v2-ly 



Geo. W. Chapin, Keal Estate Agrent, 434 

Montgomery St., San Francisco, b»v8 and sells Ranches 
in all parts uf the State, ('ity Real Estate exchanged for 
CouBtry Property. M»nev Loanep. Post Office Boi lliO 



CENTINELA COLONY 

LOS ANGELES CO., CAL. 

SIX MILES WEST OF LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
The unparalleled success of tho 

LOMPOC COLONY, 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY, 

Has induced the ''Ceutinela Land Company of Los An- 
geles" to subdivide and pl-ace in market for sale and 
settlement, under the direction and management of 
the "California Immigrant Union,*' of San FrauciHCo, 
the "Centin<_'la and Sausal Kedondo" Ranchos, contain- 
ing Twenty-tive Thousand Acres of Beautiful Valley 
Land, located seven miles west of the city of Los An- 
geles, and extending to and fronting on the Pacific 
Ocean. There is now on the tract an orchard of about 
three hundred acres. cont.aining Orange, Lemon, Lime, 
Fig, Walnut, Almond and Olive trees, and a nursery of 
young Orange and Limo Trees. Some of the Orange 
and Lime trees are in bearing. The tract will be sub- 
divided in twenty, forty, eighty, one hundred and sixty- 
acre farms, and sold upon easy terms and long credits. 

Auction Sale of Town Lots 



5. 10, 20 and 40 ACRE FARMS, 

WILL COMIMENCR ON 

Monday. Jan. 18, 1875, at 12 o'clock, M. 

And continue Five Days. The sale will take place on 
the Rancho. Parties desiring to purchase should be on 
the ground a few days prior to the sale, in order to ex- 
amine the property. Title— United States patent. 
Situation. 
"Centinela," with the addition of the "Sausal Re- 
dondo," contains 2.1,(1110 acres. The boundary of the 
Rancho commences three and a half miles from the 
city limits of Los Angeles, and extends to the Pacific 
Ocean. 

TOrOGEAPHY. 

"Centinela" is made up of one broad, level, fertile 
valley, of over twenty thousand acres, and beautiful 
fertile rolling hills near the ocean. 
Soil. 

The soil is an exceedingly fertile loam, and is, with- 
out exception, tho rit'hest and most productive In 
Southern California. Its vicinity ti the ocean insures 
a crop without irrigation. Excellent wheat has been 
raised for the last two years upon the hills adjoining 
the ocean. This wheat field contains 1,000 acres, and 
covers the lightest soil upon the Rancho. There is no 
alkali or barren land. 

Semi-Troicpal Fruits. 

There are a few bearing orange and lime trees upon 
the Centinela, and The fruit they produce is of tho 
largest and finest quality. There is an orchard con- 
taining (J.OOO orange frees three years old, and 1,700 
almond, lime and lemon trees. The almond, lime and 
lemon trees will bear fruit in 1875. The orange trees 
will bear in five years. There are 7.000 three-year-cdd 
orange trees in the nursery near the orchard. Fig, 
pepper and gum trees grow without irrigation. Tlie 
entire or* hard can be taken care of by three men with 
six horses. The orchard will be kept undivided by 
the company, to save the expense of each shareholder 
having a few trn s to take care of. Each share will 
entitle the owner to about 15 trees in the orchard and 
about the same number in the nursery. The almond, 
lime and lemon trees will yield an immediate return. 
In five years each orange tree will produce $20 per an- 
num, or $:100 per sharft for those now planted. There 
are flowers in tho garden in bloom every day in the 
year. 

SiiEEr. 

A flock of about 14.000 sheep will be kept undivided, 
to save expense to the sharelK)lders. This will give 
about 30 sheep to each share. The sheep will produce 
in increase and wool over $2 each, yearly, over ex- 
panses. They will be grazed upon outlying and un- 
sold lands of the conip my The "No fence" Law is in 
force in Los Angeles County. ,, 

Climate. 

The climate of the "Centinela" is without exception 
the finest anil most equable in the world. It varies 
but little throughout the year. The mean temperature 
is about 60 degrees. The mercury falls but little below 
00 in winter and rises but liltln above 60 in summer. 
You sleep under one pair of blankets nnd with your 
bed-room window open every night in tho year. 
Agriculture. 

The soil of the "Centinela" is admirably adapted for 
all kinds of grain, vegetables and fruit. 
Water. 

The Ceutinela creek rises upon the Rancho and runs 
through the northern portion of the tract. It affords 
an abundance of clear sprine water. The source ol the 
Centinela creek consists of several natural artesian 
springs, showing that artesian water can be obtained 
by boring. 

The Town. 

A square mile is laid off at an eligible point on the 
tract, with lots 31x136; avenue 100 feet, and streets 80 
feet wide. A stream of water can be brought in so as 
to supply every lot with crystal, cool, sweet water. 
One of the forty-acre tracts is set apart for a College 
and Farm School, and th?re will be a Ten-acre Park on 
each of the four sides of the town, and Four Blocks in 
the center of the town for Public Buildings, Schools, 
etc. A large lot will also be set apart for each Relig- 
ious Denomination, and a block given for the erection 
of a large hall by the different Fraternal, Grange and 
Temperance Societies. 

Fare. 

Parties desiring to visit the Rancho can take the 8:10 
A. M. train of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Soledad, 
thence by Coast Line Stage to Los Angeles; by i P. M. 
train to Bakersfield, thence b y stage to Los Angeles; or 
by Pacific Mail Co.'s and Goodall, Nelson k Perkins' 
steamships direct to Los Angeles, where conveyances 
can be had to go to the Rancho free of charge. 
Sailroajps And Wharf. 

The Company intend building a wharf to enable 
Steamships from San Francisco and other i)laces to 
land passengers on the tract. A narrow-gauge railroad 
will be built from Los .\ngeles to tho wharf, a distance 
of about 12 miles. The Main Street and Agricultural 
Park Railway will soon be built to tho park, about — 
miles from the tract. This railway will be exteiidcd to 
the tract as soon as the settlement will justify it 
Apply to W. H. MARTIN 

General Agent California Immigrant Union, 5'H Califor 

nia street, between Montgomery and Kearny streets, 

San Francisco, to TEMPLE & WORKMAN, Bankers, 

or Gen. SHIELDS, Los Angeles, or O. L. ABBOTT, 

Corresponding Secretary State Grange Immigrant Aid 

Association, Santa Barbara. 

P. S.— A second sale -""ill take place on tho Rancho, 
commencing on Monday, the 8th of March, 187.^. 

Farther particulars will be furnished by the officers 
and directors of the Centinela Land Company, of Los 
Angeles, who are : P. P. F. Temple, President; F. P. 
Howard, Vice-President; J. S. Slauson, Los Angeles 
County Bank, Treasurer; J. M. Griffith, of Griffith, 
Lynch & Co.; Gen. J. H. Shields; O. W. Childs; D. 
Freeman, on the Rancbb; W.'U, J. Brooks, Secretaiy. 



Live Stock Notices. 



B. W. Owens, San Francisco. | E. Moobe, Stockton, Cal 




OW^EIV!-* ^fc IMCOOItE, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

DEALERS IN 

WOOL, HIDES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Office— 405 Front street, S. F. 14v7-3m 



U. S. LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, 

xEHSL 



S. E. Cor. 5th & Bryant Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Fresh Milch Cows and Cattle; 
Saddle, Work and Carriage Horses; Thoroughbred 
Durharas and Devons; Pure Blooded Berkshire Pigs; 
Thoroughbred Cotswold, Southdown and French and 
Spanish Merino Sheep, sold on commission or bought 
on farm for cash. Address, DAWSON k BANCROFT 
P. S. — Special rates to mejnhfrs of the Grange. 

BLOODED STOCK FOR SALE. 

May be seen on board the ship "Glory of the Seas,' 
They consist of a Bull, three Cows, and six Calves, 
all Jersey stock, with good pedigree. .Inquire of the 
Captain on board, or HENKY COTTEELL, 

Grangers' Bank, 116 California street 



FOR SALE. 



A pair of thoroughbred Che ter "White Hogs, 
one year old. A. B. ROWLEY, 

Mayfield, Santa Clara Co., Oal. 



California Farmers Mutual 
Fire Insurance Association. 

Office, 6 Leidesdorff St., - San Francisco. 

Directors: 

A. Wolf, A. w. Thompson, I.C.Steele, 

I. G. Gardner, J.C. Merrvfield, J. D. Blanchar. 

G. P. Kellogg, Treas. 

Finance Committee: 

I.G.Gardner, J. C. Meruyfield, A. W. Thompson 

Trustees: 



.1. M. Hamilton, Lake Co 
J.C. MEunvFiKLtj, Solano Co 
G. W. Colby, - - Butte Co 
H. B. .Iollkv, - Merced Co 
A. Wolf, San Joaquin Co 
J. D. BLANCHAR, Pres't. 



I. C. Steele, San Mateo Co 
\. B. Nallet. Sonoma Co 
O. S. AnnOTT, S'taBarb'aCo 
A. W. Thompson, Sonoma Co 
E. W. Steele, SL Obispo Co 
W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 



This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of (.afely 
insuring against loss by fire, at actual cost of insurance, 
without being connected with city risks. a822-tf 

SANBORN & BYRNES. 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 2.5v8-8m-bp 



GRAPE VINES FOR SALE. 



Roots and Cuttings of the best foreign varieties In 
lots to suit, at ten to twelve dollars for the former and 
three to five dollars for the latter. Thirty thousand 
roots W. Muscat, Alexandria, &c. Ord< rs solicited 



early. 



Iv9-tf 



H. "W. CRABB, 

Oakville, Napa Co., Cal. 




L (> O K ! 

ALBERT E. BUtlBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. ggi and Fowls at 
reduced prices. jend for Price 
List. 

ALBERT U. BURBANK, 
lv8-3m 43 & 4' Cal. Market S.F 



SOI^ETITIPTO NEW. 

Every business man should have one of those neat 
and durable Vulcanized Rubber Stamps, to mark 
their merchandise, stamp their envelopes, fcc. Also, 
a name stamp for marking their clothing and cards 
with genuine indelible ink. Send your orders to 
FRANK H. WIN&, 
Boom 14, 608 Market street, San Francisco. 
Printing Wheels only $C. 25T8-lm 

For the very best Photographs go to BRAD- 
LEY & BDL0Fs6N'S GArjLERY. with an "Elevator. 
429 Montgomery street. Hau Frauciaco. av7.6Ui 



28 



WSMIWW HfTHAS PB1BSS. 



[January g, 1875. 



^qi^icdLTvJRi^L fdoTEs. 



ALAMEDA.. 

Gbain Shipments. — Livermore Enterprise, 
Jan. 2: During the past ten days upward of 
of 1,600 tons of grain have been shipped from 
this place, mostly to fsan Francisco. A strau- 
ger would naturally think that our large ware- 
houes would soon be emptied of their golden 
treasure at this rate, but such is not the cune. 
We stepped into Edmondson's w r>-house the 
other day aud it appears as well-filled us it did 
I'onr weekt ago. Many of our farmers who did 
not store thf-ir grain in the warehouses at the 
time of thresliiug. are now doing so, which, of 
course, fills the vacancy m;ide by theKbipmcnt 
The usual activity in se- ding is going on, yet 
many ffar a dry season. We feel anxious 
about rain, for without it we shall be placed 
back where we were two years ago. Several of 
our largest farmers are cautious about putting 
in large crops for fear of a dry year. 

Still Habpiko.— The Oakland papers are 
still talking of their orange trees in betring. 
The Transcript, Jan. 4th says: Supirb oranges, 
large, fully ripe and luscious, plucked from a 
tree four years old in a garden of a gentleman 
living in Oakland, were exhibited to us yester- 
day. They had none of the advantage of a hot 
house, but were raised in the open air. lu ex- 
ternal appearance compare favorably with the 
oranges of Los Angeles county. 
BUTTB. 

Alfalfa on Red Lands. — The Marysville 
Appeal says alfalfa will not grow on the red 
lauds, but four crops in one season is good 
enough for all practical purposes. Auburn is 
in about the same latitude as Cincinnati, but 
we dont believe they do much haying in that 
locality in the latter part of December. 
CONTBA COSTA. 

Fink Cotton — Antioch Ledger, Jan. 2: We 
have on our table a specimen of cotton grown 
this season on the f'tirm of Johnson Fnucher, 
five or six miles from town, which corroborates 
the fact already demonstrated, that an excellent 
quality of cotton may be grown in this valley. 
The bolls before us are well mHiured and the 
cotton of the fiuest texture. The land com- 
posing the Fancber farm is about the game 
quality of soil as tbat of a great majority of the 
valley for many miles above this place. Every 
one who has experimented in cotton growiug 
has succeeded beyond expectations and we hope 
to see a j^oddly number of acres thus planted 
the present season. 

Apprehensions fbom Lack of Bain. — The 
absence of rain for several weeks past is caus- 
ing some of the merchants and farmers to fe. 1 
a little shaky in regard to the failure prospe ts. 
Noihiug is sTiffering tor r»iu at present and no 
one can predict with any degree of certainty 
whiit will be the result of a California wiuter. 
Thus far all is well. The early rain was abun- 
dant; the land has been sown much earlier 
than usual; the togs have been equal to three 
or four inches of ruin aud there has been t>ut 
little drying north wind. Wheat looks well. It 
is the late spring rains that insure the harvest. 
COLTTSA. 

Cotton in Colcsa. — Colusa Sun, Jan. 2: A. 
Hutland planted about 50 acres of cotton on 
the east side of the river last spring. He has 
now finished ginning what he gathered, and 
hands in bis balance sheet for the transaction. 
We will first state, however, that more than 
one-third of his crop was diowurd out by rea- 
son of the back water from the Parks dam : 

COTTON CBOr, DB. 

To pIonghiUK land $ 125 00 

To pUnting seed 10 00 

To cultivaii m 32 00 

To tbinniDg aud wettiliDg 98 00 

Paid psi-8ago on bands from S. F 42 i«l 

To pi king 890 30 

To ginning and baling 125 25 

Total $818 57 

co^^rBA ob. 

By 7,500 pounds ginned cotton @ 20 c $l,.50O no 

Subtract total cost 818 57 

Profit $(581 13 

If Mr. Butlaud had two weeks more of good 
weather, or had it not been land affected by 
the overtiow, his profit would have b^ eu m re 
than double what it is. There were 15 acres of 
it that he had nut gone over at all, and much 
of it had only one picking, so that the estimate 
of one-third d< stroyed is rath r under than 
above the mark The growing of cotion, then, 
in ihis valley, is no longer an expeiment. 

Native Okanges.— Wb wonder that people 
in this city >iud vicinity do not cultiva-e the 
orange. The fruit will grow here as thickly 
and >ield as beautifully as at L"S Angeles or 
Panama. One acre devoted to the culture ot 
the orange is worth more than u whole farm 
for wheat growing. 

FRESNO. 

New Potatoes.— Fresno Expositor, Dec. 30: 
Antouio Days, left at this office last Thursday 
about 20 pounds of new potatoes. They were 
grown on the Easterby farm, the seed being 
planted last fall, after" the wheat crop was 
harvested. The potatoes varied in size — weigh- 
ing from two to eight ounces. They were of 
the common pink variety. For our Christmas 
dinner, therefore, we had new potatoes, and 
we can tru'hfully say, they were a- tine as any 
potatoes we ever ate, being ruealy and solid 
New potatoes for a Christmas dinner is a rari' v 
that few people in this world can boast of hav- 
ing enjoyed. It occurs to us that in this little 
circumstance is a suggestion which may be 
ttuue^ to a good advantage. Let potatoes be 



planted in the fall, and supply San Francisco 
marliet with new potatoes during the winter 
mouths. There is money in it. Such a raritv 
in mid-winter would find a ready sale at a good 
price, and the crop could be raised without any 
interference with the usual grain crop. 
KBRN. 

Pboductiveness of Alfalfa. — Kern county 
Courier, Jan. 2: Facts are constantly ooming 
to our knowledge in regard to the alfalfa farms 
of the delta of Kern river that seem to afford 
proof positive that they are just as good prop- 
erty as productive and rich silver and gold 
mines^of that class we mean tbat stand high- 
est among the brokers and speculators on 
Montgomery and California streets. As an il- 
lustration, and one, the facts of which may be 
< asiest verified, we shall refer to the farm of 
Jewett & Anderson, situate about two miles 
southwest of B ikersfield. Of this, 130 acres are 
in alfalfa. Daring the summer 15 head of 
horses and 40 of hogs were m tintained upon it, 
and in addition to those it has pastured, this 
fall and winter, 3,000 sheep and six'y bead of 
cattle, and there is now in stack, taken from it; 
at a low estimate, seven hundred tons of hay 
for sale that seems to find a ready market. In 
fact it is almost the only hay for sale this side 
of the Panamint and Coso mines We venture 
to say there is no mining property in the State, 
of proportionate value, that pays half as large 
a dividend to the owners. The field has 8s 
yet, by no means, attained its full stage of 
productiveness, and next year the yield will be 
much larger, with a better price for hay than 
even the present satisfactory tates. 
MONTEREY. 

Kemarkable Weathee. — Monterey Democrat 
Jan. 2: The season is an exceptionable one, 
and the weather-wise are completely at fault. 
Three weeks ago the gr iss at Soledad Mission 
was a foot high, and cattle and horses were 
showing the effects of a bountiful pasture the 
former having got already in beef condition, 
aud the latter having shed their winter coat of 
hair. But the cold spell has spoiled all, and 
the country thereabouts looks now almost as if 
no rain had fallen. It is a physical law that 
one extreme begets another, aud reason and 
philosophy certainly favor our belief that we 
shall soon be visited by south winds, bearing 
to us the much needed moisture. As to the 
clfgree and duration of the existing cold spell, 
there is no precedent furnished by the oldest 
inhabitant. Nobody that we hear of can re- 
member such. The rule has been, three frosts 
and rain, but this year we have had frost after 
frost, un il the atmosphere has had all the 
moisture it contained condensed and brought 
to the ground Beverting to our theory, as to 
the effect of extremes, the drouth of '63-t dif 
fered from the present in this, that then the 
prevalent winds were southerly, ths general 
temperature was mild, and there was constant 
promise of rain. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Orange Culture.— The Sacramento Agricul- 
turist ^a>s: "That this portion of the Siate is 
naturally the home of the orange is now be- 
yond cavil, and soon »e will be able to supply 
our local market with oranges that have no 
superior. Orange trees require longer to come 
into bearing than any oth^^r fruit, and hence 
we have had to wait for a number of years to 
see the fcsults of these experiments. The 
present year, however, will bring several hun- 
dred trees into bearing in this immediate vicin- 
ity, and several thousand more in the adjoin- 
ing counties. It seems remarkable, but it is 
true, nevertheless, that there is nearly a thou- 
sand trees inside of Thirty-first street lideu 
with golden fruit in the dead of winter. These 
oranges sell in the market for a dollar a dozen, 
and. are preferred to any other oranges. Here- 
tofore our citizens who engaged in the business 
had to import their trees; but now that it is 
demonstrated beyond doubt that our climate 
and soil are so admirably adapted to the growth 
of the orange, our nurserymen are propagating 
young tree» to supply the demand. The cue 
ture of the orange is simple. Three hundreo 
trees will yrow on one acre, and when in full 
b' aing will yield enormous profits." 
SANTA CLARA. 

Pbaying fob Bain. — Gilroy Advocate, Jan. 2: 
The prayer now is among f aimers, fur more 
rain. The luug succesi-ion ot dry weather, 
wi'h heavy fronts at night and a warm sun 
durini; the day, has dried the moisture from 
the ground in many placis, and the youug , 
Kiain and grass are lag.;ing for want of raiu. | 
The indications were favorable last week for a 
shower, but none came, and it has been anx- 
iously looked for all tuis week Although we 
of the Santa Clara v ,lley can do with less rain 
than many other secti-ns, still, it would be 
most acceptable at this time. 

Gbuund Drying Up. — San Jose Mercury. 
December 31st: Several of the farmers are 
aimont through with putting in their crops, 
auil some have had to qua plowing, the ground 
bting too dry and hard. In some places in 
the luw lands the ground is cracked some three 
inches wide. 

The Gilroy tobacco company has been in- 
creasing its faoities for business. By present 
arrangements it will be able to turn out one 
million Havana cigars per mouth. 
SONOMA. 

Cbups About Vacavillb.— A Vacaville cor- 
respundeut of the ValUjo Chrouick, of Jan. 2d, 
writes as folio *b: The lurmer-i in this vicinity 
are about through putting in their crops. They 
say they were never bless, d with a better sea- 
son so far, for their purpose, than they have 
had. Enough and no more than enough rain 
has fallen to permit plowing, ^0 that they have 



got their crops in at an exceptionally early 
period. The warm weather succeeding the 
rain has also given the grass a quick and vigor- 
ous growth, thus affording fine pasturage for 
stock. In some places vegetation stands seven 
aud eight inches high. The weather, however, 
the last few days has been very cold, and the 
frost has been very heavy. Growers are very 
busy pruning their vines aud trees and tending 
to thi ir hot beds, etc. 

Eably Veoktablks — The Weldon Bros, are 
going into the vegetable business on a large 
scale this season. They have about 25 large 
hot beds They have a great manv fine tomato 
plants three and four inches high, also some 
tine cucumbers. They intend to make the lat- 
ter a specialty. They plant the seed in small 
baskets made of wood or wire for that purpose, 
aud then they put the baskets in the hot beds, 
and when the plants are three or four inches 
high, and when the cold weather is passed they 
take up the basket and plant them in the open 
air. In this manner they raise very early cu- 
cumbers, which bring in the San Francis o 
market from one to four dollars per dozen. Dr. 
Hubbard, of Lagoon valley, has two large hot 
houses planted with cucumbers; they are look- 
ing very thrifty and nice. 
SAN JOAQTTIN. 

Bain Needed.— Stockton Independent, Dec. 
31: Tidings from the west side of the San 
Joaquin river are to the effect that, unless soon 
refreshed with raiu, the grain crops muse suffer 
damage. The crops generally throu_hout the 
valley were never in a more flourishing aud 
promising condition at this season of the year, 
and any noticeable check thus far in the growth 
is contined to a few localities. The wind cur- 
rent from the bay sweeps uninterruptedly along 
the plain between the river and the eastern 
base of the Coast Eange mountains, and in ad- 
dition to the bad eftect of the drying winds, the 
character of the sojl is such ai to render it far 
less retentive of moisture than the laud on the 
east side of the stream. While rain is really 
needed on the west side, a copious shower 
throughout the entire valley would be rather 
tieneficial than otherwise. 
SUTTER. 

Prospects. — Sutter Banner, Jan. 2: We learn 
from Jesse Hob-on, a farmer near Gridley's 
station, that the farmers are putting in more 
grain than ever, much new land has been bro- 
ken up, and the weiilher has been very favora- 
ble to the cultivators of the black laud. The 
wild geese are very troublesome in thatsectioa, 
doing nearly as much damage as last year. Mr. 
Hobson also informs us that the Cherokee 
Mining company have made a proposition to 
farmers along the proposed line, that if they 
give the right of way through to Butte creek, 
they will construct a canal to carry off the 
washings from the mines. 

Sacramento Biveb. — Along the river from 
Moon's ferry above, to Vernon below, we hear 
evidences of goud times, health and general 
contentment, each particular locality pi ides 
itself upou its healthy location. The cause of 
their prcisperity is owin^ to their varied pro- 
itucti n-^, such as corn, barley, broomcoin, po- 
tatoes, beans, vegetat)le8, fruit, butter, cheese, 
p ultry, eggs, beef, and many other articles. 
With so varied a lot of products, the river farm- 
ers always manage to keep a little spending 
m >ney on hand. 
TULARE. 

Improvements in real estate.says the Visalia 
Delta in the iorm of ditches, railroads, ware- 
houses, mills, public buildings, private resi- 
dences, etc., in Tulare county alone has agrt- 
g ited more than a million of dull«rs, during 
the present year. Probably not less than 
three hundred thousand dollars have been ex- 
pended in ditches. School bouses have been 
built in many of the new school districts, aud 
the advance in this Hue has been fully up to 
the progress met elsewhere. 



Patents & 1nvention& 



A Weekly List of D. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

IFBOH OFTIOIAI, REPOBT8 FOB THB MiNmO AND 8CIKN. 

TLFio Pbe88, DEWEY b CO., Pdelibheus and 

O. 9. AND FoaSION PaTBNT AOKNT8,] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated WashinKton, 
D. C, Jan. 5th, 1875. 

Fob Week Ending Dec. 22d, 1874.* 
Habrow.— David T. Gillis, Stockton, Cal. 
Gbain Headeb.— David T. Gillis, Stockton, 

Cal, 
Animal Tbap. — Gamos Biohardson, Sun Jos^, 

Cal. 

Safkts Pin.— Lucy Emma Andrews, S. F., 

Cal. 

Watee Gauge fob Steam Boilees.— Charles C. 

Bedmond, S m Jo>^. Cal. 
Chuck.— Wilham F. Foothaker, S. F., Cal. 
Distilling Spikits. — Bubert C. Brooks, S. F., 

Cal. 

Locking Latch. — Henry Bogers, Eureka, 

Cal. 

Tbademabk. 
For Boots.— S. W. Bosenstock & Co., S. F., 

Cal. 

The patents are not ready for delivery by tfce 

Patent Office iiutil some 14 diiys after the date of issue. 
Note,— Oopies of V. 8, and Foreii^n PutentB furnished 
by Dewkt & Co,, in the shortest time possible (by tel. 
BKTaph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted wUb 
perfect security and In the Bbortest time poseible. 



Friedlander's Semi-Anuual 
Circular. 



Grain 



The readers of the Pbkss in consulting the 
following synopsis of the above report will of 
course consider the well known source from 
whence it came: 

Wheat. 

„ , ^ , S.tN Francisco, Jan. 1, 1875. 

Kecelpts from July Ut to December 316t, inclusive (100 
pound sacks). 6,50o,:t07:durin,( same ptriod last year. 
h.usli.MO; during same period in 1872, 7,142,920; eitiorts 
e ,«^=?'* I"'"'" •'"'y '"' '" December 3l8t, iml.isive, 
5,4»li,810: during the same period last year, 4,7U9 220- 
during the same perliid In 1872. 5,3.53,541. 

The receipts troin Oregon (which are not included lo 
the above) , have been trifling, aniouutiug to only 6.213 
centals The business of the past tix mouths has been 
large the exports exoeeaiug those of any previous 5 ear, 
but It has bpen by no m. ans a profitable one. The 
change in the English market frnm one of high prices 
to moderate, if not absolutely low ones, was very sud- 
d.n, ami our farmers found it difBcuIt to reach it and 
accustomed as they had become to very remunerative' 
prices, to ones which left but a small margin over the 
co>t of production, they have been reluctant Bidhrg 
throughout the entire season. 80 far the policy they 
have pursued has not proved good, and in view of the 
oxireme apathy of English buyers, it is doubtful if 
those who have held their wheat will do anv better in 
the spring. The requirements of Great Britain will 
not improbably exceed the first estimates, bpt with the 
large surplus available in the neighboring countries of 
Europe, and the large crop of the Atlantic States of 
America almost untouched any rise in England would 
be met and checked long liefore the remainder of our 
surplus could be brought into competition. The cropg 
01 Cliili aud Australia, too, will be floated rapidly from 
this time out, and those will naturally fill any demaud 
for white wheats tbat otherwise might benefit Oalifor- 
•nia. The present planting geascm in this State has 
been all that could be desired, and the wiut -r rains 
seiiug in nearly six weeks earlier than usual, a very large 
breadth of land has already been planted. Should we 
be favored with good spring rains, we may expect a 
large Increase on the yield of last season, which was 
materially shortened by a dry spring The market, as 
we write, is quiet but strong, the farmers beginning 
to show some anxiety about the weather; but an inch 
or two of rain within the next fortnight would ,«ct a 
large amount of wheat free, and predispose holders 
throughout the Slate to meet the market. The offer- 
iugs at present are very light, and good sLipping par- 
eels can be quoted under $1.6U(3;$1,C3 Ijl 100 lbs. 

Barley. 

Boceipts of barley from July Ist to December 31 st 
Incluaive (100 pound sacks) . 'Ji9,850; during the same 
period last year, 710,8ii0; durii.g the same period in 
1872. 68.5,910; exports of barky from July 1st to D>-cem- 
ber 3lBt, 60l!,636: during same period last year, 193 478- 
during aame period in 1872, 105.459. 

In addition to the above we have received 2,632 ctls. 
from Oregon. The large increase in the exports noted 
above was caused by the fact of the demaud for the 
Atlantic States and the MiKbissippi Valley commencing 
much earlier this year than last. In the Kail of 1873 
only a few hundred twus went over the railroad, but 
immediately after New Year the movement c, mmenced 
and continued until upwards of 350.000 centals had 
been moved away. This year the business is closing 
up about the tiuie it then opened, and the shipments of 
the next six months will necessarily show a heavy fall- 
ing off, compaied«with those made in the spring of 
lh73. The barley crop of t. is year wae a good one, both 
as r.^garda yiild and .uality, aud the busiuesi. done baa 
been a satisfactory one in evty respect. The stock, 
wliich was at the completion of harvest thought to be 
excessive, has b<eu alworbed at go..d prices, and the 
amount remaining in th.- State at present is not more 
than our requirements demand. The farmers are much 
encdursged by the result of the last two crops, an are 
putting in a large breadth of land. The market, as we 
write, is very firm. Feed is worth $1,30 and Brewing 
$l,.'>o@l,S5 ^ luo lbs. with a strong demand. The 
stock of Chevalier ia about exhausted. 
Oats. 

Iteceipts of oats from July li-t to December aist, in- 
elusive (IW) pound sacks), 216,126; during same period 
hist year, 175,530; dur in 1: same period in 1872, 189 410; 
exports of oati from July Ist to December Slst, inclu- 
sive, 53,149; during same period last year, 1,480; during 
same period in 1872. 1,970. 

Keceived from Oregon (not included in above), 
8.'),335 centals. The inci-ease in exports this season is 
due entirely to a demand from Australia, the execution 
of which was renderi'd pohsihle by the easy freights 
accepted by the steamers. The business in oals is of 
little or no interest outside our own border.^, bo there !• 
no call for extended comment on it. The crop was an 
ordinary one, if anything rather beneath the avera^, 
and the price has been keiit down continually by rel 
ceipts from Oregou, which were thrown on th* market 
immediately on arrival. There is, however, a stronger 
feeliig manifested at the close, and really choice par- 
cels cuuimaud $1.75^1.85 ^ luo lbs. 

Flour. 

Receipts of flour from July 1st to December 31st, in- 
cluNive (barrils), 2:!5,'218; during sameperi.d last year, 
2,VJ,yi2: during same period in 1872, 120,847; exports of 
flour from July lat to DecemlxrSlr-t, iuelu8ive,223,9<K); 
during same period last year, 391,218; during same 
period lu 1872, 113.980, 

Keceived from Oregon (not included in the above) 
27, 4 i9 barrels. The above shows a falling off in both 
receipts aud exp'irts, caused by the dc-crenscd demand 
for our flour in Great Britain. During periods of high 
prices there and here, we can frequently export flour to 
b. tt T sdvautaie thau wheat; but when bread is cheap 
iu England, buyers will always prefer to import whe«t. 
Our home cousumi tion of flour has increased largely 
of late years as the poiulaiiou has fllhd up, and the 
millers generally havi- done a satisfactory business, 
Whinever. by opposition lines of steamers or high 
freights ruling there, out facilities for export to China 
are increased, we may look for a large accession to our 
exports of flour that way. At the close we quote super- 
fines (in fllotb) $4.25 per barrel; shipping extras, $4.50; 
bakers' extras, $4.76. 

FTei^hts. 

The circular gives a statement of the rate of 
freight at which every long voyste vessel that 
has left the port during the past six months was char- 
tered. The wide discripimcies in the lift show the dif- 
ference bttweeu what ships were suppjsed by specula- 
tors t<> be worth before the harvest wag gathered, and 
what they really were worih when they got here. A 
very large proportiou of the ships on the way were 
charted prior to arrival .it rates averaging considerably 
over £4 for wheat to Liverpool; but the rapid decline 
in breadstuffs in England after harvest, aud tlie per- 
sistency with which farmers clung to their wheat here, 
made the business a very disaatrous one, and the lorsea 
invidved one or two houses in ruin. A number of ves- 
sels chartered to thes*- were consequently thrown on 
the market and had to accept going rates, which of 
course was most distas'eful to owuerB, while those who 
sent their ships out .free were bitterly disappointed in 
the pricee they were ofl'i red. Thus the whcl. business 
was uiisatislai toiy and disgusting to all concerned, and 
the struggle bitwecn the shipiwu- r aud the farmer has 
continued all through the siason. The amouut of dis- 
engaged tounage iu port is large, »ggregaili g fully 
aeventy thou-and registert-d tons, and that to arrive 
AYitbln the next tbree uiouths is at least one hmidml 



Jaftuary 9, 1875.] 



~ri |-^->-^---e'r-^'^->- 



2i 



tbonsand registered tons. With these facts before us, 
and the outlook for wh?at in Great Britain poor. It Is 
useless to expect any advance iu rates, and although 
shipmasters have heretofore held very firmly and profited 
by so doing, we incline to the opinion that lower prices 
will prevail next spring. At the same time freights 
cannot be driven b»low a certain figure, for ships have 
Australia and Chili both under their lee, with large crops 
of wheat to be exported. The business for the fall of 
1875 promises extremely well, but the ships will have 
to come here seeking, not chartered to arrive as here- 
lefore for some sea-sons. The losses in that business 
oflat-havo been too heavy, audit is extremely, pre- 
carious at the best. 



S. p. P^^i^KET R^Ef»©l\7. 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, .Jan. C, 1875, 

The holidays having passed, the temporary relaxation 
in some kinds of business which was caused by their 
appearance has given way to a more lively state of 
affairs. In the retail market prices in poultry, game, 
fish, meats, fruits or vegetables, we note comparatively 
little change. 

The wholssale market shows gome very important 
changes. 

The dispatches to the Merchants' Exchange gives 
Wheat at. New York dull at $1..30@$1.40, while our 
quotations in this city, give wheat from $1..50@$1.70, a 
decided advance over similar quotations for last week. 
The Merchants' Exchange gives the Liverpool wheat 
market to-day at 9g lOd to 10s id for average California 
«nd lOs 4d to 10s 9d for Club. 

The following are additional items of the Now York 
market from the same source: Cotton quiet, firm, 
U%: Hides, dull, dry, 23M@24; Pork, dull, 20)4; Gold 
opened 112?^, 11 a. m. do., 3 p. m., do. In this city we 
quote Legal Tenders at 89 buying; 80}i selling; Bills 
on London, 60 days, gelling 49Jgd. 

Among the receipts of produce for the week ending 
Wednesday morning, we quote Flour, 146,944 qr sacks: 
Wheat, 207,062 ctls; Beans, 2,637 ctls; Potatoes, 18,278 
»ks; Onions, 657 sks; Barley, 15,909 ctls. 

Barley, for brewing, shows some advance, a choice 
quality brlnging$1.55. 

Beans remain at about the same rates as last week, 
for prime lots. Much depends upon the ground upon 
, which they are grown, dealers readily recognisiing dif- 
ferences iu quality. 

Beef, first quality, is worth from 7 to 9 cts. 

Broom Corn we quote at 5@10, there being con- 
siderable dift'orenco in quality, som^ having been dam- 
aged by early rain. 

Ee:e:8 are not so buoyant as during the holidays; we 
quote Cal. fresh at 37J4@40, it being diftlcult to obtain 
the latter price. Of Eastern eggs, the market is nearly 
or quite destitute. Suck eggs are lower than last week, 
being now placed at 37 M cts. 

Fruits exhibit but little change since last quotations, 
except Dried Fruits and Alden Dried Fruits, for which 
see figures in the tabular statement. In the Dried 
Fruits, apples, pears, poaches, apricots and black figs 
are all marked down, especially the black figs. In the 
Alden Dried Fruit changes are made in the Royal Ann 
cherries, pitted, in caddies, in apples per Ife, in plums > 
rhubarb and corn. 

Leather — In this article we do not have any change 
to to report. 

Lumber, both wholesale and retail, shows a num- 
ber of changes from previous quotations. In redwood 
lumber, flooring and surface and long beaded, which 
which were formerly classed together in the retail 
trade and sold at the same price are now separated, 
flooring being quoted at $32 per M and surfaced and 
long-beaded at $37.50. 

Metals show but little change. Nail Rod is He 
higher, being bow quoted at 10. Norway Iron shows a 
"rise of Ic, and we therefore note it at 9c. A slight 
'Change is noticeable in what is termed iu our list 
"Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc.," the latter 
"being now put upto4}^c, an advance of !4 of a cent 
p«r ft. Plow Steel rates 9 and 10c. 

CXiions remain unchanged. There is quite a supply 
on hand, if one may judge from the sacks of them that 
can bcseen. 

Poultry we quote unchauged, except live turkeys, 
and hens, which rate at 14@16>iio 13 ft, and roosters, 
young, large, at $5®$6 V* dozen. 

Provisions are steady and we have no fluctuations 
to record in bacon, hams, shouldors, smoked beef or 
jard. 

Ves'etables — These remain at last quotations 
The re are no Marrowfat Squathes in market. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



.t'* 




- & avi 



BKA.1VS. 

Beans, Bm'l wh. lb 3,'i(a 

do. butter 4^'^ 

do, bayo 'i%m 

ao, pink -)^<^ 

acpea 3!^'® 

BKOOM CUKN, 

Per 05 ,5 S) 

COTTOW. 
Cal. 1S74. »».... l.-i @ .. 
BAIKTf rKOBlJrE 
Butter. Cal. choice 
t> 40 
do, pood... 
d(,. interior, 
do, tlrkin 
do, pickled 

Oheese, Oal 12M 

do. Eastern ... 15 ^ 

Eggs. Cal. fresh 37;^® 

do, OregOD 30 @ 

do. Eastern 
do, DucLs'. 

FKE», 
Bran, per tou.... — gi9 Oo 

Middlings - ©28 .50 

Uay 12 OO'an 00 

Straw, ^ bale., '0 

Oil cake meal... — @30 00 
Corn Meal 32 bdm'i CO 

Exira 4 7.^ (5)5 00 

Superfine 4'0 fai4 25 

FKESB UKJL^ 
Beef, fr quality. .B) 7 
ao, second do.. 6 

do, thirddo iH' 

Veal 4H 

Mutton 6 (t4 

Lamb !>'A® 

Pork, undressed, ti^o 

do, dressed 8'$_ 

ORAIN, E'TC. 
Wheat, coast .. 1 ."K) 
do shipping ..1 hO 
do milling.... 1 .'iO 

Barley, I oast 1 20 

do brewing...! .'JO 
Oata, ch ice.. . 1 41) 

do oommon 
ilorn. White.. 

do, Yellow 1 35 m 40 

K uokw heat 2 (K) (02 25 

Rye 1 ViHm 20 

HOPS. 
(;aHforDia,1874. 35 @ 3Vi 
East'rn.'74.ch'ice .'■0 m - 
MlSCE.V,L.A.fl KOVS. 
Beeswax.per lb.. 25 (aj 27?^ 
Honey in comb.. IS (^ 22ii. 

do Strained 5 @ 10 

Pulu S'i&S 

Onions . 8"!i(ajl lO 

NUTS -JOB KING. 
Oal. Walnuia .... l» (S 11 
Peanuts per lb... 9 (ai 
Ohile Walnuts.. 8 (g 

Pecan nuts 13 (ai 

Brazil do 14 @ 

Alm'dsh'rd shell 8 @ 

do, soft 15 ® 

Filtierts ;, 17 'at 

Oocoanuts, IIWO.— Bn 00'^ 

POTATO F,J*. 
Sweet, per cwt . . 1 60 tol 75 
t^uffee Oovel ~m- 
H. M. Bav..l 30 Wl .50 
Piu'eon Pt... 1 40(0)1 60 
Humb>ldt.. 1 .50(31 75 
Tomales....! W-®; 7j 



Wednesdai im., Jan. 6, 1875. 
Mission .... — (3) — 

Salinas ~~ ^ — 

Bodega 1 40 gl 73 

St Barbara. — © — 
Sac. River., — C<S 
POUI^TKlf * OAMXi. 
Live Turkeys, 

henspsrib 14 @ 16'a 

do gobblers,.. 12 w 14 

do dresped 15 @ 19 

Hens, per dz, . . 6 00 "o^ 7 Ot) 
Roosters, young, 

large . 5 00 fflfi OO 

Br liters, small.. 2 .50 2)4 00 

do large 4 00 @5 00 

Ducks, tame.doz7 OO @8 00 
Gee'<e, per pair 2 00 @2 .50 
Hare, per doz. . . 2 00 ©3 00 
Snipe, Ens., doz — 
Quail, per doz ...1 ,50 




Mallard Ducks.. 2 0« @ 3 

do small 75 w 1 

Wild Geese, gray — @ 

do white. 2 00 @4 

Doves, per dozen 50 (ai 
Prairie Chickens — @ 
Rabbits 1 25 &I 

do tame 5 00 @6 

Venison, per lb.. 6 (a) 

PROVISIONS. 

Cal. BacuQ, Light — @ 

do Medium — (ai 

do Heavj- 13 @ 

■Eastern do 13'^§^ 

Hams, Cal 13>i@ 

.to Whittakers — ct 

do Duffleld, ch — C<S 

do Plankton A 
Arm ur , 1.5)^® 

do Boyd's .... — ^ 

do Stewart's .. — ko 
ilusternShuuld's 

do new hams 
Oal. Smoked Beef 
l.ard. 

SEEDS. 
Alfalfa, Chili,. . 15 
Oalilornia. 18 
iyanary. 

Ootton 6 

Flaxseed — 

lleiiip 8 

Ky. Blue Grass.. .50 

du 'id quality. . 40 

do .Hd quality. 

Millet 

Mustard, white. 



9 (a) 
K>i(0 



13,(^(^ 



(a) 



30 M) 
10 C<S 



t. 



do. Hrown 1?4G 



Italian Rye. 

Perennial do.... 30 (m 40 

Rape 11 "S 12 

Timothy 8 @ 12 

Swt-et V Grass,. 1 00 @1 5» 

Orchard do... 30 @ 35 

Red Top do... '25 @ 30 

Hungarian do 8 ^ 12 

Lawn do 5ii @ 60 

Mesquit do... 15 @ 20 

clover Red - 5) 20 

do White 65 @ 75 

fVOOL. ETC. 
FALL- 

Good to choice.. 18 ® 20 

Fair grade 16 @ 18 

Heavy free 14 @ 16 

Defective 12 @ 15 

Ilide8,diy ISi^a 20 

do wet salted 8'^ai 9 

Tallow, Orud».. 5 (^ 6 

do Refined 6 @ 7 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



Wednesdat m., Jan. 6, 1875. 



FKVIT MARKET. 

Tahati, Or. * M — (at 

Lorita, do 40 00(a45 00 

Ual. do 15 00^40 06 

Limes, # M.... H OOffill) On 
OaLLemoDb.^ M20 U0ici30 UO 

/Vusir lian do — [at40 im 

do Sicily *b'x.H OOwl' '0 
Bananaa, * bneli .. Otlo) 4 eu 
O .ooanut8,'pl(iOO.t)0 00@-0 Oil 
Pineapples, ^dz. — (a)7 CO 
Apples,^boi...l 00 @1 25 

Uliernos — ^ — 

Blackberries..,. — @ — 

d'' wild — @ — 

HuckU berries... - |@ — 
Strawberries^Bb — @ — 

Uooseberries 

Raspberries 

Currants 

do black 

Aoncots 

Plums • 

Peacnes, bskt. . 

do, %* bojc 

do ext Miiunt- 

tain.tt) 

Pears, Bart'i,bz. 

do Cooking — 

Crab Apples — w> — 

Nectarines — m — 

Wafrrael'8-*I0l) — @ — 

Muskui'l'sltiiOO. @ 

Poiiiegran's^lOO 9 — 

Figs — @ — 

Grapee,Brk H'g - @ — 
do Muscat.. — @ — , 
do Malavo'e.. — @ — 
do Sweetw'r. — ® — 

do Mission — a* — 

do Rose of Perul— ® -- 

do Tokay — iqtt — 

FRUITS. 




do Morocco — fd) — 

do St. Peter,,,.- m) — 
DRIED FRUI'r. 

apples # ......... —(J 4i4 

ears, "p Ifc —it) 8 

Peaches, V. lb 8 «S 9 

Apricuis, >( B) 12!4<^— 

Plums. » lb 6 a) B 

Pitted. 0" « lb .... 12'3a)15 

do Extra, 'f, .b 

Raisins, %4 9) 

Black Figs, |) lb. 

White, do 
Prunes 

do tierman. 

I'itrou ® S5 37"4 

Zante Currants. 

Dates 12/^1 

VEeETABl.K.S. 

Asparagus 60 @75 

Beets 20 r*25 

Cabbage, Ijt 100 D>s..5Q -$ 75 

Carrots, per ton 6 00(310 (• 

Cauliflower, doz 1 25(^1 .50 

v3elery, doz 40 (3).50 

Oariic. # lb 18gj25 

Green Peas 6 ($10 

Green Corn f* doz..— ®— 
Suin'rSquaah per ton — ^ — 
Marro'lat Sn'sh,tn — ai— — 
Artichokes.l* doz,, 75 ml OO 
Stnns Beans, ^tt) .. 12'^@15 

Lima Beans Uj.^cbl5 

Parsnips 15 (^20 

Shell Beans — @— 

Peppers, green, box — @ — 

Okra, tireen — @— 

Oucumbers, box — @ — 

'Tomatoes, box — @— 

Ei!K Plant, box — SS— 

Rhubarb — @- 

T,,ettaoe 30 @40 

Turnips, ton — (^— 

ETC., PRESERVED BT TRE 
ALDEN PROCESS. 



_ W - 



75 m 00 



LUMBER. 



Wbdwesday m., Jan. 6, 1876. 



CASeO PRICES 
RED 'WOOD. 



OF PUOET SOUND PINE 

j — Retull Price. 

^F'encin^;a^d Steppin[;,M 

Rough, IS M JI8 00 FcncinK", 2cl nualiiy,^ M 

Rougn refuse.^ M 14 00 Fenciiii.', ■#( M 20 00 

Rough clear. ^ M 30 00 Flooring and Step, fl M 30 00 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 'JO 00 Flooring, narrow, ^ M.. 32 ,51) 

Rustic, ^ M 32 .50 Flobrini;, 'id quaUty, M..i5 00 

Rustic, refuse, iP M 24 00, Laths, ^ M 3 .50 

Surfaced, lf»M 30 0O|Furring.J lineal ft.... 

Surfaced refuse,^ M... '20 nO, RED'WOOD— Retull. 

Flooring, ■^ M 2S 00 Rough,* .M 22 50 

:Floorini; refuse, » M.. 20 00 Rough refuse, * M 18 00 

'Beaded flooring, ^ M... 30 OOlRough Pickets, |! M.,.. 18 00 
IBeaded fioor, reiuse, M. '2.5 00 Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Half.inoh Siding. M '22 .*), Fancy Pickets, i» M 30 00 

Half.inoh siding, ref, M. 16 OOlsiding, % M '25 00 

Ualfinch, Surlaoed,M. 25 OOiSurfaced and Long 

Half.vpch Sur!. ret., .VI. 16 OOi Beaded 37 SO 

Hall'-iMch Battens. M... '22 .501 Flooring 36 UO 

Pickets, rough, I* M.... 13 OOluo do refuse, * M '22.511 

Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 OOiUalt-inch surfaced, M.. 32 50 

Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 25 00 Rustic, No. 1,^ M 10 00 

nbtnglea. it M 3 001 Battsns, %t lineal foot... h 

RouKh, VM 2» MShinglM WM t 



Apricots, pared, ^ lb* . , 35 
do unpaied,* Ibt ... 32 

Peaches, do, ^ it) t 16 

do pared, t> ft" X'/i 

do do *lbt 30 

Bartleit Pears.pared.lb* 45 
Pears, pared (sliced) !b* 30 
Pears, lO-lb boxes.family 

use, extra ■. . 35 

Currants, stemmed, lb*. 30 
Royal AnnCherries, pit- 
ted, !^ lb' 

Ken tishi^herries. pitted, 

•^tt) 

Apples, paredCring) fct 



75 



do do (whole.l'a Bit 16 
Apples, 10- lb boxeii fam- 
ily use, extra 18 

Plums, pitted.'^ Ibt... 30 

do do »lb* 35 

Rhubarb.lt Ibt 40 

Corn,fi Ibt 3(r 

Beans,* Ibt 60 

Potatoes, * Ibt 14 

Sweet Potatoes, ** Ibt . . 15 

Onion..,* Ibt 40 

Beei,*S)t 40 

Tomatoes, * Ibt. 

Si "' 



Jnuash, * Ibt 

•in caddies, tin bulk. 



LEATHER. 



Wedkesday m., Jan. 6, 1875, 

Olty Tanned Leather, * t> 20^29 

Santa Cruz Leather, * lb 26:g*'29 

Country Leather, * lb 24(328 

Stockton Leather, * lb 'i5(g)2i) 

Jodot,8 Kil,, per doz »S0 OOia 54 00 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 00® 90 00 

Jodot, second ohoioe, 11 tol6Kil.VdOE 55 00(g) 72 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 00(s) 67 00 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 63 00® 67 00 

Oornellian I'jniaies. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 00® 76 .50 

Simon Ullmo I^emales, 12 to 13, Kil 60 00® 63 (JO 

Simon Ullmo Fomaies, 14 to 16, Kil 70 OOg 72 '0 

Siuion Ulluio Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 00 « 75 00 

aimoD, IS li,il.,« doz 61 00® t>;i "0 

Simon, '20 Kil. % doz 66 00(g) 67 OU 

Simon. '24 Kil. * doz 72 OO® 74 00 

Robert Oalf, 7 and!) Kil 36 00(a) 40 ')0 

trench Kips, * lb 100® 115 

California Kip, » doz 40 00(0)16' 10 

t'rcnoh Sheep, all colors, * doz 8 00® 15 00 

Kastern Oalf f^or Backs,* lb 100® 1 '24 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all oolors, * doz 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,* doz 5.509 10.50 

California Ruasett Sheep Linings.... 17.5(4 4.50 

Best Jodot Calf boot Legs, * pair 8 00® 5 '26 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, * pair 4 00® 4 7.5 

ICrenoh Calf Boot Legs,* pair i 00® 

Harness Leatber, * lb 30(g) 37H 

Kair Bridle Leather, * doz 48 IM)@ 72 00 

Skirting Leather, * &> .i3® 37,Hi 

Welt Leather, * doz 90 ooa 50 00 

Buff Leather, * foot 17® — 

Wax Side Leather, * foot r-.>«> IW — 

BMttrn Wax Latttbar ,., 



METALS. 

Wednesdat m., 

American Pig Iron, * ton 

Scotch Pig Iron,* ton 

White Pig, * ton 

Oregon Pig,* ton ..., 

Rehned Bar, bad assortment, * lb 

Rehned Bar, good assortment, * lb. .. 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13... 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 

Horse Shoes, per keg 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, eto, 

WOPPEB.— 

Braziers' 

Copper Tin'd 

O.Niel's Pat 

Sheathing, * lb 

Sheathing, 'fellow 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

•Composition Nails 

lOomposition Bolts 

1'iN Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX * box 

Plates, ICOharooal 

Roofing Plates 

BancaTic, Slabs,* lb 

Steel.— English Oast, * lb 

Anderson A Woods' American Cast. 

Drill,.. 

Flat Bar 

Pfow Steel 

Ziivc 

Zinc, Sheet 

Nail6 — Aasorted sizes 

QciClslLVEil ner m 



Jan, G, 1875. 




S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



POULTRY. eAME. 

Spring Chickens 50 ® 75 



Wednesday M., Jan. G, 1875. 

Choice D'ffleld.. 18 (3 22 
FISH, MEATS, IbTI 

Flounder, * lb....- ® 2£ 

Salmon, * lb, ...20 @ 2! 

Smoked — (g) i; 

Pickled. * lb.. 5 ® I 

doSpr'gp'kl'd — ® - 

Salmon bellies 15 @ - 

Rook Ood, * lb, . \2H^ 1. 

Cod Fish, dry, lb — la 1( 

Jo fresh — @ 1; 

Perob, 8 water,* 10 ® I; 

Fresh water,lb 10 ® 1; 

Lake Big. Trout* 25 @ 3( 

Smelt8.large*lb — (<a 11 

Small Smelts — ® li 

Herring, Sm'kd. 75 @ - 

do freah — ® 

Pilchards. * lb.. — ® - 

romood, * lb.... 10 @ I; 

Terrapin, * doz. 4 00 as 

Mackerel, p'k,ea I2^^® - 

Freah, do D) ... — ® - 

Sea Bass, * lb. . . - a - 

Halibut 62'i3 7 

Sturgeon,**,. 5 (3 6 

Oysters, * 100. ,. 1 00 @ - 

OhesD. * doz.. 6U a 7 

Clams * 100 - ® 51 

.Mussels do - ® 2J 

Turbot — (g) 7.' 

Crabs * doz ..I 00 @1 6( 

do Soft Shell. 35 3 41 

Shrimps 10 ® - 

Sardines 10 (A — 

Anchovies 1(1 @ 1' 

^"les 37,'^q) ,51 

VouiigTrout.bay 15 nSl i* 

ifounK Salmon.. — (2 - 

■iaimon Trout eal Ooa 2 

:>kate, each 25^ 37'. 

A'liitebail,* lb.. — @ i 

Crawfish * lb... 10 ® 1 

Green Turtle.. . — @ - 

do * B) — ig _ 

FRUITS. FE<aRrAHL,BS. ETC. 





75 «Sl 00 


EegsCal 

do Eusiero.... 


.55 ® 


60 


30 @ 


40 


do Ducks' 


— ® 




do Farallones. 


— @ 





Turkeys, * lb.. 


20 fa) 
00 ^2 


25 


Ducks, large, pr.l 


00 


do small, pr, . 


iVi® 


.50 


Tame, do 1 


.50 m 00 




25 ® 
75 Igl 00 


Geese, wild, pair. 


Tame, * pair.. 3 
Snipe, * doz .2 


.50 ®4 00 


01 ^2 60 


do English . . 2 50 lg3 00 


Quail, per dozen2 25 (^2 


,50 


Prairie Ch'k's, ea 


- @ 


-_ 


Pigeons, per pr.. 
Wild, doz 


50 ® 75 
— ®2 08 


Squabs, doz... 


00 (§4 .50 


Hares, each . . . 


37V» 


50 


Rabbits, tame,ea 


.50 a 


75 


Wild,do,*dz.2 00 ® 




Squirrels ea 


10 ® 


15 


Beef, tend,* lb. 


— @ 


15 


Corned, * lb.. 
Smoked,* lb . 


8 M 
10 © 


15 


PiirterHouseSt'k 


- @ 


25 


Sii loin do 


15 ® 


■20 


Round do 


8 @ 


10 


Pork, rib, etc., lb 


- a 


15 


v^alrr*'":?^.'' 


15 @ 


■20 


12'^® 


15 


Outlet, do 


15 <d 


25 


Mutton-chops, lb 
LegMull m, * lb 


15 ® 


— 


i'2;49 


18^ 


Lamb, * lb 


10 i 


■20 




60 % 


•20 
75 


Tongues, beef, . . 


do, du. smoked 


75 (ail 00 


Tongues, pig, lb 
Bacon, Cal., * lb 


m-ioi 


_ 


18 @ 


■20 


Hams, Cal, * D>. 


16 a 


18 


Hams, Cross' s 


12'^ =8 


15 



LadyAppiea V> lbr2'^a> '20 

Apples, pr lb.... t> (^ IU 

Pears, per lb 8 m I'ly 

ADflCOtS, lb — @ — 

Peacnes, ft» — ® — 

Plums — @ _ 

PineApples.eacb 75 (t^l 00 

Crab Apples •— @ - 

G tapes — @ — 

B^ioanas, ^doz.. 50 ^ 75 

MuskmeloDB ... — @ — 

W.itermelons. . . — @ — 

Blackberries — ,^ — 

do wild — @ - 

Oal. Walnuts, lb. - ^ 20 

Green Almonds. — @ — 

Cranber'es, Or.,g 50 ^ 60 

do Eastern 75 @ 85 

Huckleberries.. — @ — 

Strawberries. D) — @ 40 

Chili Stra'bernes — ® — 

Raspberries, lb.. — a — 

Gooseberries' .. ~ m — 

Currants... — @ — 

do Black _ @ _ 

Cherries, ^ "b... — '^ — 

Nectarines — ® — 

Oranges,?^ doa.. 50 (mi 00 

Quinces — @ — 

ijemons 75 o^I 00 

Limes, per dor: • . 25 m 30 

Figs, dried Oal. . 12^@ 25 

Figs, fresh — @ — 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 25 @ .^0 

Asparagus, 2». . 60 ^ 75 

Artichokes, doz. 50 ,ai 00 

do Jeru-ialem.. — @ 10 

Beets, |4 doz 20 (a) 25 

Potatoes. %4 ft..... 2 @ 6 

Potatoes. sweet.. 3 @ 5 

Broccoli, each.. 20 i^ 25 

Cauliflower,. .. 20 COi 25 



10 



65 



@ 20 

8'^a» 10 

(& -20 

m 75 



20 @ 25 

12.'gc' ■' 



30 



Dahhagft, ppr hd. 
Oyster PUnt.bn 
Carrots. ^ doz. . 

Celery, ^dz 

Cucumbers, doz. 
Tomatoes, ^ Q).. 

Green Peas 

String Beans... 
Egg Plant, lb.... 
Cress, ^ doz Dun 

Unions 

Turnips, ^ doz 

bunches 

Bru3.selsSprouts 

Eaohalots 

Dried Herbs. d-oz 

Garlic ^ ft> 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, 1ft doz.. 
Mint, ^ bunch. 
Mushrooms. ^ lb 
Horse radish.^Ib 15 < 
Okra, dried3 lb 40 i 

do fresh, || lb — 
Pumpkins, f^ lb. 2'^ 
Parsnips, doz ... 20 

Parsley 20 

Pickles.frsh.'^^tt. 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sage 

Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do — to) — 

Hubbard, do — @ — 
LimaBe ins.fr'.sh — @ — 

do fresh shelled — (a) — 

do dry shelled — (a> — 
Butter Beans ... 6 @ 8 
Spinage, ^ bskt. 25 fg) — 

ahubrfrb 30 ^ 35 

Green Chilies. . — @ 30 

do Dry 30 @ 40 

East Chestnuts.. — @ 35 



12 



20 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter.qal.ch'ioe — 
do common — '" 
Oheese, I'al., B>.. 
Lard. Oal., lb.... 
Flour, ex.fam, bl4 

Corn Meal, lb 

Sugar, wti.crsh'd 
do It.brown.lb 
Coffee, green. ft>.. 
Tea, fine blk, .50, 65, 75 
Tea,flnstJap,.55,75, 90 
Candles, Adman t'e 15 
Soap, Oal., lb... . 6 




■Wednesday M., Jan. 6,1875. 

Rioe, ft) 

Yeast Powders. d7..1 : 
Osn'dOysters,dz.200 
Svruo.s F.Gol'n. — 

Dried Apples 6 

Dr'd Ger.Prunes 14 
Dr'd Figs, Oal... 9 

Dr'd Peaches 10 

Oils. Kerosene .. 28 
Wines. Old Port 3 .50 
do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 
do Cal .dz.bot S 00 
Whisky,O.B,gal.3 .50 
Fr. Brandy 4 00 




Our A.gfents. 

OUB Fbienbs can do much In aid of onr paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging faTors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Ohas. T. BELL—Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz 
Counties. 

J . W. Andebbon— Orange and Santa Ana.ln Los Angeles 
County, Oal. 

J. G. Kellet— For Washington Territory. 

B. W. Cbowell— California. 

F. B. Aldebson— City agent, San Francisco. 
J. L. Thabp— Southern Calll'ornia. 

C. H. Wheeleb— Southern California. 

A. C. Champion— Tulare, Fresno and Inyo Counties, 

D. .1. James — Australian Colonies. 
J. 0. EwiNO — Contra Costa County. 
John Rostban— Sonoma County. 

J. W. Rlley— San Joaquin and StanHslaus Counties. 
W. C. QuiMBT, Eastern and Western States. 



A Real CoNTaNiENOE.— Dewbi & Co: Please send 
me the Rurai, Pbesb. It is a real coDvenience and I 
cannot do without it. Enclosed you will find Are 
doUars. Fraternally, B. F. E. K, 

Anahsim, Oah, Ootobar 13, 1874. 



Indorsement of Hon. J. Ross Browne. 

Sak Francisco, Norember 28, 1874. 
■Wm. H. Mabtin, General Agent California Immigranl 
Union.— Deab Sib: I have Just visited the Centinela 
and Sausal Eedondo Bancho, and driven over the land 
described in your advertisement. With all my expe 
rience of the southern pa-t of California, I hive seei 
nothini? to surpass this tract in fertility of soil, beauti 
of location, advantages of easy access, and salubrlti 
of climate. For purposes of colouization I know o 
no large body of land so near a growing commercia 
center in California or elsewhere to equal it. No par 
of it is unavailable for farms, orchards or homesteads 
It can be subdivided into lots ranging from Ave acres ti 
several hundred acres, and every acre of it can bi 
made productive. Water is abundant and convenient 
the land is subject to easy irrigation, and I can voucl 
for the fact that it will produce anything that flour 
ishes in Los Angeles or Santa Barbara counties. It ii 
my confident opinion that the value of a share in thii 
maguiflcent tract will be quadrupled within two yean 
—such is the extraordinary influx of immigration ti 
the vicinity of Los Angeles at the present time Wish 
ing you success in you undertaking, 

I am, very truly yours, J. Ross Bbowne 



WooDWABD a Oabdenb embraces an Aquarlam Mi 
scum. Art Gallery, Conserratorles, Tropical Housei 
menagerie Seal Ponds, and Skating Rink. 



JOHN H. HEGLER, 

Nos. 412 and 414 Sansome Street, S. I 

Grangers' 
DAIRY PRODU CI 

—and — 

.COMMISSION HOUSE, 

HAS EVERT FACILITY FOR SELLING 

BUTTER,, CHtEE!!i»E, 

POULTRY, EGGS 

LARD, • HAMS, 

HIDES, BACON, 

WOOL, PELTS, 

POTATOES, 

DRIED & CANNED FRUIT, HONEY, Et( 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 



OAKLAND, 



CA] 



Established 1852. 



More largely stocked this year than any previot 
year. Embracing all and every kind of 

FKUIT, DECIDUOUS, OENAMENTAL ANJ 

FLOWEKINQ TKEE8 AND 

PLANTS, ETO. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List free on appl 

cation. 

W. F. KELSEY, Proi 



WHITE LEOHORNS. 

I make the^e fowls a speciality and have spared r 
pains or trouble in procnri get ck fj om ihe fini st straii 
m the United states, and r.ow olfer e:.s f 'i- hatchini; ' 
Ea-tern piicfs from the fines fowls on the Paciflc coa^ 
They are small eaters, non->etlers and ve y hardy, ami K 
eg(4S are wit out a n .al, being almost constant layers, an 
are truly styled he "furmei 's fowl." KgKs. $3 |iei dozei 
(i3) or sii dozen for $i.i. Securely packed to carry an 
distance, an 1 delivered to tlie express on receiptor prici 
Oash to accompany ,.rder and orders taken In rotation. 
„ ,^ , W. J. HUNT, 

bebastopol, Sonoma county, Cal. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care onl 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLC 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYl 
RED TOP, TIMUTHY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAl 
CH'JICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE OLOVEI 
RED CLOVER, Eio. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; t( 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TRE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAJ 
TEA, PINUS INSIGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to E. E. Moore] 
425 Washington St., San Francisco. 22T7-ly 



FLOWER 
SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 
SEEDS. 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds 
Spooner's BOSTON MARKET 
VEGETABLE SEEDS 

Descriptive Priced Catalogm 
with overl.W illustrations, maile 
free to applicant. 

W. H. SPOONER, Boston, Masi 



BETTER THAN MINING STOCK. 

A valuable Patent for sale. No objection to takln 
real estate in part payment. Residence, Washingto 
■treat on the levee, P.O., Sacramento. 

Jaa2.bp.W O. A. DAVIS 



30 



[January 9, 1875. 



Agricultural A rticles. 

THE CALIFORNIA HARROwT" 

—MANUFACTURED BY THE— 

Kimball Car and Carriage 
Manufacturing Company, 

Oor. Brjant and Fourth sts., £an Prancisco. 




IN THE FIELD. 

The California Harrow, lari»o mnuriorfl of 
wliich we art! now making, bas iseven diHtiut't and well 
dcflued iiuprovements pr>ss(-sRid by no otbcr Harrow, 
each of which Bavis bcith time and labor: 

First — This Harrow has an easy t-eat and three wheels, 
all attached to the central section, on which the driver 
rides and manages the Harrow and team with ease and 
comfort. 

Second— By means of but three levers the driver in 
bix seat on the Harrow can ruise the Harrow and him- 
self on the wheels, and trot to and from the field, and 
without leaving his seat can let the sections down and 
proceed with Kis work. 

Thikd — By the use of but one lever conveniently 
situated at the right side, the driver in his scut, and 
without stopping his team, can regulate the depth ot 
the Harrow teeth in the%round. and csn set them deep 
or shallow, as the conditions of the soil require. This 
meets a demand for harrowing Alfalfa or small grain, 
n the spring. 

FoCRTH — This Harrow is made in three sections, con- 
nected by loose hinges. The driver, as he moves aloug 
on the held, can raise any one t>f the sections, and pass 
a tree or stump, or other obstacles, without interfering 
with the work of the other two sections. 

KlTTH— By the use of a brace made ot a board but 3 
fe(it long and iixi inches, let on the tops of the levers 
of the wings, this can be made a ttifl Harrow, and the 
driver by lowering tho lever at his right can throw.his 
weight and that of the wheels and e.itra fixtures on 
and otr at his plej sure. 

Complete work can be done up to and all around 
trees, without changing the course of the team. 

We build these Harrows of wood and tubular iron. 
making beautiful and very powerful Harrows, unalfect- 
ed by exposure to the weather. 

We have any number of letters in praise of these 
Harrows from farmers who have put them to practical 
use. 




ON THE ROAD. 

The KIKBAXL CO. are' the owners and sole manu- 
facturers of the celebrated IMPROVED EAiiLE HAY 
PKESS, which has become so popular the past few 
years. For further information send for circulars. 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 



Y O XJ 



TO RAISE laABGE CB0P8 



To irrigate suocessfnlty. you must have the power that 
doe.-i not give out when tho wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churchman's Horse-Powe?, 




[Patented February 13th. 112.] 
Never fails to supply more water than lour or five Wind- 
luitU, ev«u BUppobinK \ou ha^l all the wind you want. It is 
aUonuiiable tor runninK li^ht macliinury. nuch as Burlev 
CrackfiM Corn Shcllprs, I-'anuinv: Mills, (irain St-parat^rs. 
or. furSttwinif Wood. Th(;y an- nevt-r failmc cannot eet 
oul ot order, eaaily worktid, subetantitil, and always give 
aatisfaction wherevet they have been used. One hur-e can 
easily work two ti-inch pumps with a continuoufs Il"w of 
vater. I-orce Pumps, ir-m 3.WU to lU.'lHI i^alluub per hour 

WINO.MII.UI oi all kinds manutactured to order. WelK 
Bored, Windmilla and Horse-Howers hot in an) part of the 
State, and rupuirinK <>f all kinda duue. 

Manufactured and fur Hale by 



laitfkoti4:r bros., 

Cor. J and 10th Sts., Sacramento. 



Farmers ana. T'lxx'eisHorf^ 

WIBHINQ TU HAVE 

STRAW BURNING- ENGINES 

For next season must engage them soon, as most of 
those now building are already sold. Threshing En- 
glues lor Repairs should be scut in now. A number of 
becond-hand Euglues— taken in exchange tor ".straw 
Burners"— for sale cheap. For particuUra and prices, 
address: H. W. KICE, 

2iv8.3m Haywood, Alameda C!ounty. 




Parties who have been troubled with 
Windmills blowing to pieces and get- 
ting out of repair should by all 
means examine the 



THE ONLY rEEMANENT MILL, IN EXISTENCE. 



It runs with lighter wind tnan any other: regulates Itself In a gale; 

f'^f and has never been known to be injured by storms, although it has stood 

for six years on the Plains of Kansas, Nebraska, Klissouri, 

Iowa and Illinois, where no other mills have been known ti-i stand 

any length of time. All we ask is a full investigation of the CEXTE&. 



11. s^oxjtiiwiok; ^fc oo.. 



OFPICE-428 Sansome Street SAN FKANCISCO 

4v8-eow-3m MANUF.iCTOItY, FOOT OF BROADWAY, OAKLAND. 




The attention of Wool Growers is continually invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept on the 
MERINO RANCH, 

Situated at Nilea, Alameda County, Cal., only flvo minutcH walk from the Btatfon. 

junctiim of San Jose and C. P. R. H. Parties desiring to visit our ranch can leave San 

FranciHco at 3 o'clock p. m., and have an hour at the ranch, returniu}^ on Overland train , _. _ 

at G p. M. Or c<^iniug out in moruing, can return to city at 11 o'clock a. m. Tho proprietorn inalce th6 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Believing them to be the BEST SHEEP IN THE WORLD, and are constantly receiving fresh importations from 

Addison County, Vermont. 
Our flock are all Imported Sheep, and have no superiors in the United States. We always have on hand 
choice young UAM.S and KWES, of all ages, for sale at lieascmable Prices, giving time, If required,. to responsiblA 
parties. City OflBce— 315 California Street, San Francisco. 

10v7-eow Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino Sheep. 



THE TREADWELL SULKY 



vC'ttf 



GANG PLOW. 

Improved for 1874, wi'h ULAOK UaWK Plove 
Bottoms, is llie best GANO PLOW m the world. 
It is Simple, Strong and Durable, and does its work 
eflectually. Has hiyh wheels, running both on un- 
pjowed laud; iron axle, wrotif^ht iron beams, and is 
built nearly all of iron and steel. No farmer should neg- 
lect to see it before buying. Send for descriptive circular 
and price. We have also the •■ VICTOR GANO," with 
hard wood beams and heavy cast iron standards; price, 
$75. Also the "GOLDEN STATE GANG," with all 
iron beams; prico $75. '* PFIEI.'S GANG," improved; 
price $60; old style, $25. The largest and best stock of 
Plows, Harrows. Cultivators, Grain Drills, Setd Sow- 
ers, Farm Wagons, etc., in the country. 

TREADWELL & CO., 



THE CALIFORNIA SCRAPER, 

— KANU J / I '. 1 ) J ) ) 1 '.11- 

Kimball Car & Carriage ManTg Co. 

COR. FOURTH & BRYANT STS., S. F. 




18vS-tf 



San Francisco 



8. 0. BOWLF^ 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 



Import erw a.ii(1 >f H-ii\itHotnrei-s 



CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 



No. 9 Merchant's Exchang-e, 



CALIFORNIA STREET 



.SAN FRANt^ISCO 



Keep constantly on hand top ^nd open Buxgies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Watsons. Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and linesl workmanship. 

We would call i)articular attention to our tine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Coflrey, Camden, New .Jersey; 

Heltield & Jackson, Rahway, New Jerscry, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double B'r- 
nesh.of the most celebrated makers; • 

^^^Bham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Pliiludelptxia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes. Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CBEGO & BOWLEV, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v5-3m San Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoronghly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. SutBciont play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position ot the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rtctly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 

liTa-3m MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

8tockton. Cal. 



THE CALIFORNIA SCRAPEB. 

This Scraper has been long needed in many depart- 
ments of labor. Heretofore all classes of Scrapers have 
Imposed immense labor and hardships on the driver, 
but this one is so constructed as to give him a place to 
ride, and yet manage the team and Scraper with ease 
in all classes of work. 

The driver can throw his weight in front, and force 
the Scraper into the soil, and when he has gathered his 
load and driven to the place of dt'posit, he can throw 
his weight on the rear part (jf the iilatfonu and leave 
the load all in one place, or deposit it gradually, as the 
case may require, leaving the ground smooth and level. 

This improvement is well adapted to leveling all 
irregularities on the surface of the soil where parties 
are preparing to irrigate. 

For making roads, removing dirt from ditches, clean- 
ing up bam yards or sheep corrals, it has no equal. 

Tho, KIMBALL CO. are sole owners and manufac- 
turers of the celebrated IMPROVED EAGLE HAY 
PRESS, also tho California Harrow. For further infor- 
mation send for circular. 



PI 



«^Black Hawk, 
Collins, 
"Jones," 
Peoria, 



OtfS 



Of all kinds and sizes. The largest stock ever offered 
in California; all nkw and just received, at low prices. 
Also, Cultivators, Harrows, Sted-Sowers, etc. Sold by 

TREADWELL & Cp., San Francisco. 
■^Send for Price List. 18v8-tf 



Notice— To Tule Land Owners, 

I am manufacturing a Gang Plow specially adapted 
to ploughing Tule Lands. Address 

Vallejo Foundry, J. L. Heald, Prop., 

18v2!)-3m VALLEJO, CAL 



THE c\E:L.is:B»A.'rji:i> 

H. H. H. 

HOUSE M:Er>ICXIVE 

IS STILL AHEAD OF ALL OTHERS. 

The Wholesale Druggists of San Francisco, give 
cvidi^nee of its appreciation throughout the State, by 
and rapidly increasing orders. We pledge it a cure for 
SPAVI.NS, WIND GALLS, 

SWEENY, SCRATCHES, 

LAME AND STIFF JOINTS, 
CALLONS, LUMPS, 

AND ALL BLEMISHES, 

SPRAINS OR BRUISES. 
It is a household blessing and no family should be 
without a bottle in the house. For sale everywhere. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's., 

2»v»-6m Btofkton, Cal. 



Geological Puzzle. 

Prof. R. Weiser, of Georgetown, Colorado, 
contributes the following to the Journal of 
Science and Arts: Geologists have been not a 
little perplexed with the frozen rocks found in 
some of onrsilvfr mines in Clear Creek county, 
Colorado. I will firct give a statement of the 
facts in the case, and then a theory for their 
explanation. There is a silver mine high up 
on MeCiellan mountain called the Stevens 
mine. The altitude of this mine is 12,500 
feet. At the depth of from 60 to 200 feet, the 
crevice matter, consisting of silica, calcite and 
ore, together with the surrounding wall-rocks, 
is found to be in a solid, frozen mass. Me- 
Ciellan mountain is one of the highest eastern 
spurs of the Snowy range; it hiis the form of a 
horseshoe, with a bold escarpment of felds- 
palbic rock, near 2,000 feet high, which in 
some places is nearly perpendicular. The Ste- 
vens mine is situated in the southwestern bed 
of the great horseshoe: it opens from the north- 
western. A tunnel is driven inio the mouotaio 
on the lode, where the rock is almost perpen- 
dicular. Nothing unusual occurred until a 
distance of some 80 or "JO feet was made; and 
then the frrtzen territory was reached, and it 
has continued for over 200 feet. There are no 
indications of a thuw, summer or winter; the 
whole frozen territory is surrounded by hard, 
lurtssive rock, and the lode itself is as hard 
and solid as the rock. The mineis being 
unable to excavate the frozen material by pick 
or drill, to get out the ore, (for it is a rich lode, 
running argentiferous galena from 5 to 1,200 
ounces to the ton), found the only way was to 
kindle a large wood fire at night against the 
back end ot the tunnel, and thus thaw the fro- 
zen m;tteri>d, and in the morning take out the 
disiutegiattd ore. This has been the mode of 
mining for more than two years. The tnunel 
is over 200 feet deep, and there is n / diminu- 
tion of the frost; it seems to be rather increas- 
ing. There is, so far as we can see, no open- 
ing or channel through which the frost could 
possibly have reached such a depth from the 
surface. There are other mines in the same' 
vicinity in a like frozen state. 

From what we kuow of the depth to whic-h 
frost usually penetrdles into the earth, it does 
not appear probable that it could have reached 
the depth of 2u0 feet through the solid rock in 
the Stevens mine, nor even through the crevice 
matter of the lode, which as we have stated, is 
as hard as the rock itself. Theidta, then, "of 
the frost reaching such a depth from the out- 
side, being utterly untenable, 1 can do no other 
Wiiy thiin to fall back upon the Ghcial era of 
the (inaternaiy. Evidences of the Glacial 
period are found all over the Rocky monntaius. 
Just above the Stevens mine there are the 
remains of a moraine nearly a mile long, audi 
half a mile wide. The debris of this moraine' 
consists of small square and angular stones, 
clearly showing thnt they have not coiue from 
any great distance. And just over the range, 
on the Pacific slope, there are the remains ot 
tho largest moraine I have ever seen, consist- 
ing of fieldspathio boulders of immense size, 
1 conclude, therefore, that i: was during that 
period cf intense cold that the frost penetrated 
so far down into these rocks, and that it has 
been th,'re ever since, ami bids fair to remain 
for a long time to come. 

Glass For Veneering, Paneling, Etc. 

Allusion has already been made iu these col- 
umns to the use of glass for lining of tanks, 
etc., and to take the place of the ordinary en- 
amal ou iron— a method for the practical ac- 
complishmmt of which has been devised and 
patented. The great object to be gained by 
this is a surface easily cleansed, aud the possi- 
bility of perfect cleanliness — as for fermen ing 
vats, "etc. It also offers a solution to the lead 
poisoning difflcalty. 

It may also be used for veneering and decora- 
ting purposes, in many cases with very good 
effect. Designs might be colored and placed' 
under glass and so preserved from fading andi 
wearing. 

Another good suggestion has been made by a> 
writer in tho London Builder that thick glass- 
might be eitilyjtnd cheaply cemented to the 
walls of hospitals, etc. It would be non- 
absorbent, iinperishable, easily cleaned, read- 
ily repaired if damaged by accident, aud, un- 
like paper and paint, woul.i always be as good 
as at lirst. Glass can be cut or bent to conform 
to any required shape. If desired, the plates 
may be colored any cheerful tint. The non- 
absorbent quality is the most important for 
hospitals and prisons, aud, w» should think, 
is worthy the consideratioD of architects. 

Prokkssional Statistics. — In England there 
is one lawyer for every 1,2-10 of the population; 
Prance, one for every 1,97C; in Belgium, one 
for every 2,700; and in Prussia, one Tor every 
12,000 *)nly. Another curious fact is 
that iu England the number of persons belong- 
ing to each of the diflVrent professions is nearly 
the same. Thus there are 111,970 lawyers, 35,- 
■188 clergymen, and 15,1)0.') physicians. In 
Prussia, on the other baud, tlicre are 4,809 
phy.--icians to only 1,362 lawyers. 

A CHAIN of compressed cakes of gun cotton 
tied around the trunk of a large tree and ex- 
ploded will, it is stated, cut it down instantly 
by the violence of its action. The out through 
the truuk is as sharp as that made by the keen- 
est ax. 




January 9, 1875.] 



31 



Economic Use of Fuel. 

The following interesting summary is from 
an address recently delivered before the Royal 
School of Mines, at Berlin, by G. F. Becker : 
The progress in the economical consumption 
of fuel in the last fifty years has been enor- 
mous, and has been effected in great part by 
metallurgists; and hero again we find the 
cientiflc men taking tho lead. In the econ- 
omical application ol ihe heat developed by 
fuel, the BebSemor process is enormously effec- 
tive, not more than ten pounds of coal being 
reqiaisite for the production of a hundred 
weiyht of steel from pig iron by this method, 
while in the older process, still in use for fine 
qualities of steel, two hundred and fifty pounds 
are needed. Siemens, by making the heat- 
which would escape thiouiih the chimney of au 
ordinary furnace warm the fuel and tLe air 
necessary to combustion, obtains an economy 
of two-thirds the weight of futl. It was Fabcr 
du Faur, nn accomplished Bavarian molallur- 
gist, who first made practical use of the teases 
which tormerly escaped in immense quantities 
from the tops of blast furnaces and the enor- 
mous blHst engines, the hoisting engines, 
pumps and hot blast stoves, even the roasting 
kilns of such establishments now-a-days re- 
q^uire no fuel except this long-neglected waste 
product. Bischof, another German engineer 
and metallulgioal author was the first to pro- 
duce gas artificially for smelting purposes, and 
this was certainly one of the greatest advances 
ever made in our art. By first turning it into 
gas, fuel can be much more perfectly consumed 
than in the solid form, and hence can be made 
to give us, as in the Siemens furnace, in which 
only gas is used, a much higher temperature 
than i-! practically attained by the combustion 
of coal in the ordinary way, but perhaps the 
greatest advantage of gas is that substances, in 
general scarcely regarded as fuel at all, can be 
employed for ttie production of gas with the 
most brilliant results, a matter of the greutest 
importance, especially in a region dr siitute of 
true coal, like California. Lundin, a noted 
and thoroughly educated Swedish metallurgi-st, 
has taught us how to produce gas from wet saw- 
dust, entirely without preparation, of such 
power that wrought iron may be melted with 
It, and the great difiiculty is to find any mate- 
rial infusible enough to answer as a lining in 
the furnaces where it is consumed. You will 
receive some idea of the importance of these 
improvements from the fact that the tconomy 
in fael effected in England alone in the year 
1872, as compared with 1871, by the progress 
made in the intioduction of more perfect ap- 
paratus, represented more than four millions of 
tons of coal. 



The Mysteries of the Human Throat. 

Dr. Frederick Fieber, of Vienna, like the 
little boy with his drum, not content with en- 
joying the melody of Madam Pauline Lucca, 
has made a close scrutiny of the throat whence 
the sweet sounds issue, and publishes the re- 
sult of his investigations. The mechanical 
apparatus which is the iustruuaeut of the men- 
tal faculty, appears, in Madame Lucca's case, 
to bo beautifully perfect, the result to some ex- 
tent, perhaps of congenital titness,* but also 
doubtless, partly of thti s.'ientific training to 
which the ariisie has been subjected in early 
youth. Examined under the laryngoscope, the 
larynx appears small and well shaped, its sev- 
eral parts being marvelously developed and 
perfect. The true strings are pure snow while 
and po.sess none of the bluish tinge common 
among women. Although shorter than usual 
among vocalists tht-y are stroni;er in proportion 
and amply provided with muscle. When at 
rest they ar^ partially screened by the false 
strings; but Dr. Feber, who watched Madame 
Lucca's throat through his instrument whilst 
she was singing, noticed that as soon as a tone 
was struc^k. they displayed themselves in their 
full breadth and strength. The aid given by a 
suitabl ' form of mouth to the production of 
vocal music is a novel and interesting point 
brought out by Dr. Fieber. On being admitted 
to a view of the arti te's mouth he was at once 
struck with the spaciousness and symmetry of 
its hollow, the otherwise perfect symmetry being 
impaired only by the absence of a tonsil, which 
had been removed, as well as with the vigor 
with which every tone produced raised the "sail" 
of he palate. Dr. Fieber is of opinion that the 
natural conformation of hermoutti accounts in a 
large measure for the wonderful power Madame 
Lucca possesses of raising and dropping her 
voice alternately. The sound waves are natu- 
rally strengthened in so favorably shaped a 
space, while the muscles of the palate api^eared 
to have acquired exceptional strength and pli- 
ability by long practice. 



Imitation Patknts. — The practice of patent- 
ing imitations of articles of standard excellence 
is growing in favor in the United States. A 
patent lately granted is for producing an imita- 
tion of Kussian sheet iron. This is done by 
hammering the sheet between anvils and ham- 
mers that have indented surfaces, so as to give 
the sheet a mottled appearance. Another 
patent is for an imitation Swiss window shade, 
in which the lace work is imitated by stencils. 



Improving River Navigation,— An appro- 
priation was granted by the last Congress, lur- 
uishing $40,Ut)0 for improving the navigation 
of the Ohio, near Pittsburg. It. is expected 
that this appropriation will test the efficiency 
of the system of the improvement of rivers by 
the erection of dams. 



Nurserymen. 



Estatolislied 18G3. 

Stocks for Nurserymen. 



Plum Seedlings, Mirobolan, the best French 

Ktocli, does not sucker $50 ptr 1000 

Apple Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Cherry Seedlings, Mazzard , 12 per 1000 

Cherry Seedlings, Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Walnuts, Englisli, 4 to 6 feet 15 per 100 

Cork Elm, bust Elm, 4 to 6 feet 15 per 100 

Blue Gum or Eucalyptus, in variety 5 to 10 per 100 

Magnolia Grandilloia 1 

Magnolia Acuminata 

Magnolia Ti ipetela 

Golden Arborvitio TAnpir crnov 

Cratiigus Arboria f LARGE STOCK 

Swedish .Tuniper i 

Irish Juniper | 

Heath-leaved ArborvitiB J 

Heath, Mediterranean |2 50 perdoz. 

LauristiuuB.G to 12 in 2 50 perdoz. 

Making the growth of Oranges and Lemons a special- 
ty, I have imported from all sources the best known 
varieties, and now offer five thousand Grafted Trees 
properly worked anil twice transplanted at S18 per 
dozen. Graf led oranges by the 100 or 1,000 at prices on 
application. The amateur in want of large PALMS, 
large ADItlCAltlAS, large CAMELIAS and large TREE 
FEKNS, a good stock on hand; also tho usual large 
stock of fruit and ornamental trees. 

BEENAED S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THOS. MEHEKIN, Agent, 51G Battery Street, San 
Francisco. 24v83m. 

The Au^hinbaugh Blackberry 




This now and excellent variety of Blackberries, 
are ready for market from the first to the fifteenth 
of May, and continue to produce berries until the mid- 
dle of July, about the time other varieties begin 
to ripen. 

Plants are now ready for transplanting and for sale 
at my residence on Washington Avenue, west of Euclid 
Street, Alameda, and at Geo. F. Silvester's, 317 Wash- 
ington Street, San Francisco. Price, $25 per hundred 



plants. 



23v8-tf 



G. ATJaHINBATJGH. 



SHINN'S NURSERIES, 

Alameda County, - - California. 



The attention of persons intending to set out Trees 
is requested to tho well grown and largo variety offered 
for sale by the undersigned at the above Nurseries. 
An examination of our htock will satisfy any one of the 
quality, being all that can be asked, and when the low 
prices we have fixed are taken into consideration, we 
believe we are offering the very best inducements for 
buyers to deal with us. For full particulars we refer 
to our circular for the approaching season, which will 
be sent, as requested, on application to either of the 
undersigned. SHINN & CO., 

Proprietors. 

Address James Shlnn, Niles, Alameda County, Cal., 
or. Dr. J. W. Clark, 418 California street. San J'ran 
Cisco, Call 8vl7-4mo. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

Sa,n Jose, Ca,lltor'nisi,. 

We offer this season a Complete Stock of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

SMALL FRUITS AND PLANTS. 

The attention of Dealers, Nurserymen and Planters 
is invited to our Large St<<ck of Fruit Trees. 

All Leading Market Varieties are grown in large quan- 
tities To all those purchasing largely we will make a 
Liberal Discount. 

Catalogues FREE on application. 



23-v8-tf 



JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



ALMOND TREES. 



3.5,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees. 

one and two years old from the bud. This is the only 
Almond planted on a large scale, being hardy. Jate 
blooming, beautiful tree It bears the second year 
from planting. The Almond is large and sweet with 
soft shell. Also, two year old Peach and English Wal- 
nut trees. Liberal terms to the trade and persons 
planting large orchards. Send orders to 

W. W. BRIER, 

2lv8-3m Oentervillc, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Peaches, Apricots and Prunes arc specialties 
at the Vacaville Nursery, Solano County. Califoriiia 
Alexander'.^ Early. Thurher and Peento in bud, .SO cents 
each. IJcalrice, Louise. Rivers' Early, Lord I'almerslon, 
Lady Palmerstiin, Prince ol Wales, Princes^ of Wales. Pic- 
ouet's Late, Lady Parham, Italian Dwarf, Gcldeii Dwarf, 
Bloiidleavi d and nuiny other varieties of new Pea hes in 
nud, at i!) ceni- each : Trees of ^ Icxandor's Early, $1 each : 
Beatrice, Plowden, Freemason and a Kenerat assortme t 
of the leadin; varieties, ii cents eacii ; Apricots. Plums. 
Apples, Pears, Cherries, Almonds. FiKS, Olives, Poniegra- 
rrntes and including most of the leading varieties of fruit 
for Bale at low pricei. D. K. UoueIi. Vacaville, Solano 
Co., Oal. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 
M EVERGREEN TREES M 

— AND— 

Plants for Sale 

At the old stand, comer Oregon and Battery streets, 
directly opposite Post Office, Sau Francisco. 

I NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Larg-est and Best Collection of Fruit, 

Shade and Everg-re<^n Trees and Plants 

ever offered in this market, and at 

Reduced Prices. 

Persons laying out new grounds would do well to 
call and examine our stock before purchasing else- 
where. 

ORDERS FROM THE COUNTRY 

Promptly attended to and packed with great care 
A large .stock of Cypress, Pines and Blue Gums for 
sale very low. Send for Price Catalogue. 

Agent for B. S. Fox's Nurseries, San Jose. 

THOMAS MEHERIN, 
P. O. Box, 722, 516 Battery St., S. F 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES 

TltTJE! TO NAIMIC;. 

A fine collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Australian Gum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or thousand. Monterey .Cypress in quan- 
tities and sizes to suit all. Orang:e and Lemon 
Trees at reduced prices. A general variety of Nursery 
stock. 

Also, Rhubarb an«"'. Asparagus roots. 

T. CORLEY, 
18v29-tf 315 Washington Street, S. F. 



Semi-Tropical Nurseries. 

LOS ANGELOS, CAL. 

Forty varieties of the Citrus family of semi-trop- 
ical trees, including many rare and beautiful, as 
Weil as useful and profitable kinds. 

Grafted and Budded Orange Trees a spec- 
ialty. Trees packed to arrive in good order. 
Priced Catalogue sent free. Address "me P. O. Box, 
528, Los Angeles city, Cal. 

2.'}v8.6m THOS. A. GAREY. 

PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

(Established in 1858.) PETALUMA, CAL. 

Green Houses and Tree Depot corner Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 

4 Green Houses. 3,000 feet of Glass. Fruit Trees a 
Specialty. 

We offer for sale at lowest market rates a general as 
sorlnient of Fruit and Shade trees, small Fruits, Vines' 
etc. EverEreen trees and Shrubs in great variety. Green 
House. Cf^n^ervatory and Beddinir Plants, Roses, etc. 

Wo aie now ready, Nov. 1st. to fill orders lor trees and 
plants. Catalogue and price list furnished on application. 
Address, W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

19v8-tf ' Petaluma. Sonoma Co., Cal. 



J!*0,000 

AUSTRALIAN G-UM TREES. 

FOB SALE AT THE CELEBEATED 

GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

Haywards, Alameda Co. 

Address 

JAMES T. STBATTON, 

No. 306 Pine street, over Pacific Bank, 3. F. 
22v8-tf 



a A IVIES iiuTcnisoiV's 

NURSERIES AND SEED STORE, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



Established 1852. 



P. O. Box 331. 



An immense collection of Evergreen trees. Shrubs 
and Flowering Plants wholesale and retail; New and 
rare plants, Roses, Fuchsias, and Carnations a specialty. 
I invite inspection. Catalogues on application 
2.5v8-3m 



the: a.iliDi:iv 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF C A £, I F O K N I A , 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 
machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 
knowledged to be the best method known for 
preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at the company's 

Office, 426 Montgomery St., S. F. 

6. W. DEITZLER, President. 
W. M. WHERRY, Vice President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF CALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 



AMERICAN SWEET_CHESTNUT TREES. 

Thirty Thousand American Sweet Chestnut Trees for 
ale cheap, in lots to suit, at Room 32 Merchants' Ex- 
change, San Francisco, where samples may bo seen. 
t6?" The trees are two years old, and in prime order. 
Will be delivered either in this city, Oakland or Sacra- 
mento. These trees are valuable for nuts, timber, 
>-hadi^ trees or lawn trcis; and are preferred by mauy to 
any of the loreign varieties. tf 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



Encourage home industry and make a 
saving of at least 30 per cent. 

If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and freshness, why not send your orders 
direct to the grower and make a saving of at least 
thirty per cent, on the prices of other seedsmen. 
Send for catalogue, free, post-paid, and compare with 
prices of other dealers. Just received. 
Grasses, Clover, Alfalfa and Field Seeds, 
Fruit and Evererreen Trees, Shrubs, 
Flowering Shr;.;bs, and Green- 
bouse Plants. Cabbage, 
Onion and Cauli- 
ilower Plants. 
Large assortment of Bulbs from Holland. Address' 
all orders or letters of inquiry, to 

SEVIN VINCENT, 

607 Sonsorae street, San Francisco, Cal. 




W. L. CHnRCH, formerly newspaper afient, will 
plaasv addrsiis this otfica. 



Gregory's Seed Catalogue. 



My annual catalogue of Vegetable and Fltwer Seed 
for 1875, will be ready by Jan. 1st for all who apply. 
Customers of last season need not write for it. In it 
will be found several valuable varieties of new vegeta- 
bles introduced for the first tiioe this season, having 
made new vegetables a specialty for many years. Grow- 
ing over a hundred and fifty varieties on my several 
farms, I would particularly invite the patronage of 
market gardeners and all others who are especially 
desirous to have their seed pure and fresh, and of the 
very best strain. All seed seut out from my establish- 
ment are covered by three warrants as given in my 
catalogue. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass 




I will send 12 Flowering Plants for One Dollar 
(your choice from 100 sorts), by MAIL OR EXPBE8S. 
5r«-EBff MY ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

SC FFIJ deBCrihenthe culture of Plants & Seeds, 
mmi^l^SjS!^ '" ruBtnmers free; others, lOc. Address 

WM. E- BOWDITCH, 646 Warren St., Boston, Mass. 



A GOOD GARDEN 

Ian not be hiid witliotit GOOD SEED, and I h.ave en- 
deavored in every wav to make mine THE HEST. My 
(iARDEN MANdAL, b.'sidescontainini; the most COM- 
PI, 'lETREAI'ISE on Hot,-bed<ev.r published, ia FULL 
OFPBACl'Ii ML hINT.Sand LABOR-SAVING METH- 
ODS, learned in many years' inarket-KardeninK. Sent tor 
two stamps. J. B. ROOr, Seed-Grower. Rockford.IU. 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse. 

Japan and Towusend Streets. 

San FnANriPco, July, 1874. 

I beK to inform yon I have leased the above tirst-elass 
Fire-Proof Brii:k Warehouse, now beini; erected b.v Geo. 
F. Hooper, Ksq.. and will be ready to receive itoraKe on 
tliclstol August. This wiirebouse offers sui»erior induce- 
nmels to parties rlesirins; to store Kraiii and hour. a« itis 
sitiialeit on the Water Front, aucl on the line of the (J. P. 
R R. and S. P K. R. It is well ventilatiil, rat pro"l, and 
combines all the ni'idern advantagt'S and iniornv enients 
Yours r..8p8ctlully, JOHN JENNING.S. 

Advances and insurance effected at the lowest rales 
Storage taken at lowest current rales. 4v8-ft 

FOR SALE OR TO LEASE. 

A fine place, well adapted for keepiuR summer 
boarders. Two large houses, orchard, vineyards, nat- 
ural forest and good springs, water brought into the 
houses. Location and scenery unsurpassed. 

A. E. BALL, 

Office of Sawyer & Ball. 502 Montgomery St. 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of choice HOP ROOTS, and also healthy 
BLACKBKRRY SETS for sale at LOWEST RATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Df.wky & Co., of the 
Rural Press, San Francisco: Host. Wiluambon, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to mo, 

CALVERT T. BIRD, 
2lT8-Slii "'"' J°<^> C^'' 



F.^i^v3 



[Jartuary g, 1875. 



Business Notice to Subscrib- 
ers of the Caliioriiia 
Granger. 

Office of the Cawfobnia Gbasoeb, I 
No. 41G Maiket Street, S. F. ) 

On this first day of Jauuiry, I have trans- 
ferred tho entire list of subscriptions of tho 
Calipoknia Granoeb to the publinhers ot the 
Pacific Rural Pbkss, togetUer with the adver- 
tising patronage and entire business and good 
will of said newspxper. 

For advance payments of subscriptions to the 
Granoeb, at the rate of $2 per annum, Messrs. 
Dewey & Co. have contracted to furnish the 
Rural at their club rates, $3 a year. 

As the le-pafje sheet of the Rural now con- 
tains in its solid and condensed type fully twice 
the amount of reading lat.ly given in the weekly 
is-suea of the Geanqer, I consider the change a 
liberal one towards my patrons, and I trust 
they will be well satisfied with the transfer. 
No other provision could be made more just 
and ample. 

I heartily recommend that all who are able 
extend their subscriptions to the Rural 
Prbss— a highly valuable journal for the pat- 
ronage of all intelligent farmers on this coast. 
By mutual arrangement, all money due for 
subscriptions for the Granoeb will bo received 
by Dkwet & Co., on my account. Secreta- 
ries and others acting as my agents, will please 
report accordingly all subscription money to 
the office of th« Kdbal. 

GEO. W. HENNING. 



Office of the Pacific Rural Press, | 
No. 224 Sansome Street, S. F. i 
Having received the entire subscription list 
of the CAI.IF0BM4 Granoeb, as above an- 
nounced, we would assure its patrons that the 
contract will be faithfully carried out by us 
in a manner to give all the satisfaction possi- 
ble to subscribers. Our list, thus increased 
to some 8,000 subscribers, we shall endeavor, 
with new correspondents and helpers, to pro- 
duce an improved sheet, in everywise fuith- 
fal and attentive to interests of all tine 
Patrons and farmers. 

We shall send the Rural for the present 
to all the .subscribers of the Granoeb, whom 
we invite to give, esptcialjy the first numbers 
received, a careful reading. Ea.ch member of 
the household should examine its pages of 
variously interesting reading. 

If your subscription to the Gbanoer is 
paid in advance of this date, we trust that 
When the amount of subscription transferred 
to your credit on the Rural has expired, you 
will prove its acquaintance sulficient to induce 
yon to renew your patronage. 

We find many of our own subscribers on the 
list of the Granger, all of whom will have their 
subscription date to the Rural advanced in 
proportion to the amount they have paid the 
Gbamosb for subscription beyond the week 
ending Saturday, Jan. 2d, 1875. Such sub- 
scribers will please examine the date on the 
right of the printed label, and if due credit is 
not soon given, inform us of the fact without 
delay. Should we overlook some names in so 
large a list and send two copies, please write 
us of the fact. 

Those who are in arrears for subscription to 
the Granoeb are invited to subscribe for the 
Rural as early as possible, and to remit in ad- 
dition to their advance payment, the sum due 
for the Granger to Jan. 2d, 1875. 

It is not our intention to send the paper be- 
yond the term paid for to any person who does 
not wish it, and we request any one who may 
possibly so receive it, to inform us directly in 
writing, and (arrearages paid) there shall be 
•no delay in stopping when notice is received. 

Secretaries and all agents for the Gianqtr re- 
ceiving this notice are lequested to act for us 
in collecting dues for the Granger to .lauuary 
20, 1875, and soliciting the subseribtrs to 
extend their patronage to the Pacific Rural 
Press by advance payments in clubsat $3 a 
year. For further information, address 
, Dewet & Co., Publifchers, 

No, 224 Saniom* gtr«et. 



"Rural" Facts. 

The Rural a high priced paper I— is it? Not much I 
Let us consider the matter a raomont. 

Most agricultural papers space their lines out with 
leads. The KnBAL is made mostly " solid." This 
gives it nearly one-third more lines. 

Again, many rural Journals contain more than one- 
half advertising. The Kcbal runs regularly about one- 
lialf that amount, or one-fourth advertisiug matter. 

Again, it contains more oriKiaal agricultural m atter 
more original domestic and farming correspondence, 
matter more condensed and carefully prepared and at 
greater expense than any other agricultural issue pub- 
lished in the United States. 

Again, it is illustratt d with a greater number of in. 
teresting and instructive engravings (greatly more ex- 
pensive to publishers than reading matter) than can 
be found in any other agricultural weekly in the 
Union. 

Again, the Rural inserta no quack advertisements; 
humbug, enticing, immoral advertisements. 

Again, by producing on this coast, for the benefit o 
all on this coast, so good a paper for our limited popu- 
lation, is it not comparatively cheap? 

Again, would the class of readers who take the Rural 
PiiEss prefer a paper at half the price of the Kubal 
with its advertising coliunns filled with quack adver- 
tisements? with intriguing, debasing notices and 
Blirewd dodges? or its reading columns profusely inter- 
spersed with wily paid puffs? We think not I We know 
you would not I We have not made money out of the 
RUKAi. Pbess. We hope it will pay well sometime in 
the future. But it will not be from doubtful advertise- 
ments, paid puffs, contracted and careless editorial 
work. Ilnscmpulous publishers make the most 
money on cheap subscription and reckless advertisiug 
sheets; but are they the best, or really the cheapest 
papers for patrons to spend their time in reading? 



M. FALLON, 

Cor. Seventh & Oak sts., 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



Light & Dark Brahmas, 
Buff, White and Par- 
tridge Cochins, 

Spangled, G illf-n and Siivm' Polish, 
, Spantilod. Q .Men an 1 Silver Hamburgs, 
Pure White-faced B'a:k Spanish, 
White and Brown Leghorns, 

Silver Grey Dorkings, 
Hiudans, Silkies, B'.ack-Red Games, 
Bronze Turkeys, Rouen and Aylesbury Ducks. 

All from Premium Scock of Beat Strains 

Fowls of abovt V irieties for siie; a\'<o, Ohiclca in their ■ 
season. E.-us pa 'ked wiMi care and sent in rotation m 
Brtiers are received. lv!»-lt»t>-tf 




BRONZE TURKEYS. 

THE HEAVIEST IN THE WORLD 1 

MY SPECIALTY. 



I was the first man on this Coast to import and 
brwd mammoth Bronze Turkeys. I have as progeny 
of my imported birds, the largi'st single Tom, Hen and 
pair or trio of Turkeys, fer tlicir agn, that the world 
ever saw. One pair. 10 months old, now weigh over 
72 pounds; Toms 40 pounds and ovr, Hins (I to 31) 
pounds. This is not wliat the birds weighed uix 
lU'inths since or what they will weigh when lattene.I, 
but wliat tliey weigh now as they run with the flick, 
ruling the couiliiR season I pniposo to sell eggs fc.r 
hatching from this stock; ttie eggs will be packed in 
my improved sliipping box. which carries safely. 
Orders now received tor early Spring delivery. I can 
spare a few « xtra large Toms; als'i, a few pair of great 
size. Weight guaranteed or no sale. I oiTer fowls and 
eggs frtim my very fine and fhoice collection of 
Brahmas. Cocliins. Leghorns. Houdans, Ducks, etc. 
My yards cont'iin the best strains of the above varie- 
ties. For further information apply to 

C. W. WILSON, 

P. O. 1874. San Francisco. 



FOR SALE. 
HOMESTEAD AND FRUIT ORCHARD 

About thirty-five miles from Stockton, containing 
three acres of land, a good house of eight rooms, 
good well. etc. Over two hundred fruit trees all in 
fine bearing order; such as Peach, Pear, Apricot, Ap- 
ple, Plum, Figs, Oranges. A flue chance and a good 
market. Price, $1,800. Title perfect. Apply to 

GEO. "W. CHAPIN, 

434 Montgomery street, S. F., or this Office. 



WANTED. 

SWEET CLOVER, (Meliotus Alba,) about i!O0 pounds 
cured like hay. Any one having Ihe above article to 
th» amonnt of 600 pounds, more or loss, will please 
address the subEcriber, who will purchase at remu- 
nerative ratee. Address A. J. HATCH, 

2v9-lin Reno, Nev. 



JACKS FOB SALE. 

Two fine .Tacks, one four and the other five years old. 
large and likely sired by old S^msou, and of the be».t 
Kentucky .Jinnetts; the tieet stock of the kind In the 
State. Addresi B. C. EPPER8EN, 

9r9-ict Biar Vallar, Colusa Connty, Cal. 



NEW CROP OF 



BLUE GJJ M ft*EED, 



FT^OWEIl ATVr> 
"VJEGETA-BLE 

TIIEE A.lVr> 
F R XJ I T 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OF EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OF THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED AT WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 



24T8tf 



No. 317 Wasbingrton Street, 

SAN FR.^NCISCO. 



1874. GUIDE AND CATALOGUE 1875. 
F K, E E . 

To persons contemplating purchasing I will send 

my Illustbated, Descriptivk Catalogue and Guidk 

to the Vegetable and Fixiwee Gabden without 

CHAROK. It contains the most extensive and valuable 

list of 



^^•p^^f^fegrgig. 




Flowering: Bulbs. Hoots and Plants, Semi- 
Tropical Trees. Ornamental Shrabs, Fruit 
and Shade Trees, etc., ever ollered in this market. 
It tells how to succrssfully grow the Australian 
Blue Gum, the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., and the proiirr method ol Cultivating To- 
bacco on this- Coast. 

•a^.viy stock of heeds is in part my own raising 
and in part direct imp rtations from tho best Euro- 
pean anl Jiastern growers, and is unsurpassed in all 
respects by that olfend by any otbei- estaldiiiliuient. 

100,000 Australian Blue Gums and Mon- 
terey Cypress in b.xes at from $30 to $50 per 
1,000. raised at my own Nur.-ery at San Uafail. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 
Seeds, Shrubs, Trees, etc. 



20v8-6m-16p 



427 Sansome street, S. F. 



M. E^riSE, ]Vtipn,-C!ul, 



Bronze Turkeys, 

Brahmas, 

LEGHORNS, 




Emden Geese, 
Houdans , 

and GAMES. 



Black Cayuga and Aylesbury Ducks 



BantaTiis, oto. 

ISggB, fresh, pure, true to name; well- 
packed So as to hatch'after arrival. 

ILLUSTRATED CIRCULAR AND PRICE-LIST FREE. 

14v9-16p-tf. 



REEDVILLE HERD. 

PROPRIETOR, 
S. G. REED. - - Portland, Oregon. 

I have for sale. Shorthorns of the most approved 
and fashionable families; among them are a few one 
year old Bulls of groat merit, the produce of Cows 
imported direct from England, and sired by the 
renowned Mantalini bull, GOVERNOR GENERAL, 
10,156, \. n. B., Vol. X, p 17.5. Also on hand, 

AYRSHIRE CATTLE, 

COTSWOLD AND 

LEICESTER SHEEP, 

AND BERKSHIRE PIGS, 
of -the highest staDdard. For particulars apply to 

S. G. REED, Portland, Oregon, 
Or WM. WATSON, Hillsboro, Oregon. 
lv9-Bw-tf. 



^^ 5,50 ACRES 

WKKT ot the best portion of the old NOMELACKEE 
Aaati* RESERVATION, in T hima County, for sale 
very low; only live dollars per acre; one-third down, 
one-third in one year and ouo-third in two years, with 
interest at one per cent" per month. Will be sold all 
together or in two parcels. This is one of the flnest 
tracts of grazing land in Northern California; is abun- 
dantly watered by numerous jierpetual springs and has 
two miles of the Elder Creek, a clear mountain stream. 
Its grass never fails from drouth, and is ot the best 
quality for sheep and has no cbiver burr 800 acres of 
level plow land; timber lor posts, fuel, etc. Enquire of 
ALLE.S WILCOX, L-.s Angeles, or F. B. WASHINGiUN 
on the tract twenty miles west of Tehama. 



SuBscnrBEBs who are troubled in g 'ttlng their papen 
regularly from the P. O. should b« partimilar to men- 
tion th« nam* of th» pipsr. 



EEDEF^S yiF^ECJOF^Y- 



Partiks desiring to prRCHABE Live-Stock will find 
IN THIS Directory the Nam£b of some of the moht 

BELIABLE BREKDKRS. • 



Our R.ktes.- Cards of sii lines or less will be Inserted 
in thi-^ directory at the rate ot 60 cents a line x»er month. 
PftyaMe quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Htocliton, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal., btnader of Short Horn Cattle >Qd Berkshire 
Swine. 



J. D. CARR, Gabilan, Monterey Co., Cal., breeder 
of Trotting Horses, >hort-Hom. Cattle, Thoroughbred 
Spanieli Marino Sheep and Swine. 



J. BREWSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



MOSES "WICK, Oroville, Butte Co., Cal., breeder 
of Short-Horn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

A. MAILLAIRD, San Rafael, Harln Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



STANTON & POWERS, Sacramento, Cal. 
Choice Jersey Heifers at reasonable rates. Address 
L. Powers, Sacramento, Cal. 



R. ASHBURNER, Baden Station, San Uateo Co., 
Cal, breeder ot Shorthorn cattle. Bulls tor sale, 
from cows of choice milking strains. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SONS., Hollister, 
San Benito, Cal. Importers and breeders of Angora 
Goats and Sheep. 



N. GILMORE, El Dorado, El Dorado Co., Cal., Im- 
porter and breeder of Angora Goats. 



SEVERANCE & PEET, Niles, Alameda Co., 
Cal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 



MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, CenterviUe, near 
Niles Station, Alameda Co., Cal. Pure-Blooded 
French Merino Sheep for sale. 

A. G. STONESIPER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Cal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



LANDRUM & RODOERS, Watsonville, Santa 
Cruz County. Pure-Bred Angora Goats and Cutswold 
Sheep for sale. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Cahtro reets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other hoice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Ra bbits, etc. 

M. BYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese and 
other Fancy Poultry. Fggs in season. 

Mrs. L. J. WATKINS. Santa Clara. Premium 
Fowls. White Leghorn, S. 8. Hamburg, Game Ban- 
tams, and Aylesbury Dm ks. Also, Eggs. 21v8-3t 



Mrs. L. E. McMAHAN. Dixon. Solano Co., Cal. 
Bronze Turkeys now ready for sale from the best 
imported stock; also eight varieties of choice Chick- 
ens; Eggs in reason can Ije purchased very reasonably. 

C W. WILSON, San Francisco. The largest and 
heaviest Bronzj Turkeys the world ever saw. One 
pair, r.( monUis old, over 72 pounds now. I offer for 
sale extra large Toms, old or young; also Eggs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. Address C. W. Wilson, P. O. 
Box, 1874, San Francisco. ^^^ 



SWINE. 



A. T. HATCH, Suifun City, Cal., breeder of Poland 

China Swine. 



DAWSON & BANCROFT. U. 8. Lire Btock 
Exchiinge, 8. E. Corner 5th and Bryant .<treet8, San 
Francisco. All kinds of Common and Thoroughbred 
st^>ck always on exhibition and for sale. 



— CELEBBATED — 

Worcestershire Sauce. 

Declared by Connois- <e^ 

seurs to be the only good ym 
SAUCE. K* 





Caution Against Fraud. 

The success of this most 
delicious and unrivalled 
Condiment having caused certain dealers to 
apply the name of '* Worcestershire Sauce" 
^^C^l to their own inferior compounds, the pub- 
lie is hereby informed that the only way 
to secure the genuine is to ask for LEA h 
PEHRINS' SACCE.andsee that their names 
are upon the wrapper, labels, stopper and 
bottle. 

Some of the foreign markets baring been 
supplied with a spurious Worcestershire 
Sauce, upon the wrapper and labels of which the names 
of Leak Perrins have been forged, L. k P. give notice 
that they have furnished their correspondents with 
power of attorney to take Instant proceedings against 
manufacturers and vendors of such, or any othe mi- 
tations by which their right may be infringed. 

To be obtained of Messrs. CROSS & CO., 
San Francisco. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 



Cor. 



leth & Castro Streets. 
' Oakland. Cal. 



A choice selection of Brahmas, 
Cochins, Houdans, Games, Leghorns, 
Bantams, Bronze Turkeys, and Ducks 
constantly on hand and for sale 
at reasonable rates. Eggs guaranteed 
to bt> fresh, true to name and to reach 
customers safely. Also two Importerl Bronze (iobblers 
for sale; weight 38lhs; price t76 each, iiend for Il- 
lustrated Circular containing a full descriptitjn of all 
the best known and most profitable fowls in the world, to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

SOtS.K p. O. Box ew. Ban FranolMiO. 





Volume IX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1875. 



[Number 3. 



The Alfatfa Parasite: 

It will be reinembered by the readers of the 
Bubal Pbess that in our issue of August 15th 
and September 5th 1874, we gave descriptions 
of a parasite discovered by some of our corre- 
epoudeuts ou alfalfa growing on their farms. 
The interest aroused by these accounts was not 
confined to this coast, but extended to the At- 
lantic States, where alfalfa is increasing in pop- 
ularity nearly as rapidly as in California. 
Among others who became interested in the 
matter was the editor ot the America a Agricul- 
turist, who at onoe wrote to us, Tequesting 
specimens of the weed. In compliance with 
this request we obtained samples which we for- 
warded to him. An engraving was accordingly 
executed, giving a faithful representation of 
the weed as procured by us, and which was 
published in the AgricuVurlst for Decembar, 
with a description which it will be seen agrees 
with that published in the Press on the first 
appearance of the weed. 

We are indebted to the Agriculiarisi for the 
illustration referred to, which we give on this 
page of our paper, and also for the description 
of it, which is as follows: 

Improved agriculture is of so >coont a date In 
California, that bat few of the pests in the way 
of insects and weeds that trouble the caltivator 
in the older States, have come to plague his 
California brother. Al&lfa or lucerne is one 
of the staples of Cali'Ornid agriculture, and a 
weed that threateiw the destruction of this 
crop, is a matter of the first importance. No- 
tices of a partio-ilarly troublesome dodder have 
appeared in *^6 California papers, and we are 
indebted tp tbe kind atteutious of our friends 
of the Pi^iFlo KcTBAL Pbbss, of San Francisco, 
and of the Sonoma Democrat, for specimens, 
which have enabled us to examine the plant, 
and to make an engraving of it. Almost every 
one knows our fommon dodders, which hang 
thei"- j-oJ'vjw or copper-colorecl, wiry stems over 
the bushes in the swamps of the Atlantic States. 
There are ten native species east of the Missis- 
sippi, Beveral more west of that river, aud 
about seventy species thus far known through- 
out the world, all of which, with their varietins, 
are admirably described in Dr. Q. Eugelmann's 
elaborate accovjnt of the genus. The dodders 
are all parasites, the seed germinates in the 
ground, aud the slam attaches itself to some 
other plant; by meana of numerous disks or 
suckers, it drawsjupon the pknt for nutriment, 
and soon cuts itself loose Srom the -root, 
and feeds wholly upon its unfortunate host! 
Some dodders live upon exogenous plants in- 
discriminately, while others prefer particalar 
plants, or those of certain families; one con- 
fines itself to flax, which, besides the one in 
question, is the most generally injurious. One 
of our native species has been known to be 
troublesome upon young trees in nurseries. 
The dodder upon alfalfa, so far as we can de- 
termine from description, having no authentic 
specimens for comparison, is Uusculta racemosa, 
variety Chiliana. The species is a very variable 
one, and between it and related species there is 
some confusion. The seeds of this were no 
doubt introdaced into California with alfalfa 
seeds from Chili, the same as it was into Eu- 
rope many years ago, where it was very de- 
structive to lucerne, often destroying whole 
fields. The engravin,' shows the habit of the 
weed; when once fixed, it spreads and entan- 
gles the several branches of a plant, or those of 
neighboring plants; under this heavy draught 
made upon its life-blood, as we may regard the 
sap, the lucerne ceases to grow, and at length 
turns yellow, apd dies from exhaustion. The 
Sonoma Democrat publishes an opinion that 
the dodder now so troublesome upon the alfal- 
fa is a native species, but an examination of 
the specimens makes us quite sure that it is 
not. One not acquainted with the minute 
characters, by which the species are distin- 
guished, might, from their outward resem- 
blance, regard them as the same. At the lower 
left hand of the engraving the relative size and 
shape of the two seeds are shown, both of 
course magnified, The alfalfa seed is like a 
-"♦her flattened, kidney b»an;that of 



the dodder is irregularly orbicular, and only 
about one third as long as the other. An ordi- 
nary magnifier will readily detect the presence 
of this or other foul seeds in the alfalfa seed. 
With this, as with other weeds, one important 
point is to avoid introducing it, and care in se- 
lecting the seed will do this. Where it makes 
its appearance the most prompt measures 
should be taken to prevent its spread. Cut 
the infested plants, and burn them, and do this 
before the parasite has matured its seeds. If 
the dodder has too full possession to allow this 
to be done, then the plan followed in France, 
(where a dodder, and probably the same spe- 
cies, is destructive,) maybe adopted. Straw 
is laid in abundance among the plants in a dry 



Cheap Boxes for Plants. 

The cost to the amateur of handling and 
potting plants in the early stages of their 
growth is trifling; but to the nurseryman, who 
carries thousands of horticultural nurslings 
through from one period of growth to another, 
the expense of boxes and pots is considerable. 
We learn, however, that some of the nursery- 
men of Capay valley have adopted a device 
which almost does away with this expense. 
One of them, while on a visit to^ Swan &.Co.'s 
Union Box Factory had his atteiition called to 
a method by which boxes may be formed by 




A CALIFORNIA WEED -DODDER UPON ALFALFA. 



time, &nd then set on fire; the sudden flame 
des'roys the parasite, but does not materially 
injure the altalfa, which starts from the roofs, 
and the stems, that escape injury by the fire. 



Raise a Pineapple. — Girls would you like to 
raise a pineapple, to have a genuine pineap- 




"UlWl. 



Donohue's Improved Harrow. 

pie for a house plant? If so, take the delicious 
pineapple which you are going to eat, and cut 
ofi' the stem and tuft of leaves that forms the 
apex of the fruit; don't be stingy with your 
fruit, cut oflf a half inch or more of the fruit 
with it. Set this in a box of damp sand and 
keep it in a warm place, and keep it moist. 
In a few weeks it will put out roots and you 
will have a veritable pineapple plant. The 
stems sometimes found at the base of the fruit 
may be mad« to grow in the same way. 



simply folding a scored piece of board so as to 
form a box with four sides, the ends lapping, 
and requiring nothing but a string tied about 
it to constitute a box sufficiently strong for 
nursery purposes. When the plant is to be 
transferred from this to a larger box or to the 
garden, by simply cutting the string and un- 
folding the sides, the plant is disengaged with- 
out disturbing the earth by sliding. 

Some of these Beared pieces were recently 
examined by us at the above named factory. 
They were about a foot in width and long 
enough to form a box 4x4 inches. This is to 
be cut into three sections; each being 4 inches 
square; though the size, of cour.se, can be 
varied; and being only the thickness of the 
common strawberry box they can easily be cut 
into sections with a pocket knife. The factory 
furnishes these boards, scored and ready for 
folding, at one cent each. Thus the purchaser 
has the material for three boxes at the cost of 
one cent; and in a condition as convenient for 
transportation as a package of pasteboard. 

Sale of the Glen Floba Heed.— The pro- 
prietor of tiis celebrated herd, C . C. Parks, of 
Waukegan, 111., proposes to sell nearly his en- 
tire stock of valuable animals, on Wednesday^ 
April 17, 1875, as he intends to give his undi- 
vided attention to the management of the Glen 
Flora mineral springs on bis farm. 



An Improved Harrow. 

Frank Donohue, of Mayfield, Santa Clara 
county, has recently patented through the 
Scientific Press Patent Agency an improved 
harrow, which we illustrate on this page. It 
is so constructed that by its natural hangiog and 
draft, without extra weights, the outer edges 
will keep down to their work and preserve as 
nearly as possible a uniform level and pene- 
tration of the teeth. It is usual to employ a 
weight on each wing of a sectional harrow to 
keep the edges from buckling upward, but by 
the improvement of Mr. Donohue the harrow 
is so constructed that the edjes will keep down 
without a weight. 

Two hinged sections of a double harrow are 
made, each being rhomboidal in shape and con- 
sisting of as many parallel timbars as desired 
to hold the teeth. These timbers are united 
together by a transverse timber near each end. 
At one end of each section a partial parallel 
timber is secured, so that when two rhomboid- 
al sections are placed together in the usual 
way of uniting the two sections of a harrow, 
the two partial timbers of the two sections will 
stand in the same line, and will, in eflfect, be a 
divided timber in the middle of the harrow. 
The hinge straps or plates are secured upon 
the parallel timbers so that the hinges at the 
opposite ends of the harrow will come on op- 
posite sides of the divided timbers. If a line 
should be drawn through the two hing s it 
would cut the harrow into two trapezoidal 
figures, thus causing the weight of the cor- 
ners to be nearly at right angles to the breaking 
line or joints of the two hinges, so that their 
superior leverage, owing to their greater dis- 
tance from the hinges, will cause them to keep 
closely down to the ground when the bafrow is 
working. 

The double-tree is attached to tba harrow so 
that its middle will be in a Jine with the two 
hinges, and in order to accommodate it to the 
harrow, the inventor constructs it in two parts 
and hinges th^ai together as shown. The 
draft will, tierefore, be in a direct line with 
the hin^"". ^^'^ consequently the sections will 
hav t^qnal rise and fall, and as the diagonal 
.corners are further away from the line of 
draft than any other portion of the harrow, 
they will keep close to the ground. 

The Eeason Why.— A gool weekly news- 
paper printed on tLis coast is comparatively 
cheaper at $4 a year than one published in the 
Eastern States at f'2.50 per annum. And why? 
Because the population within range of Eastern 
publications is a hundred fold larger than the 
population of this coast. Because they can 
reasonably expect ten times as many readers. 
But there is nearly ton-fold more advantage 
to be derived by Californians from reading a first- 
class agricultural journal worked up here in 
this new field of industry. The methods of 
farming are not so well known or established 
here as in the older States. Discoveries are 
ten-fold greater here. There is move to be 
learned here. Thera is more being learned 
here. There is surely greater need of support- 
ing and reading agricultural papers in Califor- 
nia. We have more subscribers, already, in- 
proportion to our population, we dare say, 
than any other farming paper in the Union. 
Yet we need more. We ought to have more. 
We wish to make it better. We wish to make 
it profitable. It has not been yet. 

Aid FOKTHE Nebraska and Kansas Sufferebs. 
— As we go to press arrangements are being 
made for a meeting of the citizens of San 
Francisco to be held at the Merchants' Ex- 
change, on Wednesday afternoon, Jan. 13th, 
"to take such measures for the relief of the 
sufi'erers as their generosity and humanity 
may prompt. The call for the meeting is 
signed by a large number of the most promi- 
nent and influential citizens. We hope and 
confidently believe, that much good Till result 
from this meeting. 



34 



[January i6, j875- 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



[The RcEAi. PRBK8, in openinc the oolumns of this de- 
partmenl to its correspondents, does not desire to lay be- 
fore its readers anythinK which is not in keeuinK with its 
character and poHition a« an agricultural and family paper. 
Pacts are*alw lys th:inkf uliy received ; and suKt'estions and 
mat ersQf opinion on sutijecta connected with agriculture 
are also aoceptAble: though correspondents are lo be un- 
derstood as speaking for tuemsel ves and not for the I llEss. ] 

A Chapter of Tule llistory -^ Stalen 
Island*. 

Editorh Pbkss: -Tho Bcasou of 1873-4 is 
completed and its leRSOus of sacccss or failure 
are ready for our instruction. There are many 
tasks and many learnovs in this school, and 
•aoh learner has his own task. The v^'sent 
themo is a chapter from tho experience of the 
tule lands of our State. The swamp lauds 
generally, of California, have been growing in 
favor within tho past few years, and all infor- 
mation on tho subject excites attention. Un- 
fortunately for the very object aimed at in re- 
recent publications exceptional facts and 
circumstances are insisted upon too much as if 
of common occurrence. It must bo notired, as 
prefatory to every remark, that experiment has 
not yet given sufficient data from which to de- 
duce a certain rule. Our chief concern still is 
to gather and compare data, and such is the 
purpose of the writer of this article. The re- 
marks are also intended to be confined to one 
district of swamp land and will detail briefly 
the history of that district. 

Statcn Island. 
The tract in question is formed by tbo lurks 
of the Mokelumne river just before that river 
unites with tho San Joaquin, and is also within 
easy reach of Sacramento river, either aeross a 
narrow neck of land, or farther by means of tho 
many streams that link this well-watered re- 
gion. It lies in Sacramento county and from 
Walnut Grove Post-oflSoe, which is one mile 
from the head of the island, a good road ex- 
tepda 30 miles through a thickly-settled and 
fruit-bearing country to Sacramento city. 
Like all other fresh water tide lands, Staten 
island, in its natural condition, was a swamp 
over which tho high«r tides flowed, keeping it 
continually wet. As wonld be expected, tho 
banks of these lands are usually somewhat 
higher than the interior, and the water flowing 
in at a spring tide is kept within, as in a basin, 
so that there are usually several inches of water 
always on the land back from the shore. In 
very dry seasons, however, tho lowness of the 
river leseens the frequency of tho tidal over- 
flow, and thi.'§, with the large evapo«»iion, 
J«-nder8 tho land dry enough for jasturiug 
stock. At such times in the past, large herds 
of cuttle and bunds of sheep have been pas- 
tured on the tule lands, without any reclama- 
tion or leveling whatever, and considirable 
quantities of the wild gra.sH have been cut and 
baled under like circuiustances. This grass has 
a bayonet-shaped blade «.nd grows from a 
strong root and stock, branching ont a few 
inches from the ground. It prcfeit q, goj] com- 
posed almost entirely of vegetation, i^ which 
It thrives luxuriantly, attaining a bi^ht of 1.,^^ 
or five feet. Wherever tho quantity of sedi- 
ment increases in the soil, the tule, a tall, 
round rush, ofien ten feet high, becomes more 
common. It is thiK plant, said to be so termed 
by the Indians, th.it givcH name to tho lauds 
under consideration. Tho first seitlement on 
the tule lands were made along the Sacramento 
river and for a long time were confined to the 
high ridge of bank land formed by the sediment 
wliich had accumiilitled from the winter floods. 
This bank land has been and stUl is very valu- 
able as orchard and garden laud. The settlers 
in time discovered that the back land was good 
for pasture and also that the soil was chiefly of 
vegetable formation— in many cases a fair 
quality of peat— and that when dri( d it would 
burn in tho ground. They also found that any 
crops planted in the ashes of tho burnt lam i 
•would grow and yield remarkably well. In 
this way, the value of the tule lands was demon - 
strited upon a small scale, and capitalists, thus 
assured, have undertaken the problem upon a 
large scale, and one phase of that problem 
is here presented in this account of Staten 
island. 

Tho Work of Reclamation 

Was begun in June, 1872. Eight dams wore 
put in as many sloughs, without the aid of 
piling, except in the instance of the largest 
slough, which also was the first dam built. 
Had It been left to the last it could Ukely have 
been completed without piling. The great 
diflBculty in the way of buildiug dams, and 
leve'es, too, on the tule lands is the lightness of 
the earth. Ii, many cases the sods cut from 
the ground float. Such material should be 
avoided entirely and heavier sought. This can 
always be found in the vicinity of the sloughs, 
and, with the judicious use of light brush, a 
substantial bond can be made. 

The largest portion of the leveeing was done 
by a steam dredge in charge of W. C. Sullivan. 
This m»«hine digs a ditch twelve feet wide and 



four and one half feet deep, somewhat after the 
Osgood plan, except that the bucket is attached 
to a movable frame on a turti-table, which tii'ns 
to the right or left to dump the earth. The 
whole apparatus is op' rated on a scow which 
floats in the ditch it digs, and is drawn up to 
its work by means of a capstan and anchor 
ahead. It was claimed for the machine that 
the large mass of a full bucket, about one culdc 
yard, dropped six or eight feet while soft, would 
mako a more compact levee than the small sods 
out ont, haiullcj and laid in the levee by (!hi 
nauien. , Tb6 experience of the past winter 
sefcius to confirm ihis claim. • The machine 
levoe was indeed broken in a number of places; 
but the embrasures were 6mall, and in no case 
W8.4 the. earth carried away. The expense of 
excavation is also less than by Chinamen: but 
uuforinuately the machine cannot chanije the 
depth and width of its ditch, nor vary its c^t 
of the earth, and hence, being confined to a 
uniform ditch, the field of its operations is very 
limited. It is a matter of great regret that 
steam dredging apparatus has not been em- 
ployed to a greater extent. Both on Staten 
isl.ind and on other tracts of lule laud 1 irge 
mud flits have been formed by sedimentary 
deposits brought down by the winter rains, 
and this material can be put into levi os at a 
reasonable cost by Eteam dreelges. But be Iho 
cost of it dwuble or treble that of tho peaty soil 
of which Chinaoieu build levees, still it would 
be cheaper than the peat. It has required the 
loss of several large cops and the oveiflow of 
valuable lands to teach the reclaimers of tule 
lands the absurdity of erecting barriers against 
water of material that might float. 

Tbo first step toward proper reclamation was 
in tho use of tho earth taken from the liver 
bank on tho outside of tiie I'veo. There tho 
sediment already spoken of had accumulated, 
to the depth of 18 inches, thongli considerably 
mingled with the roots of vegetation, and the 
seaiment and roots combined make a very sub- 
stantial levee. This method was first tritd on 
Staten island, in the fpring of the year just 
pissed, in the face of many prophesies of evil 
results, founded mainly on the bad eft'ects of 
cutting ditches on the outside of the levee on 
Sherman island. On that island breaks in the 
lovee and serious cracks in the soil undiT it 
have occurred, but the experiment ou S'.atcn 
island has been emiuenly satisfactory, and the 
example there set is beiug followed on other 
similar tracts. The earth taken from the out- 
side of the levee is a yellow loamy clay, and 
the embankment built of it was found, after six 
months' u-age, to have shrunk and settled very 
little comparetl with the previous levee of peat, 
and a large percentage of what loss did occur 
was, doubtb ss, owing to tho foundation upon 
which the addition was built. Nor was th<<re 
any break in the levee after the exterior soil 
was added, although the lovee was subjected to 
the tides of June, the largest of the year. After 
this satisfactory showing it remains now but to 
take one step further, and with a steam dredge 
get a materinl entirely fiee from vegetable mat- 
ter, and furnished in unlimited quantilies on 
tho margju of the land to be reclaimed, and 
with it erect on an nubroken sod, effectual walls 
against tho inroads of floods. 

Cultivation. 

The problem of tho tule lands now turu" 
wholly upon their reclamation, and involves 
maiulj' the substance of which the levees are 
built. Tliere is no longer any question regard- 
in'T their produdiveness. Ail who know these 
lands are salisflt d in this respect. Even those 
who have been disheartened by the loss of their 
crops bring uo charge against the soil, bat 
commend it saying: " The land is good enough 
if you only keep tbo water oflf. " The toil is 
••omposed mainly of roots and decayed tules; 
gracAj and other plants, and consequmtly is 
gnierai\y nothing but a peat bed, varying in 
depth from s t,j 30 feet. The surface kept dry 
in the summer v.i|i bum in the fall to the depth 
of several niches, aua in the ashes of tho sod 
the crops are planted. Tn the fall of 1873 
Staten island was fired, but o-ring lo the short 
time the levee had been completed the burning 
was not extensive. Planting was begun by the 
three or four suttters in January. 1874. Wheat 
was first sown until about the 1st of March; 
after that common and chevalier barley were 
sown until the loth of May. Most of the crpps 
were put in with sheep, which were driven 
compactly over . the burnt land after the seed 
had been sown. The remainder were harrowed 
in. The planting of the crop was found to be 
comparatively light work whether with sheep or 
harrows and at a cost of from $2 to $i per acre, 
including the seed. The chief trouble was 
■ from the miring of tho horses. Various appli- 
ances in the way of horseshoes were resorted 
to, the best of which was an iron shoe with an 
exterior ring attached to it so as to receive tho 
hor.se'8 weight. With such a "tule shoe" 
teams could get over the grouud with consider- 
able ease. 

Harvest. 

Seed-time being past, harvest began to bo 
looked for. The grain sprouted and looked 
well; Tho heads appeared and nodded in the 
wind and gladdened the eye of the farmer. 
Then, when the fields were whitening for the 
harvest, a serious evil thnattned in the shape 
of red rust. The wheat and barley were both 
affected; lii.t it was noticed that tl^e late sown 
grain suff.r. d most. Wheat sown previous 
to the fiist of Peliruary escaped almost entirely 
without injury, and the later sown resisted the 
rust much better ttian was expected when it 
first appeared. It was thought also that the 
continued wet weather and late high water had 



as much to do in causing the rust as the late 
sowing. Early sowing, however, seems to be 
successful in any condition of weather, and a 
remedy in case of a very wet Season. When 
harvest came, crops of undoubtedly large yield 
stood ready to be gathered. Good judges esti- 
mated the yield from 40 to 80 bushels pi r acre. 
Actual experiment found samples that pro- 
duced, one, 77% bushels per acre; another, 
58^-^ bushels per acre, both of wheftt. Elated 
iiy thfse large figures, tlje farmers, ineiperi- 
eoced on tnle snil, declined contracts whirh 
thi y thoiiL'ht too high, and undertook the 
wok of harvesting theniselves. On account of 
the softness of the ground it was thought that 
headers would be too heavy, and reapers were 
employed instead to cut ttie grain. In most 
eases the grain lay on the ground for several 
weeks after it was cut, and was at length load- 
ed, loose, into wagons by Chinamen and hauled 
either to the s'ack or to the threshiniz-machine. 
Tho tires of the wagons were two and one half 
inches wide, and the ease with which they, and 
also the re ip^rs got over the soil was quite con- 
clusive that headers might have been used, and 
thus saved the large expense of so much hand- 
ling of the grain in the field. A large portion 
•f the crops was not harvested till long alter 
they were ripe, and, in consequence, the grain 
fell down so that the re.ipers could not cut 
cleanly, but left on the ground as much as one- 
fonrth to one-half of the crop. Headers with 
their lifters would have prevented this serious 
loss. 

The Yield. 

Notwithstanding the defective harvesting, 
the yield was very good. The land was culti- 
vated in scattered tracts, and uo exact measure- 
ments could be readily made; but, estimated by 
the quantity of seed sown, there were about 
1,00(1 acres — 450 in wheat and 550 in barley. 
The figures taken from the threshers' acconnts 
show, in the aggregate, a yield of 5,800 sacks 
of wheat and 8,400 sacks of barley. The aver- 
age yield per acre was, consequently, thirteen 
sacks of wheat and fifteen sacks of barley or, 
by measurement, twenty-nine bushels ot wheat 
and thirtj'-four bushels of barley. While 
these figures show a good yield, they do not 
show the entire production of the croos. In 
adilitiisn to what \v is left on the ground, one 
large stack of wheat was burned up and a very 
considerable quantity of barley was destroyed 
by the early rain which overtook the late 
threshing. It is very safe, therefore, to say, 
that one-fourth of the crop was lost, and the 
true average yield ^uld be represented by 
thirty-nine bushi Is of wheat and fu-ty-five 
bu-hels of bai loy per acre. A crop of wheat 
cut for bay yielded ahont three tous per acre. 
A numbtr of acres of Indiau corn were planted, 
but not being cultivated after the planting 
nothing came of it but promises of au abun- 
dant yield in cas-e of a proper cultivation. 

The Coming Season. 

Such is the issue of the first year's crop on 
Staten Island. While it did not fulfill the san- 
guine expectations of the farmers, still the re- 
sult is quite satisfactory. The defects and 
losses were due mainly to inexperience on new 
ground, and were no more than what should 
have been expected in an untried field. In- 
deed it is a matter of surprise that the outcome 
was as fortunate as it was. But now, since ex- 
perience has been gained, another year will see 
betttpr cultivation, better harvesting, and a far 
better yield. A larger force, wiih va-tly in 
creased facilities, undertake the coming crop. 
Ten farmers are already busily engaged upon 
'he island, and they will cultivate not less th in 
4 000 acres, mostly in wheat and barley. Ex- 
cellent dwellings and very substantial barns, 
just compli ted, add largely to the comfort of 
theresidenis and change thespaci nis area into 
a well-settled mighborhooil. The levee is 
being enlarged, notwithstanding the successful 
resistance to tile severe test of last winter's 
waters, as it is^tbo de'erinination^of the settlers 
to make "assurance doubly sure." December 
has passed without rain, and a prosperous sea- 
son is confidently expected. Should these 
reasonable expeotations be fulfilled, tho tule 
lands will, during the coming season, take a 
great stride toward that high position they are 
destined to hold among the richest agricultural 
districts of our favored State. 

L. C. McAfkb, Engineer. 

Staten Island, December 31, 1874. 

[The above letter was intended to be pub- 
lished in the Btilldin and Rchal Phess simul- 
taneously, but its appearance in the latter was 
unavoidably delayed for one week.— Eds. 

Pbess. I 

Hint to Dr. Gibbon. 

Editobs PnEda: — This week'» Rcbal con- 
tains a very valuable article from the pen of 
W. B. Gibbon. It gives vi rj" plainly the infor- 
mation I have been in pursuit of for sometime. 
Thnt is how to plant and raise the eucalyptus. 
But ho omits one very important item in con- 
nection with tho subject, that is irrigation, or 
the amount of water required, if any. I would 
infer from his article that they did not require 
any, as ha speaks of planting exipusively 
aroand large rauehes, and as we all kn>w but 
few of them have facilities fpr irrigation. If 
he will please answer this through the Rural 
Press, I, for one, will be very thankful. 

P. A. Ratnob. 

San Bernardino, Jan. 8, 187S. 



Berryessa Valley and Yoimtville. 

[By our owu ('orroBpondent.) 
Editoks Pbkss:— Well, Ctiristmas is past— 
but not forgotten — for it has been a rich har- 
vest of gifts to youth in all parts of the coun- 
try. The quiet little valley of Berryessa, 
where I .spent my Christmas eve, kindly rem- 
embered the children with a community tree, 
rich with gifts, aiming to make every child 
merry. This kind regard, though not always 
most skillfully managed, yet speaks something 
of the true spirit of benevolence. We perhaps 
borrow the tree idea from the Germans, but if 
so, to improve on it by taking it from the fam- 
ily to the public hall and there invite all to 
come. 

To the stranger, even this evidence of com- 
munity feeling gives him a higher (stimate of 
the moral worth of the people, for it is not < asy 
to over-estimate the moral effect of these little 
efforts to exemplify "love, peace and goodwill 
toward men." 

Having seen but a few miles of the valley, 
and that lying the highest up, I can speak of it 
only to say, that, if the lower is equal to the 
higher portion, it is beautiful for situation and 
is the joy of the whole population: having a 
rich alluvial soil, being about a mile in width, 
with fine protecting hills on every side, gently 
sloping back, and contains excellent farming 
and grazing lauds, with a good live farming 
population, many of them taking a daily 
paper and more of them taking the Rukal 
Pbbss. 

Leaving John Lawley's on Christmas morn- 
ing, we followed up the mountain road along 
the banks of Putah creek. Not able for a long 
time to cease thinking what a climate? Gar- 
dens bf^ing planted, peas ahn> «t ready to blos- 
som and yet Christmas season; mid-winter! 
Ei^ht miles brings us to 

Pope Valley. 
Which is in itself a novelty of a valley; being 
filled full of little and big hills, and all pr«t:y 
well timbered. Good crops of hay and Kfaiii 
being raised right undi-r the oaks, and on 
many of the bill sides. But it is not my pres- 
ent object to say much of the agriculture of the 
valley; but the general appearance in that re- 
spect is very prosperous. Their school-house 
being some time since burned, they made no 
general Kath»ring atone place; but the whole 
valley seemed to abound in generous provision 
of festive luxurieo, and their manner of dispen- 
sing them was calculated to make one desire a 
prolonged stay amon^ them. They seem to be 
some of the same gooa people we left away 
east of the Rocky mouatains, but now well 
fettled, with large, intelligent and happy fami- 
lies, mostly born in this new State. I find in 
Pope, as in Berryessa valley, the Pbbbs is 
largely taken and appreciated hig.ly. 

Among the old settlers are J. A. '''andisdalo 
keeping an excellent vaiioiy" store at the head 
of the valley, adjoining which Nelson Howe's 
smi h shop, whirh furnished a splendid help 
to Netty's tender feet, for whiol, jje has her 
thanks." T. A. Van, Edwin Kean ana o. r> 
Wallace art among the old representative 
farmers of this valley. 

YountvillG, Napa Valley, 
Occupies a splendid position as a suburban 
village, eight miles back from Napa City, on 
the lino of the Napa Valley railrJad, surrounded 
by splendid farm, fruit, vinejard and grazing 
lands. 

A more thriving, stirring farm population is 
not found in auyseotion of the State. Climate, 
soil, seasons, with tlieir nearness to market, 
makes sucess almo.st a fated result to those 
fortuua'c enough to get a location there. 

The Youutville ranch, of near 2,000 acres, has 
lately been purchased by Messrs. St. Johns 
and Scofield, whose first class dairy products 
will soon prove that Napa county can furnish 
iirst-class cheese and butter. They have splen- 
did samples of tropical trees, plants and fruits. 
Mr. Scofield plucked a branch ^bearing 21 fine 
oranges from a tree growing out in open yard. 
These are gentlemen ef culture and ability and 
are an ocquisition to the farming community. 
It is difficult in sueh a di->trict to mention 
any as thriving and live farmers without doing 
injustice to many who are equally worthy of 
such mention; or I would mention Mr. Gi-orge 
Linn, T. L. Grigsley. W. T. Ross, and oihers. 
The town of Yountvillc is the center ■ f mechan- 
ics and mtrchants who seem very thriving. 

The Grangers are just completing a large 
two story brick edifice for stores, with ample 
hall above. They number about 100 members, 
and nearly all are taking stock in the State 
Grange incorporation. 

The general outlook for this portion of the 
county seems in every respect encouraging. 
« C 



Papkb Manufactcbe. — Upwards of one hun- 
dred firms are engaged in the manufacture and 
sale of paper in Philadelphia, the first estab- 
lished in the country oeing the Rittenhouse 
Mi)li, where the old Coniinental paper money 
was made. At the present time all our bank 
note and fractional currency paper is made by 
the old and wealthy firm of J. M. Wilcox '• 
Co., of that city. 



January i6, 1875^] 



SHeep \^Q Wool. 



zs= 



The Wool Clip of 1874, 

The following semi-annual wool circular, is- 
sued by E. Griaar & Co., of the San FranQiaco 
Woo] Exchange, furnisbea the most available 
matter at hand for the Sheep and Wool depart- 
ment of our present issue: 

The spring clip was above the average of several pre- 
ceding seasons in staple and condition. Southern 
wools especially were remarkable for their good condi- 
tion and comparative freedom from burr. In the 
■wools from other sections the improvement was less 
marked. The fall clip has not been equal to that of 
1873. The condition is poorer in consequence of sheep 
farmers having bred more fine heavy wool than for- 
merly, which naturally retains more dust than opun 
wool of a coarser fiber. The fact, ainn, of valley laiids 
having become too valuable for sheep-raising has 
driven the flocks into the mountain districts, where 
more seeds are found, and consequently very little fall 
wool is now free. The Circular further says; The de- 
mand throughont the year has been for wools of good 
staple. Southern wools in the spring met with ready 
sale, because the length of the staple was thought to 
more than counterbalance the burs they contained. 
Short-stapled fine wools are the last to move, as they 
are only suitable for a few kinds of manufactures. The 
wide-spread introduction of Merino blood into the 
flocks of the State is now making its effect apparent in 
the increased amount of short, fine, heavy wool. Such 
wools are not suitable for fine goods, because the staple 
is too short, and they are usually defective. For com- 
mon goods they are too expensive, as the shrinkage is 
heavy on account of the quality, and the staple is also 
too short. Long stapled wools of the medium grade 
are in demand during the spring and fall, and it is to 
the production of sifch descriptions farmers should 
turn their atteuaon if they want to have their wools 
meet with ready sale. The agitation now going on for 
a revision of the tariff on wools and woolen goods 
should cause wool-growers to pay attention to the 
wants of consumers. As the wool product of the State 
increases, the time in which it is disposed of becomes 
longe;', so that in futiire this market will seldom be- 
come entirely bai'e. The stock of fall wool in store at 
the beginning of the year was unusually large. An 
active demand, which continued during January and 
February, was sufficient to take nearly all of it, so that 
when spring wool began to arrive it came upon a bare 
market. The first receipts of the spring dip were so 
superior to the preceding year in con<lition, staple, and 
freedom from defects, that they were quickly taken at 
prices considerably above the rates of tlie year before. 
The scarcity of domestic and foreign wools in the 
Eastern markets turned the attention of consumers to 
California for supplies until ether domestic wools 
should arrive. The prfscnce of an unusually large 
number of Eastern buyers caused an active competi- 
tion, and prices gradually advanced throughout the 
season. Although the production was larger than ever 
before, and was brought into market more quickly than 
usual, there was no accumulation, except from the in- 
ability of the packers to forward the wools. The ship 
ments East daring April and May largely exceeded that 
of any previous year during the same time. By the 
midd.'e of June very little wool remained to be mar- 
keted. 

Fall wools began to arrive in September, and at first 
met with ready sale. The market gradually advanced 
to the point of restricting opnratious, while at the same 
time the condition of the Eastern markets wastinfa- 
vorable. Wools began to accumulate, and this contin- 
ued until stocks were larger than ever before. During 
the past month a demand has sprung up and supplies 
have been somewhat reduced, but they are still greater 
than usual. 

The large amount of fall wool this season has aston- 
ished everybody. It shows that the farmer, expecting 
good prices, has shorn every sheep, and that is the rea- 
son that our fall wool this year has given ao little sat- 
isfaction; the bulk of it being short in the staple, full 
of earthy and vegetable substances, thereby rendering 
it unfit for most pnqioses in manufacturing. In addi- 
tion to this fact, the failure of some of the manufac- 
turers who used most of these wools will account for 
the large quantity of fall on hand at this date. It is 
therefore established bej'ond a doubt that it behooves 
our wool-growers here to shear as little -fall wool as 
possible, and to pay more attention to staple and con- 
dition of the spring clip, as good stapled and well-con- 
ditioned wools find a ready market at all times, while 
short, faulty Wools are only taken up when nothing 
else can be had. 

Australia and South America raise better fine wools 
than Califoruia, and can afford to sell their productions 
at lower rates. Wools of medium quality are in better 
demand and are in smaller sujjply. To raising such 
descriptions the grower here should turn his attention ; 
as laud becomes more valuable it will pay the farmer 
to grow only such descriptions as will sell readily and 
bring a good return. 

The condition of Oregon wools was better than usual, 
and they were taken rrfadily at full rates. 

Wool Production. 

The receipts at San Francisco in 1871 were as follows: 

Bags. 

January 1,226 

February 409 

March 9(57 

April ; ,.15,622 

May ... ; 32,982 

June 7,483 

July 3,224 

Auguit 3,607 

Septembfti' 13,803 

October 23,873 

Noveml?er 8,782 

December , '921 

Total bags 112,922 

Of which there was spring wool 

01,112 bags 18,6S9,160Ibs. 

Spring wool shipped direct from 

interior 1,998,116 •• 

Bought by country factories 425,090 " 

Total spring production 21,062,276 " 

There was fall wool received 51,810 

ba^s 10,371,960 " 

Fall wool shipped direct from the 

Interior B93,545 " 

Bought bj country factories 120,000 " 



Exports. 

The exports of domestic, foreign, pull»d and scoured 
wools during the past year were: 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from 

the interior 82,020,228 lbs. 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments 

from the coast J, 117,7.50 " 

Per sail 950,72» " 



46,088,701 " 

Value of exports $8,182,000 

On hand Dec. 31, 1874, 20,832 bags 6,458,000 " 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. The 
usual tare of bags received is about three pounds each; 
on pressed bales shiped, 14 to 16 pounds each. Fully 
two-thirds of the wool graded during the last year is 
AI. The balance is A2 and B. This proportion has 
been unchanged for the past five years. 

Ruling Prices for Twelve Months. 

The following table compiled from the Circular 
shows the ruling prices in the wool market in San 
Francisco and New York: 



San Francisco, 1874. 
Month. 

Spring. 

.Tanuary Nominal. 

Februaiy Nominal. 

March. Nominal. 

April 21 to 25 

May 21 to 27 

June 22 to 23 

July... 19 to 25 

August 20to22 

September Nominal. 

October Nominal. 

November Nominal. 

December Nominal. 



New York, 1874. 
Fall and Fall arid 

Lambs. Spring. Lambs. 
19 to 21 26 to 32 22 to 26 
19 to 21 26 to 33 21>|5 to 2G 
Nominal. 26 to 31 5^21 }« to 26 
Nominal. 26 to 31 20J^ to 26 
Nominal. 26 to 31 20^ to 25 
Nominal. 27 to 32 20}<S to 25 
Nominal. 26 to 33 21 to 2514 
Nominal. 26 to 33 21 to 25 
18 to 21 26 to 32 21 to 25 
18 to 21 20 to 32 20 to 24 H 
15 to 18 25 to'31 19 to 24 
15 to 17 24J4 to 30!<19 to 23 



The above is for wool not burn/. Exceptional lots, as 
to staple and condition, brought higher and lower prices 
than above given. There is a wide range between 
choice long stapled bright clips and short and wasty 
ones. It is a fact to be regretted that the bur is spread- 
ing, and this year the wool, spring and fall, is more 
affected with it than at any time hitherto. 



TlfE Sw(f<E Y^'l^* 



washing. Keep the animals dry, and, the 
third or fourth day, wash again with strong 
soap suds in which a little soda has been dis- 
solved; and it will be well, at this time, to give 
the pens and rubbing places another coat of 
the wash. Change the bed often, and, if the 
first application to the skin does not stifiice, 
anoint the second time, or use crude petroleum 
and again wash at the end of two days. 

This, with cleanliness, will not only destroy 
iice, but even mange, which is the work of a 
minute insect Acarus scabiei, which burrows 
just beaeath the cuticle or scarf ^kit..— Western 
Rural. 



A M.A.N on Long island, famous for his hogs, 
was asked what was the secret of his success. 
He answered: "I always choose a good- 
natured pig. Those that when they eat are 
constantly running from one trough to 
another aud knocking their snouts against the 
next pig I sell to my neighbors, who don't 
know better than to buy such troublesome 
animals, while my contented pigs get fat." 



)EES. 



TliE 



Choosing a Berkshire. 

Pure Berkshire hogs should be jet black in 
color, with a thick coat of fine black h>iir, but 
choose one with coarse hair rather than one 
that is short of hair. White is only allowable 
on tijis of ears, feet and legs, face and tail, but 
not too much white, as they are always a black 
breed, and plenty of hair denotes a good con- 
stitution. 

There is no such thing as a white or spotted 
Berkshire hog, and the men who get up such 
stories to sell mongrel stock are swindlers, and 
ought to be sent to prison. 

Choose a Berkshire with short prick ears, and 
as short a face as possible, with a broad back, 
well over the hams. It is much easier to find 
them broad over the shoulders than the hams, 
and by all means they should be deep in the 
heart place (from top of back just behind the 
shoulder level) and smooth all over, in fact as 
near a hewn block as can be. 

In comparing the merits of breeding the vari- 
ous kinds of fine stock, we invite the attention 
of the reader to the following facts: Many 
men who would willingly give $1,000 for a fine 
horse or cow, or a pair of sheep, (and very 
properly, too), cannot see why a hog should be 
worth from f 100 to $500, which would be the 
cost of importing a tine one. From a mare 
costing $1,000, you have a chance of a foal in a 
year, Gut oftener once in two years, and after 
two or three years' attention and feed, if no ac- 
cident occurs, you may if fortunate get from 
$500 to $1,000 for the colt. The cow and sheep 
will produce their stock a little faster, while a 
sow old enough to breed in one year's time will 
with proper care and at half the expense, pro- 
duce from 12 to 20 pigs, and you need not trust 
to selling breeding stock, for provided you have 
a respectable farm, the first cost will be repaid 
you many times over, in the saving of food, 
extra price for fine pork, etc., besides the 
pleasure you would take in improving the stock 
of the country, at the same time you are add- 
ing to your own wealth. The loss occasioned 
to the United States annually, through feeding 
common hogs, amounts to millions of dollars 
that might feed thousands of people aud other- 
wise enrich the community. — American S. and 
P. Journal. 



Total fleece wool 38,147 781 ' 

Pulled wool shipped from San Fran- 
cisco 1,211,000 ' 



Total production of California 39,358,781 " 

On hand December 1 , 1873, about 3,000,000 •' 

Received from Oregon l,72l]700." 

Foreign wool received 574,340 " 



Grand total 44,654,821 

Comparative Production 



Spring.. 
Fall 



Oregon. 



1871. 
. 21.062,270 IbB. 
.17,085,505 " 

38,147,781 lbs. 
. 1,721,700 •' 



1873. 

18,049,619 

12,905,050 

30,956,168 
1,666,:M0 



1872. 

14,550,980 
8,664,488 

23,105,468 
1,175,600 



39,869,481 lbs. 32,621,489 34.281,068 



Remedy for Lice in Swine. 

Hogs that are kept clean and in good health 
will seldom be troubled with lice, since these 
parasites do not generally breed upon animals 
that are thriving. When hogs are fouud to be 
so infested, the pens and sleeping places should 
be thoroughly cleaned and whitewashed with 
lime wash in which crude carbolic acid has 
been dissolved. Then wash the animals with 
very strong soap-suds in which a good quantity 
of crude petroleum has been mixed, sortibb.ng 
them thoroughly. Furnish them with clean 
bedding, and a warm but well ventilated place 
in which to he. 

If out of cofadition, give to each full-grown 
hog two ounces of Epsom salts, in a waim 
mash of meal and bran and then give one 
tablespoonful of sulphur, and what saltpeter 
will lie on a dime, each day, iu a mash, for 
three or four days. 

Ttien take of train oil one pint; oil of tar and 
spirits of turpentine, each two drachms; 
naptha, one drachm; mix with as much flowers 
of sulphur as will form a moderately thick 
paste; and rub the animals with the mixture 
after they have become dry from the previous 



A Paradise for Bees. 

A correspondent of the S. F. Bulletin writes 
thus sweetly of the bee pastures about Shasta: 
"The Shasta woods are full of wild bees, and 
their honey is exactly delicious. At least such 
was the quality of my samples, and no wonder, 
inasmuch as it was in great part derived from 
the nectar bells of a huckleberry bog by bees 
that were let alone to follow their own sweet 
ways. The hive was a living pine tree, and the 
distance to the honey bells was only a mo- 
ment's buzz. Bees themselves could hardly 
hold the conception of a more honeyful place — 
honey-bog to left of them; honey-bog to right 
of them; blooming willows for springtime; 
golden-rods for autumn; and beside a'thatand 
a' that, miles of acres of buttercups and colum- 
bines and rosy chaparral. Regarding Mount 
ShHSta from a bee point of view and beginning 
at the summit, the first 5,000 feet is clothed iu 
summer with glacier.s and rags of snow, and i^, 
of course, almost entirely honeyless. "The next 
1,000 feet of elevation is a brown zone tufted 
and matted with bush penstemon and bryan- 
thiis. next comes the silver-fir zone, about 
2,500 feet in hight, containing few sweet flow- 
er.^, but rich in honey-dew and pollen. Next 
the zone of honey-bearing chaparral or Shasta 
heather, forming the smooth, sunny slopes of 
the base. This last is six or seven miles wide, 
and has a circumference of more than 70 miles. 
Companies of spruce and pine break acro?s it 
in well-watered sections; yet, upon the whole, 
it is remarkably regular, and contains all the 
principal honey-grounds, of the mountain. 

The formation of the Shasta bee land-) is 
easily understood. Shasta is a fire-mountain, 
created by a succession of eruptions of ashes 
and molten lava, which, pouring over the lips 
of the craters, layer over layer, grew outward 
and upward like the trunk of an oxogenous 
tree. During the glacial period the whole 
Shasta cone was capped with ice, which by. ero- 
sion degraded it to some extent and remodeled 
its flanks. When at length the glacial period 
began to draw near a close the ice-cap was 
gradually melted ofi' around the bottom, and in 
receding and breaking up into its present con- 
dition, deposited those irregular heaps and 
rings of moraine matter upon which the Shasta 
forests are growing. The glacial erosion of 
most of the Shasta lavas gives rise to soils com- 
posed of rough bowlders of moderate size, and 
a great deal of light, porous, sandy debritus, 
which yields very readily to the transporting 
power of running water. Ad immense quantity 
of this finer material was sorted out and washed 
down from the upper slopes of the mountain by 
an ancient flood of extraordinary magnitude, 
and redeposited in smooth, delta-like beds 
around the base. These form the main honey- 
grounds. The peculiar vegetation for which 
they were planned was gradually acquired, 
huckleberry bogs were planted, the seasons be- 
came summer, the chaparral became sweeter, 
until honey distills like dew. In this glorious 
honey zone the Shasta bees rove and revel, 
clambering in bramble and hackle bloom, ring- 
ing and singing, now down among buttercups, 
now out of sight in the rosy blossoms of the 
buckthorn. They consider the lilies, and roll 
into them; and like lilies they toil not, for bees 
are run by sun-power, just as mill-wheels are 
by water-power, aud when the one has plenty 
of water aud the other plenty of sun they hum 
and quiver alike. 

I have often thought in bright, settled sun 
weather, that I could tell the time of day by 
the comparative energy of bee movements. 
Gentle and moderate in the cool of the morn- 
ing, gradually increasing in fervor, and at high 
noon thilling and quivering iu wild suu- 
• )stacy. 

Bees are as directly the outcome of bright 
light as flowers are. Bee death and flower 
death are also alike— merely a sun-withering 
and evaporation. 

Shasta bees appear to be better fed than any 
others I know of. They are dainty feeders and 
enormously cordial withal, Mint moths and 
hnmming-birds seldom set foot on a flower, but 
reach out and suck through long tubes as 
through straws; but bees hug and clasp and 
rub their blunt countenances upon them like 
round, awkward children upon their mothers. " 



"The Cow Theory." 

Speaking of the coio theory— thsit is, that a 
man with five acres of land can maintain him- 
self, his family and his cow — a writer in the 
Farmers' Magazine for last month, has the fol- 
lowing: 

"On Sir Baldwin Leighton's estate in Shrop- 
shire, Eng., pauperism is almost exterminated 
by means of the cow, it being the rule rather 
than the exception for a laborer to have sums 
varying from £20 to £80 put by in the savings 
bank, out of the proceeds of the sale of butter. I 
have seen t he books with the sums entered to their 
cndit. Most cottages have two or three small 
fields attached to the holding, mostly laid down 
in grass. The cow, howev'er, is only a second 
string to the laborer's bow, and does not in 
any way interfere with his giving efficient ser- 
vice to the firmer, as the cow can be looked 
after by the wife who maltes the butter and 
sends it to market by the carrier. 

We have frequently called attention to the 
great boon a cow is to the poor man, and the 
large profits of a good dtiry. This especially 
the case where only a few cows are kept and 
are well cared for. 

A friend of our.-i, with three grade short- 
horn cows, has realized no less than $90 from 
the product of each cow iu a single season, be- 
sides the milk and butter used in the family. 
But these favocable results depend upon two 
conditions, one or both of which wa frequently 
see overlooked or disregarded, to wit: First, 
That we have a good cow— good in form— that 
a profitable disposition may be made of the 
carcass for beef, when the cow is no longer 
wanted for the dairy, and a liberal and steady 
milker; it is incomprehensible that poor cows 
should ever be tised, when good ones can be 
obtained at so small an advance on the common 
price. And this is especially true where feed is 
high and the animal is kept with a view of sup- 
plying milk and butter for the family or market. 
Indetd, inferior cows should not be kept for 
any purpose, but should be slaughtered for beet 
as soon as their inferiority is discovered. To 
keep an ill-formed cow or a poor milker, for a 
breeder, is even worse economy than for the 
dairy, as in this way we perpetuate and multinly 
unprofitable stock." 

'The second condition for success with the 
dairy cow, is that she have plenty to eat and 
the best and kindest treatment. All farmers 
understand the importance of crowding hogs 
designed for slaughter— that it takes as much 
to make an animal "hold its own," as to keep 
up the highest degree of gain, and that, there- 
fore, if we only half feed, what is consumed is 
a dead loss; so it is when we merely keep alive 
young cattle or other stock. .But in no instance 
does lull pasture or a proper supply of other 
food in winter, or when pasture is short, pay 
better than in the management of the dairy cow 
— the more plentiful the feed, the greater will 
be, not only the yield, but the absolute profit. — 
T. 0. J. in Live Slock Journal. 



A Nkw Cattle Disease in Jamaica. — A 
correspondent writes to the London Field: A 
relative in Jamaica writes; "I am in a sea of 
troubles; the cattle on one of my properties 
will not get well, and will die. Nobody here 
has ever seen or heard of anything like it 
upon any pen (a cattle estate) in the island. 
I have lost fully £900, aud am by no means 
out of the wood. The animals waste away 
until they die; there is no ether symptom 
than that of wasting, and, when opened, the 
liver is a mass of corruption, and full of big 
worms. I am well ficquaiuted with theordin^jry 
liver disease of cattle. The present plague 
differs from it in the beast having no cough, 
and in the old herd of between five and six 
hundred being affected. Nothing that I have 
tried does any good. The unusual quantity of 
rain which has fallen in the last two months, 
may have increased the epidemic." 



Holding up the Milk.— C. F. Drake, Sul- 
livan, Ohio, writes to the New York Farmers' 
Club: "I noticed, some time ago, a plan re- 
commended to break cows of holding up their 
milk while baing milked, and that was to 
place a weight on her back, while milking a 
cow that had such a trick. Now, 1 have had 
two such cows, and one of them had been 
subjected to that kind of treatment, and, in 
fact, every ' other device which could be 
thought of to cause her to give the milk 
down, and all to no avail, till they gave her 
some meal or brau, or tomething she liked 
to eat; then she would give her milk down. 
But she mtist be milked while eating. The 
other one even a mess would not induce to 
give down her milk. Both were Western 
cows, and I have heard of numerous others 
like my two here. We get rid of them as 
soon as possible." 



Immense Photographs. — Photographs have 
been made of the uew Opera House, Paris, four 
feet three inches in length, and three feet four 
inches in hight. They were obtained in one 
single piece, by well known processes, and with 
the aid of a large and specially constructed 
camera. All the lines of the pictures are of 
remarkable excellence, the moldings, the busts, 
the medallions, and even the minutest details 
being reproduced with rare perfection. The 
attempt is being made to secure pictures even 
larger than this. 



36 



PAOirif Bwm^i, pmii^se 



[January 16, 1875. 



STATE aRANO£ HEADaiTABTERS. 

[. a. Gardner, State Agent; Executive Oomuiittee 
RoonjB; Fruit Growers' AsBOCiatidUR, and FarmerB' 
Mutual Life InBursnee Company, all at No. 6 Lieiies- 
*orf street. W. H. Baxter, State Secretary, at 
•rangers' Bank, 415 California gtrctt, 8. F. 



NOTICE. 

From ami after this date, all moneys due to the State 
Orange by Subordinate GranscB ehould be forwarded 
to the Grangerb' Bank o( California, No. 416 California 
street, San Francisco, together with reporlB appertain- 
ing thereto, addressed to me. 

JOHN B. CARRINGTON, 

TreaBurer State Orange. 
NoTcmber 4th, 1874. l'J-T8-(f 



Installation of Officers. 

Any member of the State Grange is empowered to 
iiutal the officers of any Suborditate Orange. 

J. M. HAMILTON, 
W. M. State Grange of Ciil. 



Extra Copies of the Pacific Kural Press 

Containing Orange addresses, resolutions, obituaries, 
etc., will bo furnished post-paid at ten cents per copy. 
Grangers wishing numerous copies should Bend the 
order for them with the MS. 

To Patrons of the " California Granger " 

Having taken the eubHcription list of this 
paper, we invite its former correspondents and 
subscribers to assist us with their labor and 
patrooage in rendering the Kubal Pbkss the 
moat valuable farmer's paper in America. 

Grange Slanders. 

There is no end to the efforts of our enemies 
to sow dissensions among the ranks of the Pa- 
trons. No stoLc is left unturned to accom- 
plish thoir purpose. No lie is too base to be 
uttered and repeated, even in the face of the 
most positive contradiolion, nccompanied by 
proofs of the falsehood of the utterance. We 
are led to those remarks at this time by notic- 
ing a late article in the AlUi and other journals, 
repuliahed from Eastern papers, in relation to 
the finances of the National Orange. This ar- 
ticle is but a rehash of what has been often 
published before, and is as baseless as those 
upon tbe samesubjtct which have preceded it. 
Full refutations of tbesu falsehoods appeared 
in the Rural Press of October 31st of last 
year. 

It is really astonishing to see how little dis- 
cretion or common sense is displayed by those 
who hope thus to hoodwink and deceive the 
toiling and sufl'eriu farmers of the laud into a 
dihtrnst of the only general and the most com- 
plete organization ever organized for their 
welfare land protection. We can account for 
such things only upon one or t*o hjpotbeso-*. 
Either these slanderers are astuming tbat the 
members of the great producing army of the 
Union are so debased and ignorant as to be to- 
tally unable to disliiguish (ruth from false- 
hood, and candor from deceit ; or the traducers 
themselves are so steeped iu the infamy which 
overhangs and seems to envelop the great mas< 
of government ofHcialsat WasLinjitou and else- 
where, that they themselv«B cannot distin- 
guish right from wrong— and bold all public 
money, of whatever character, legitimate plun- 
der for those who can reach it. We rather 
hold to the latter, from the fact that every 
slander of tbis kind, so far, seems to have orig- 
inated from some correspondent or newspaper 
editor in or near that great sink of iniquity— 
Wasfaineton City. We are not astonished that 
such things should emanate from such a 
source; but we do feel some surprise to find 
them reproduced in journals pul>lished in this 
city, which lay claim to a reputation for fair- 
ness and honesty in tbe discussion of raaiters 
pertaining to public interest. 

In Memoriam. 

Died, In the Tehichipa valley, Keru county, 
Califoiuia, January 2, 187.5, of congestion of 
the heart. Brother Marion S. Wiggins. 

At the lime of his death he was in the fiftieth 
year of his age. He was a good Patron, an up- 
right (iiiziu and an affectionate husband ami 
father. Hb leaves a wife and eight childicu to 
mourn his loss. 

May the Great Master above, who doeth all 
things well, and whoso providences are hid iu 
mystery, bind up the broken heart of this 
afflicted household, and cause them, out of the 
m dst of their woe, to exclaim — "though IIo 
slay me, yet will I trust him." 

W. S. Eastwood, 1 

John Hendbickson, 'r Committee. 

Thos. H. Goodwin, Sec'y. ) 



St. Helena Grange. — Charles A. Story, 
Secrsitary Of St. Helena Grange, informs us 
that the installation of officers elect for 1875, 
took place on the '2d instant. A short address 
Was delivered on the occasion by Worthy Lec- 
turer. Brother G. B. Crane. 



Election of Senator for Nevada. — William 
Sharon was elected United States Senator for 
Nevada, on Tuesday last. He received a large 
majority in both branches of the Legislature. 



The Granges and Public Schools. 

Believing that some misapprehensions exist 
with respect to the position taken by the State 
Grange upon the subject of text books in the 
public schools, I ask the liberty of correcting 
them through the columns of the Rural 
Pbess. 

It is well known that one of the objects of 
our noble Order is the education of the pro- 
ducing classes, and so fully is this illustrated 
iu our ritual that it is not too much to say that 
no good Patron can be indifferent to the in- 
terests of the public schools. In the very first 
Grange circular published by Mr. Saunders at 
Washington in 1865, the mo;les of education by 
discussions, lectures, formations of Grange 
libraries, etc., are well stated; he says: "It may 
be remarked, that all of these measures are 
now in existence, so that their introduction is 
neither new nor novel; to this we answer that 
their direct application under a new and con- 
trolling principle is both new and novel, and 
one that has not previously been employed for 
tbe same objects. Tbe novelty of tbis organi- 
zation, ard the manner it proposes of intro- 
ducing a system of special education has 
hitherto prevented the originators from pub- 
licly calling attention to the work," etc. So it 
is with other modes of education and other ap- 
plications of the same controlling principle. 
Again, the Declaration of Principles adopted 
last year by the National Grange is explicit on 
this subject. (Art. 4.) 

"We nhall advance the cause of education 
among oursf Ives, and for our children, by all 
just means within our power. Wo 'especially 
advocate for our agiicultural and industrial 
colleges that practical agriculture, domestic 
science and all the arts that adorn the homo be; 
tanght in thoir courses of study." 

Art. 5 of the same Declaration, says: "the 
principles we teaeh underlie all true politics, 
all true statesmanship, anel if properly carrieel 
out will tend to purify the whole political 
atmosphere of the country. We desire a proper 
equality, < nuity and fairness, protection for 
the weak, restraint upon tbe strong; justly 
dibtriouted burdens, oud justly distributed 
power. These are American ideas, Ike veryessenrr 
of American independence, nrxi to advocate the 
contrary is unworthy the sons anel daughters of 
the American republic." 

These pi inciples icere simply reUeraled in 
the meeting of the State Grange at Stockton, 
in the report of the Committee on Education 
and Labor, which report, read in a full meeting 
of the Grange was unanimously adopted, with 
a resolution that a copy be forwarded to ihi 
State Board of Education. 

Resolutions deprecating changes iii text 
books, anel resolutions in fnver of changes 
promoting homo industries had be( n passed 
in many subordinate Granges before the session 
of the State Grange; similar resolutions were 
presented to that bf)dv, and referreel to the 
Com'diittee on Pklucation and Liibor. This 
committee who met each other for the first 
time in th( ir session had no other object tlian 
to represent faithfully the prevailing sentiment 
of the Grange, which was unmistake-able on 
the following points, viz: A desire to avoid 
unnecessary expense; tofosterhome industries, 
other things being eejual; to open the way for 
a gradual improvement of the school course of 
study in the direction of praclionl instruction, 
and to secure some instruction in the duties of 
citizenship for those who can expect only com- 
mon scho 1 education. 

Certain more specific recommendations to 
the State Board have been forwarded with the 
informal approbation of the Executive Cora- 
mitlee of the Slate Grange, but no recommen- 
dation of any changes in text-books. 

We recomiuenel that the elements- of plain 
seicimj be taught in the public schools. This 
change, introduced last year, anel suecfssfully 
carried out in some of the public schools of 
Massachusetts has been highly satisfactory and 
successful in its results, i'wo hours each 
week were devoied to this study. 

"Each class receives separate instruction 
suited to its advancement, ard all grades of 
work are carried on, pupils receiving the same 
marks for progress as in other studies." 

We recommend the formation of school 
mu-eums of natural history by the scholars; a 
revision of the list of books for school libraries; 
with the publication of new price lists co.iting 
severally fifty, one hundred, one hundred anil 
fifty, and two hundred dollars. We recommend 
in certain cases half time schools, and also the 
establishment of vacation schools, in which 
certain departments of technical training could 
be attended to without interfering with the 
regular course of study. .Many recommenda- 
tions were omitted which we would have liked 
to make, because wo wished rather to open the 
way to the desired improvements than to dic- 
tate with respect to their adoption. 

We did not overlook the importance of in- 

• struction in drawimj, which we would have 

made as universal as writing. In the words of 

the Superintendent of Put.lic Instruction in 

Mass.icbnsetts, we beheve "that whatever dif- 



ferences of opinion may exist as to the desirable- 
ness of »-thetic ciil'ure as a branch of common 
school eelucatiou, there is now a tolerably 
general agreement among well informed per- 
sons as to the commercial value of instruction 
in the various departments of industrial art, 
especially in a communiiy largely engaged in 
iudu-trial pursuits." Instruction in the na- 
tural sciences have the same direct relation to 
the business of agriculture, which industrial 
drawing has to manufactures. Not to amplify 
this subject the committee bi lieve that there is 
no better way to promote tbe industrial interests 
of this State than by the improvements we 
have suggested in the public schools. We have 
boon nctU'ited by no other motive than the 
"pre atest good to the greatest number." We 
believe that the Board of Education in our 
own as in other States wdl find in the Order 
of Patrons of Husbandry, one of the most 
powerfiil and reliable auxiliaries, ever ready 
and willing to lend them a helping hand. 

Jeanne C. Cabb. 
Oakland, January 23, 1875. 

The State Lecturer at Home. 

Editors Press:— It is a treat to enjoy a true 
home rest on one's ranch after such constant 
motion to and fro for three months. And it is 
especially gratifying to see bow promising 
the wheat and barley crops of this part of 
Fresno county look, in spite of a December 
without rain. 

To have no rain in Decetubor is a thing nu- 
knowu before in San Jo iquin valley for seven 
years and more. It naturally makes our farm- 
ers and merchants eouiewhat uneasy. With 
us you know a dry winter is a cold one, while a 
wet winter is mild. In keeping with this rule, 
we have had very cold nights and m(>rniugs for 
three weeks past. For two or three weeks in 
December. I learn, we had heavy fogs, some- 
limes do dense that the sun was not seen for 
days. This is no eloubt one reason our growing 
yrain continues to do so well. Up to date we 
have had twenty-four white frosts in succession. 
The only mischief this continued dry and cold 
weather has done so far, is to stop plowing on 
land unbroken before and to injure wild feed 
very seriously. The latter is now becoming 
se^rce. Iu view of these facts heavy clouds 
to-duy, the first for several weeks, give most 
cheering 

Promise of Rain 
Within a few days. About as largo an acreage 
will bo sown around Borden this winter as last, 
that is about 10,000 acres of wheat and barley; 
all but a few hundred acres of this are already 
sown and growing finely. The canal company, 
much to our gratification, are making improve- 
ments in our iirigating ditches, so we hope to 
irrigate more than we ooulei last spring. One 
advantage of irrigation is now app irent in the 
fad that on all land which was fl loded last 
spring, grain is much more forward and is 
growing more rapidly than on unirrigafe 1 land. 
This proves what a lasting benefit the flooding 
of land is. and makes us more hopeful of its 
good rcsulis. As regards the amount of rain to 
come this season, wo hive, perhaps, no good 
reason to bo despondent. An examination of 
jho relative amounts of 

Rain Before and After January 1st, 
Goes to prove that we usually have three or 
tour times as much after that dite as before. 
So good were our rains this season in October 
and November, that we had nearly four inches 
of rain before the New Year. This promises 
an average season. 

Speaking of the rains of San Joaquin valley, 
reminds me of a very important error that oc- 
curs in a work that is taken by hany as an 
authority. The book in which it occurs has 
some circulation abroad, I believe, and where- 
ever it is read this grave error goes with it, aud 
is calculated to give a very damaging opinion 
about the rainfall of San Joaquiu valley. The 
book in question is " Hiitel's Resources of Cal- 
ifornia," sixth edition. Speaking of the rains 
for the winter of 1870-71, our worst since '64, it 
gives, on p. 40, the amount of rainfall that 
year at Modesto, as only 2. '25 inches! I meas- 
ured the amount carefully that year and seve-ral 
others within 15 miles of Modesto aud know 
the amount was 7. '25 or 5 inches more than is 
stated by the work in question. The error may 
be a typographical one; if so, it is none the les-s 
important to have it corrected, in justice to San 
Joaquin valley. The amount, 7. '25 inches, is 
the smallest ever recorded here. We usually 
have had from 10 to 17 indies since 1868. Last 
winter in Fresuo we had about 14 inches. 
There is but one part of California where even 
as little as 3 inches of rain falls per annum. 
That is the Inyo country and perhaps that des- 
ert part of San Bernardino county south of 
luyo. But Inyo is supplied with abundant irri- 
gation from unfailing streams that are fed by 
Alt. Whitney and adjacent peaks of the Sierras. 
An important fact about 

Winter Temperature in Fresno, 
Upon the plains, has been brought out by ob- 
servations with the thermometer this winter. 
Observations at Borden and also at Fresno City, 
as reported in the Expositor, show that thongh 
we have had so much cold weather this 
winter, the lowest the mercury has stood about 
sunrise, or 7 a. m., is 26 degrees. This goes 
far to prove that oranges, lemons, limes and 
olives can be successfully raised in Fresno 
county. In Stanislaus and Merced counties, 
near Merced river, the coldest one winter was 



16 degrees, and another winter 10 dagrees. Ice 
at that t'me was about an inch thick. In our 
part of Fresno it has never been seen thicker 
than a half inch. As these semi-tropical fruits 
will ttirive where the temperature does not fall 
below 20, we now have much confidence tbat 
these fruits can be added to our products. 
Experiments are being tried this winter. We 
have strong reasons to believe also, that Fresno 
county is destined to become one of the best 
grape counties in California. 

But I must take leave of tbe readers of the 
Rural for the present. When they read 
these words tbe writer will be wending his 
Wiy, b/ emigrant train, via. New York to attend 
tbe meeting of the 

National Grange, 
At Charleston, South CaroUna. There we ex- 
pect a most interesting session from February 
3d to the 12th. We trust Its work will add 
ftill more to the success already achieved by 
our noble Order in begetting true sympathy 
and harmony among our people, as well as the 
advancement of our producing classes. None 
must think, by the mode of travel sehct'-d, 
that I propose to emigrate finally from onr fair 
State. I shall be with you again early in April, 
if life and health pre spared. Letters will 
reach me at Charleston up to February 13th, 
and at Green Springs, Alabama, np to March 
15th. 

Congratulations anel success to the Robal and 
Granf/tr combined. May the good qualities of 
b .th be harmoniously blended. We believe 
much good will come of the union of the two. 
Y'ours fraternally, John A. Weight. 

Borden, January 11, 1875. • 

Election of Officers. 

Rustic Grange, No. 83 (Corrected).— L. P. 
Whitman, M.; Fred Brownell, 0.; G. W. 
Haines, Sec'y; H. S. Stewart, T.; Geo. W. 
Francis, L. ; Mra. A. V. Fisher, C; M. A. 
Speaker, L.; Wm. Allen, A. S.;L. W.Row- 
land, G. K. ; Mrs. Eliza Allen, Ceres; Miss 
Dora Molloy, Pomona; Miss R. A. Sperry, 
Flora; Miss Mattie Buchanan, L. A. S. 

Little Lake Grange, No. 151. — W. A. 
Wright. M ; S. Barter, O; W. V. Powell, L.; 
N. W. Norton, S.; J. H. Folton, A. S.; J. G. 
Snell, C ; M. K. Sawyers, T.; A. P. Martin, 

Sec'y; James Frost, G. K.; Ceres; Mrs. 

S. E. Gardner, Pomona; M. H. Lambert, 
Flora; M. C. Felton, L. A. 8. 

Stockton Grange, No. 70. —Thomas E. 
Ketchnm, M.; Wm. G. Phelpa, O ; Beuj. E. 
Brown, L ; J. B Harelson, S.; Wm. A. French, 
A. S.; Daniel Discho, C; EH Allen, Sec'y; 
Israel Landez, T.; Thos. Stephens, G. K.; 
Miss Emma French, Ceres; Miss Mary Steph- 
ens, Pomona; Miss Mary A. Harelson, Flora; 
Mrs. Wm. B. West, L. A. S. 

San Josk Grange. — Wm. Erkson, M.; T. E. 
Snell, O.; Alfred Chew, L.; J, Powell, S.; J. 
Holland, A. S.; A. P. Stonier, C; W. L. 
Manly, T.; Rufus Fisk, Sec'y; J. Cottle, Q. K.; 
Mrs. E. P. Bicknell, Ceres; Mrs. L H. Erkson, 
Pomona; Mrs. S. Rucker, Flora; Mrs. E. Far- 
moor, L. A. S. 

Lower Lake Grange. No. 77, Like Co. — 
From Lucv S. Wilson. Sec'y, Oct 26th: J. W. 
H .ward, M.; C. L. Wilson, O.; R. Keatinge, 
L.; J. D. Hendricks, S.; R. K. Nichols A. 8 ; 
H. H. Hazel, C; J. C. Crigler, T.; Lucy S. 
Wilson, Sec'y; Thomas Mourland, G. K.; Mrs. 
Cunningham, Ceres; Emma A. DeWolf, Po- 
mona; Emma Farris, Flora; Mrs. R. K. Nichols, 
L. A. S. 

Linden Grange, No. 56.— E. B. Cogswell, 
M.; David Lewis, O ; R. P. Nason, L.; Sam- 
uel Titus. 8. ; David Dodge, A. S ; L. A. M( rse, 
C; James Washy, Sec'y; W. F. Prather, T.; 

C. W. Martin, G K.; Miss Fanny Prather, 
Ceres; Miss E. M. Wasley, Flora; Miss Hattia 
Grupe, Pomona; Mrs. E. J. Martin, L. A. S. 

Grange Consolidation. — The May field 
Grange his consolidated with the Santa Clara 
Grange; the members joining the Santa Clara 
Grange. 

Colusa Central Gbanob, Colusa county. — 

D. Bebee, M; J. O. Zumwalt, O.; M. P Hil- 
dreth, L.; Fraok Beardman, S.; J. Dawson, 
A. S.; B. C.Kimbrell, C; Henry Husted, T.; 
Carrie Weblev, Sec'y; E. B. Duncan, O.K.; 
Mrs. Annie Husted, Ceres; Miss Cora Bebee, 
Pomona; Miss Mary Guthrie, Flora; Hiss 
Lucy Duncan, L. A. S. 



A Grange Revival. — There is said to b« a 
great "revival" in progiess among the Granges 
in the southern portion of New Jersey. 'The 
incre^ise of members is very rapid. Hundreds 
of farmers who six months ago wagged their 
heads in derision at beeomiug Patrons are now 
knocking loudly at tbe outer t>rate for admission. 
Several of tbe whilom weak Granges have now 
turut-d the corner with 100 hundred members, 
and many more are close npon that number. 
In six months more, says the New Jersey 
Granfier, the outside farmers will be so few 
and lonesome that they will hardly dare to ven- 
ture out o'nights. 

Gbanoebs' Bank ok California. — We learn 
that the second assessment of $5 per share on 
the capital stock has been coming into the 
treasury in a manner particularly satisfactory 
to the managers. Business has steadily in- 
creased. Work for tbe attendants ban been 
lively since January Ist. Farmers having 
bankinc business in San Francisco should not 
forget the Grangers' Bank, 415 California 
street. 



January i6, 1875.] 



37 



From the Granges. 

Cache Creek Grange. 

Editob8"Peks8: — I bad the honor and plea- 
sure to meet with Cache Creek Grange and 
install their officers on New Year's day. They 
had made arrangements for a harvest feast and 
New Year's dinner, which arrangements they 
carried out to perfection. There were delega- 
tions from Capay, Buckeye, and Dixon Gran- 
ges. The Grange was called to order and 
opened in due form at 12 o'clock, m., and the 
order of business run over briefly; when the 
gates were thrown open and many who did not 
belong to the Grange came in to witness the 
installation ceremonies. S. A. Howard was in- 
stalled Master, and K. B, Butler, Sec'y. (I am 
not able to gives the names of all the new of- 
ficers.) Brother Hulburt upon retiring from 
the chair made a very handsome speech in 
which he thanked the officers and members for 
the assistance they had given him through the 
past year, etc. At the conclusion of the instal- 
lation ceremonies, Sister Rudolph, a young 
lady about 16 years of age, stepped forward, 
took Bro. Hulburt, the Past Master by the arm, 
led him out to the center of the hall, and, in 
behalf of the sisters of Cache creek Grange, 
with a very neat little speech, presented him 
with a set of gold shirt buttons, in token of 
their appreciation of his labors during the p«t 
year in the interests of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. This was a little too much for Bro. 
Hulburt; it took him so much by surprise, he 
could not find words wherewith to express his 
feelings. After his reply a recess was annonneed, 
and the tables were spread. It is of no kind of 
use for me to undfrtake to tell you all they had 
to eat, for I could not think of it all between 
now and to-morrow morning, much leas write 
it. Suffice it to say they had plenty of every 
thing that is good to eat. The feast being over, 
the Grange was called to order. All who were 
not m mbers of the Order withdrew; the new 
officers took their stations, and we left them 
working harmoniously. 'This is the largest 
Grange in Yolo county, and I predict will be a 
very lively working Grange in the future, as it 
has been in the past. Ou the next day, Janu- 
ary 2nd, I installed the officers at Davisville, 
but have not time now to give any of the par- 
ticulars, more than we had a first-rate time. 
Saturday, the 9th inst., I will go to Capay to 
install Bu :keye; will luHtall the 14th; farther 
than this I am not now posted. 

I want to tell you before I close that we had 
a Christmas tree at Buckeye, under tlie man- 
agement of the Grange, which was a complete 
success in every particular. The old as well as 
the young were remembered with valuable 
presents, and just funny thinss enough to keep 
it from being dry. But, by the way, when I 
write that word "dry," it reminds me that we 
would like to see a good rain up here now. 
Soma are getting a little scared, and I would 
rather have the rain than the promise of it. 
Never was there so much grain in the ground 
at this time of the .season. Wm. Sims. 

Buckeye, January 5, 1875. 

Colusa Central Grange. 

Editors Peess:— On Satuaday last our 
Grange held a feast in its new, large and com- 
modius hall. It being a first occasion the 
tables were set on the lower floor, while the 
members of the Grange and their guests as- 
sembled In the upper story, where the Grange 
was opened in due form by J. P. Kimball, 
Master, and three candidates were obligated in 
the fourth degree. After a few minutes recess 
we had public installation of officers, and all 
joined in partaking of the bountiful feast which 
had been prepared. 

I send you herewith a list of the officers in- 
stalled for the ensuing year. We hope they 
will be alive to the interests of the Grange. 

Mes. Carrie Wklby, Sec'y. 
Washington Grange, No. 228. 

Edtors Pbbss; — We are pleased that you 
have allotted us space in our paper to commu- 
nicate with our sisters and brothers. You will 
perceive from our mumber that we are young; 
but we are growing rapidly and expect to greatly 
increase our numbers by next su lumer. Bro. 
G. C. Holman, Master of iijckport Grange, 
visited us on the iHh and duly installed our 
officers. His very pleasan address and admo- 
nitions wpr 1 highly appreciated by all, and 
were tlif> means of inducing many to apply for 
meiiiijership. We can but tender him thanks 
lor the benefits thus conferred. 

M. L. Cook. 

San Joaquin Co., Jan. 11th. 

Ceres Grange. 
Editobs Press: — The officers of Ceres 
Grange No. 64, were installed yesterday, Jan 
9th, by our Worthy Deputy of Stanislaus county" 
J. D. Reybnrn, who gave us some pleasing and 
pointed remarks on that occasion. Quite a 
number were present, but the attendance was 
not so large as it would have been were it not 
that the farmers in this vicinity are very busy 
just now seeding their land. The Ceres 
Grange numbers sixty-two members in good 
standing. We have lost one by death and ex- 
pelled one since our organization, August 31, 
1873. The weather here is quite dry, but farm- 
ers are generally hopeful and are seceding all 
fiiO laj)4 ttt^y can. Yours, fraternally, 

K. K. Whitmore, Sec'y. 



Another "New Idea." — In some of the 
Granges in Indiana a "query box" has been 
introduced. Important questions are written 
on slips of paper; the Secretary then passes the 
box, collects and reads them, and the members 
of the Grange who wish to do so, give their 
views upon the questions read. 'This plan 
might no doubt be pursued with good results 
in connection with the custom adopted in many 
of the Granges of appointing two or more 
members to prepare essays on the interesting 
questions proposed, to be read at the next 
meeting of the Grange. 

Helping one Another. — At a recent conven- 
tion of Patrons in Mississippi a resolution, 
among others, was formed to the effect that 
Patrons should loan their surplus money to 
members of the Order in preference to all 
others; and urging each Grange to ascertain the 
financial condition, and when necessary or 
proper to relieve the wants of its members. 
Each Grange was also requested to have an ar- 
ticle carefally prepared, each month, for pub- 
lication in some home journal, on topics of 
special interest to the people of its locality. 



Grange Coltncii. foe Nevada. — The several 
Granges in the State of Nevada piopose to or- 
gnnize a State Council for the purpose of more 
effectively carrying out the objects of the Or- 
der. Each Grange will elect five delegates, to 
meet at Carson on the 26th of this month. This 
is an important and very nece-isary move for 
the Patrons of our sister State. It is to be 
hoped that the Order may soon become suffi- 
ciently strong in that State to authorize them 
to organize a State Grange. 

The Game Law. — The game law provides, 
(Sec. 628 of the Penal Code) between the first 
of January and the first day of July it shall not 
be lawful to kill any deer, elk or antelope. 
Quail, patridges and dunks shall not be killed 
between the fifteenth day of March and the 
fifteenth day of September. Trout shall not 
be caught between the fifteenth day of October 
and the fifteenth day of April. 

Help for the Suffering. — The Grangers 
and citizens of Livermore will ship a car load 
of wheat, flour and provisions this week for the 
Kansis sufferers. The Central Pacific railroad 
company will forward the car free to Ogden. A 
sum of money was recently sent from Liver- 
more to Topeka, Kansas, for their relief. 



The Granges of Mississippi are moving 
earnestly in the matter of establishing a co- 
operative Crntral business agency, similar to 
that now in progress of organization in this 
State. They are also moving in the matter of 
establishing factories for the manufacture of 
wagons and agricultural machinery. 

Grange on Text Books. — The Secretaries of 
Rutherford and Cache Creek Granges have no- 
tified v.s of resolutions being passed by their 
respective Granges in opposition to the change 
of text books in the public schools of Califor- 
nia. 

Granges in Oregon. — There are 243 Granges 
of the Patrons of Husbandry in Oregon and ad- 
joining territories. These have an average 
membership of 50 each, which gives 12,150 
persons affilating with the Order there. 

The Patrons of Kentucky are taking steps to 
establish Grange banks. 



The School Book Question. — The Board of 
Education have ordered the following changes 
in the text books to be made in the public 
schools throughout the State: 

First — The Pacific Coast Readers were 
adopted in place of McGuffey's. 

Second— The Specimen 'Penmanship was 
adopted in place of the Payson, Dunton & 
Scribner Series. 

Third — Cornell's Geographies were adopted 
in place of Monteith's. 

Much unfavorable comment has been indulg- 
ed in by the papers throughout the State at 
this action of the Board. We are inclined to 
think, however, that the public are not clearly 
informed with regard to this subject, and we 
shall endeavor next week to present facts from 
which our readers will be better able to judge 
intelligently with regard to the full merits of 
the controversy. 



Patents & 'Inventions. 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(From Official Rrports fob the Mikinq and Soikn. 
TiFio Pbkbs, DEWEY & CO., 1'0bli9Hkbs and 

U. 8. AND FOBEIQN PaTKNT AQENTS.] 

By Special Bispatoh, D.ated 'Waahinffton, 
D. C, Jan. 12th. 1875. 

For Week Ending Dec. 29th, 1874.** 
Almond Grater. — Julius Leroy, S. F., Cal. 
Fruit Drier. — William S. Plummer, S. F., 

Cal. 
Hay Press. — John Wiley, San Andrea], Cal. 

The patents are not ready for delivery by tte 

Patent Office until some 11 days after the date of Issue. 
Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dkwet & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel. 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business tor Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security and in the shortest time possible. 



Agricultural Items. 

Angora Goats. — The Watsonville Pajaronian 
learns that E. R. Marsh, of San Francisco, has 
recently invested $27,000 in Angora goats; also, 
Wm. Hall, of San Jos6, lately parchased a lot 
at $11,480; and C. S. Abbott, Flint, Bixby & 
Co., and B. Boswell have bought up all the 
stock of the Guadalupe Island company, except 
about 300 shares, and the stock held by Laii- 
drum & Rodgers. These men represent several 
million dollars, and mean business in goat 
raising. We may note in this connection that 
Landrum & Rodgers, of Watsonville, will, dur- 
ing the next two months, ship about 3,000 
pounds of mohair to Philadelphia. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Associ- 
ation on Thursday elected the following officers 
for 187.^): President, W. C. Wilson; Vtee-Pres- 
idents, Cyrus Jones and Jessie D. Carr; Secre- 
tary, Givens George; Treasurer, C. T. Ryland; 
Directors, William O'Donnell and S. J. Jami- 
son. 

In the foothills of Fresno county grass and 
volunteer grain is so forward that it would now 
make good hay. A gentleman informs the Ex- 
positor that he cut hay on his ranch on the last 
diiy of the year, but he couldn't cure it for the 
want of sun. 

The Lakeport Bee is informed that tha to- 
bacco crop planted near Guenoc last year by 
A. A. Ritchie has proved successful. "The crop 
has been cut and saved, and will be cured the 
coming spring. 

In the vicinity of Santa Barbara, a farmer 
last year raised over 60,000 pounds of Florida 
tobacco on 30 acres of land. He has sold the 
same at 10 cents per pound for Eastern ship- 
ment. 

It is reported that in Yuba county the cherry 
buds are much swollen, and that the frost has 
nipped a good portion of the crop. 

The nes', annual fair of the Santa Clara Val- 
ley Agricultural Society will be held the week 
following the close of the Slate Fair. 

The continued dry weather has seriously in- 
jured the volunteer potatoes growing near 
School House ijtatiou. 

The growing crops in San Diego county are 
looking exceedingly well; the ground is in ex- 
cellent condition, and the outlook is better than 
ever before. 

In Hicks' valley, Sonoma county, grass is 
coming on finely, and stock is doing well. 

Napa valley has never yet suffered from 
extreme drouths. 



Industrial Items. 

Manufactories at the South — It is said 
that the cotton factories recently established at 
the South are the best paying industrial insti- 
tutions in the country. They have proved 
that the fabric could be worked to more pe- 
cuniary benefit where it was grown than in 
those portions of the country generally known 
as the manufacturing districts. An important 
point, this, for California capitalists. 

Roston Enterprise. — Boston is showing 
much enterprise in further pushing out her 
iron arms for the trrtde of the West. A special 
committee of the Massachusetts Legislature is 
now examining the terminal facilities of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Biilroad company, for the 
purpose of legislative action in making South 
Boston flits the terminus of a through railroad 
line from the West to that seaboard. 

Tunneling the Niagara. -A plan for tunneling 
the Niagara river at Buffalo has been prepared 
by William Wallace, an engineer of that city, 
who estimates the cost at about $1,500,000. 

Ship building at Vallejo is proving a great 
success. A fine schooner was launched on 
Saturday last for which $32,000 has already 
been offered. 

The Palace hotel will formally open about 
the 1st of September next. A hundred miles 
of telegraph wire are in use to connect the 
rooms with the office. 

A .loiNT stock company has constructed a 
skating rink at Winnemucca. Perhaps, how- 
ever, this may not be considered an industrial 
item. 

SuEVEYOBS are at work on the survey of the 
proposed narrow gauge railroad from Pesca- 
dero to Pigeon Point. 

The Sacramento sugarie has just erected a 
large two story building for a distillery and 
potash factory. 

The proprietors of the Marysville foundry 
will soon establish a branch establishment at 
Chico. 

The California Chemical Paint company has 
increased its stock from $150,000 to «2,000,- 
000. 

The Lincoln coal has been tested for smelt- 
ing iron at Marysville, with favorable results. 

The Giiroy flour mill has an order for 2,000 
barrels of flour from Liverpool. 

A BOX :<i.ctory has been started at Ifevada 
City. 



General News Items. 

The Black Hills.— The avaricious gold- 
seekers who had defiantly pushed their way 
into the Black Hills country in spite of the 
warnings and prohibitions of the Government 
have been driven out by the cavalry under Capt. 
Henry. This is a disagreeable climate in the 
winter— an Iceland compared with the gold and 
.silver fields of California. Let the expelled 
miners turn their steps to California, and they 
will find richer mioing than will ever be de- 
veloped east of the Rocky Mountains, in a 
climate unequalled even in sunny Italy, with 
abundance of game to satisfy all their sporting 
desires, together with the more substantial food 
and necessaries of life while mining. We may 
remark in tbii) connection that recent dis- 
closures at Washington, seem to indicate that 
the gold reports from the Black Hills have bpen 
an artifice in favor of a country through which 
interested parties desire to build the Northern 
Pacific Railroad. 

The Beibery Investigation. — ^The commit- 
tee having this matter in hand have traced 
$750,000 to the very doors of Congress, where 
it disappears in the hands of men who refuse 
to tell what became of it. Under these circum- 
stances it is impossible to avoid the conclusion 
that some of it found its way into the pockets 
of members; and this conclusion brings into 
suspicion every member who labored or voted 
for the subsidy. The great mass of members 
cannot afford to rest under such suspicion. 
They must insist upon a full disclosure from 
those into whose hands the money has been 
traced, whatever the consequences may be. 
The order of the speaker confining Irwin to 
the common jail, and indicating the commence- 
ment of legal proceedings which will continue 
bis confinement after the expiration of Con- 
gress, is a step which bodes no good to any 
one either directly or indirectly connected with 
this disgraceful transaction. 

The New Currency Bill. — The bill for the 
resumption of specie payment which has just 
passed both Houses of Congress, provides; 

First — A redemption of legal tenders, and of 
resumption of specie payments four years 
hence, on the 1st of January, 1879. 

Second — Free bankina, in the widest sense of 
an unlimited issue of National Bank currency. 

Third— A withdrawal of 80 per cent, of the 
amount issued in new bank currency from the 
volume of greenbacks, until the amount of 
$300,000,000 for United States notes is reached. 

Fourth — A substitution of small silver coin 
for fractional currency. 

Fifth — An abolition of the mint charge. 

Killed by a Field Roller. — A severe and 
perhaps fatal accident occuired to Mr. Campea, 
of Borden, on the 4th inst. He was engaged 
in rolling his land, and some part of the wood- 
work of the rolling machine on which he was 
riding gave way, and he was precipita'ed to the 
earth in front of the roller, which passed over 
his body, crusaing and mangling him in a fear- 
ful manner. The roller weighed 1,500 pounds. 

The First Detention. — The first severe 
storm and cold weather during the winter oc- 
curred on Saturday night along the Union Pa- 
cific railroad. The thermometer marked 16 
degrees below zero at Omaha, and 26 below at 
Cheyenne. The westward bound Union Pacific 
train was eleven hours late at Green River on 
Saturday evening. 

Coming to America. — It is said that Emillo 
Ca.stellar, the eminent statesman and Repub- 
lican leader of Spain is coming to this country. 
He will meet with a warm reception here. 
Spain, under its present regime can have but 
little attraction for him — even if he could re- 
main there with safety to his person. 

Reciprocity with Hawaii. — Dispatches from 
Washington say that if the negotiators act 
promptly in settling up the details of the 
Hawaiian reciprocity treaty upon such a gen- 
eral character as is understood to be contem- 
plated, there is no doubt of its prompt ratifica- 
tion by the Senate. 

Scott's Raileoad Bill. — Efforts are being 
made in Congress to have Tom Scott's bill 
amended so as to connect the Texas Pacific 
railroad with the Central Pacific railroad at 
at Fort Yuma, and thus leave the latter undis- 
puted control of the great route with Cali- 
fornia. 

Accidents at the Palace Hotel — Several 
accidents occurred to workmen by falling from 
beams and scaffoldings at the Palace hotel 
duiing the past week. One of the natural 
results of building too high. 

The Healdsburg Flag states that a fire oc- 
curred ia Point Arena Thursday last, which 
destroyed Lyman's hotel, McMullen's saloon, 
Shotmake's saloon, and a house belonging to 
Iverson. 

The big bear that killed Berry near Sierra 
valley a few weeks since was dispatched last 
Thursday by a party of hunters. Bruin weighed 
800 pounds. 

Bank Notes Burned.- Nearly $400,000 in 
new National bank notes were destroyed by the 
burning of a postal car on Thursday of last 
week on the Potomac railroad. 

Theee men were burned to death by the des- 
truction by fire of the Western Hotel at Sacra- 
mento on Saturday last. 




pm®e€. 



[January 16, 1875 



Give Me the People. 

Borne love the glow of outward show. 

Some love mere wealth and try to win it; 
The house to me may lowly be. 

If 1 but like the people in it. 
What's all the gold that glitti rs cold, 

When linked to hard or hauKhty feeling? 
Whafer we're told, the nobler gold 

Is truth of heart and manly dealing ! 
Then let them seek, whose minds are weak, 

Mere fashion's smile and try to win it; 
The houee to me may lowly bo, 

If I but like the people in it. 

A lowly roof may give us proof 

That lowly flowers are often fairest, 
And trees, whose bark Is hard and dark. 

May yield us fruit and bloom the rarest ! 
There's a worth as sure 'neath garments poor. 

As e'er adorned a loftier station; 
And minds as just as those — we trust — 

Whose claim is but o( wealth's creation ! 
Then let th-^m seek, whose minds are weak, 

Mere fashion's smile, and try to win it; 
The house to me may lowly be, 

11 1 but like the people in it ! 



The Other Side of the Story. 

fWritten for the Pbess by Mrs. Elisa E. Anthoni.] 

Did I ever ? MfBsra. Editors, I atn heart- 
broken to think that you would publish such a 
slander about one of your most devoted read- 
ers ; but it only proves what I have always 
affirmed, that men are not to be trusted, be they 
editors or common people. 

To think of my husband, Timothy Toodlos, 
Esq., to whom I have been married over thirty 
years, getting himself into print. 
■ Why, it is ridiculous ! And to think that I, 
who was fifty years of age last month, ard 
never saw my name iu print, save the day 
when Toodlea and I were joined together, till 
death or some woman do us part- to think, I 
repeat, that / should be so lidiculed in that 
heartless manner; and adding insult to injury, 
give it such a name as "A Hen-Pecktd Hus- 
band's Soliloquy." Hen-pecked ! Tho idea ! 
Why didn't he name it "The trials and tribu- 
lations of Timothy Toodles, Esq. ?" but no ! 
That was not high-sounding enough for him. 
I will now tell my side of the story : 

Toodles kindly remarks, that I follow him 
from one room to another, until it is too late to 
go out. And why shouldn't I, pray tell me ? 
When he does "slip away" without my knowl- 
edge, (one of his delectable phrases), he never 
comes home until after midnight; and in an- 
swer to my wifely questionings, replies "That 
the lodge was later than usual, transacting im- 
portant business." "Lodges" are very conve 
nient subterfuges, are they not ? I should 
like to know why women cannot have "lodges" 
to visit, when the baby is cross, or the head of 
the family scolds. 

Whenever the fire-bell rings during the night, 
up Toodles starts, and would rush out bare- 
headed and bare-footed, but I am afraid that 
he would get over-heated, and then take cold, 
or a building might fall on him, or his modesty 
might be shocked by seeing a woman without 
her dress. "Toodles is a very modest man, and 
1 persuade him to remain at home, partly by 
hiding his clothes, and partly by having a 
dreadful toothache. And after all my care, he 
coolly remiirks "That there is such a thing as 
being entirely too solicitous." 

The wretch ! to hold me up to the derision of 
the world. Why ! My hair is getting whiter 
every day, since that article has appeared in 
print; bu; my time will come. As for my turn- 
in!j his pockets inside out, what of that ? 
When a loving wife once di-scovers a picture of 
a doll-faced girl, carefully wrapped up in tissue 
paper in her worse half's pocket, and on 
inquiry, is told that it is a favorite cousin's 
likeness (Oh ! these very convenient cousins), 
she is very apt to search his pockets regularly; 
and ninety-nine wives out of a hundred— and 
perhaps the hundredth also — woudd do the 
same thing. 

iSuc/i a looking ■ house, when I came home! 
Words cannot do justice to the subject. I defy 
any woman, who has the spirit of a mouse, to feel 
pleasant, when she stumbles over a chair on en- 
tering the house, finds the parlor in a st.ite of 
chronic contusion, the chairs upset, curtains 
torn, carpet ruined, canary bird dead, piano 
scratched, uncomplimentary remarks written 
under the pictures in th- album; the bed-cham- 
bers looking as if there had been a battle fought 
there; pillows on the floor; her Viest hat in the 
corner, looking as if it had been used in a game 
of battle-dore and shuttle-cock; cigars strewed 
around the bed and room; hats, coats and 
boots here, there and everywhere, and a de- 
canter of vrine upset on the floor beside a pic- 
ture of a ballet dancer in an impossible attitude; 
the kitchen bo littered up with dirty di.shes, 
novels, bottles of perfumeryl satin vests, curl- 
ing tongs, music books, broken glass, kid 
gloves, withered boquets and goodness knr » ^j 
what else. You can imagine my fe lugs, 
when I saw all this, and then read a note which 
he had fastened to the broken minor. 

"Deaeest Sali.i Ann: — I am unavoidably 
compelled to leave home on business for about 
two weeks; but will return at the expiration of 



that time, hoping to fincta pleasant home, and 
a cheerful wife. You little imagine how I have 
missed you. Your loving Toodles." 

Dearest Sally Ann ! 

Any one would infer from tho above, that he 
had several other Sally Ann's, and I was the 
"dearest." Yea I I have no doubt that he 
missed me, to make home "pleasant." On a 
conspicuous part of my virtuous couch I saw 
a paper with the article before mentioned heav- 
ily marked with a blue pencil. Like all of 
Eve's daughters, I have my share of curiosity, 
and I took the paper, sat down on the floor; 
my favorite easy-chair had one of its — ahem — 
limbs broken, and commenced reading. The 
first two lines struck me as being something 
similar to my case, as I had gone to visit my 
mother; but I read on, until the slanders made 
my face burn — I never u?e rouge— and to give 
my slowly bristling hair, a chance to stand on 
end, I threw off ray hat, and still read 
on, until I noticed that he would go away on 
business for about two weeks. 

That was the last straw I I knew Toodles had 
written it. A man of his years — fifty-eight next 
week — old enough to have more sense, rushing 
into print, and making himself conspicuous. 
I knew now what had befallen my venerable 
Thomas Cat. No more his musical "meiou" 
would greet me. I rose in my wrath, with 
some difficulty, smoothed my erect hair, left a 
brief message underneath his interesting sketch. 

"Your wife awaits you at the hotel," and 

I majestically departed, leaving the house in 
the condition I found it. 

Two weeks later, Timothy Toodles, Esq., 
entered my presence, and rushed forward to 
embrace me. I waved him off, and sternly said : 
"Perfidious man, were you not ashamed to in- 
vade the sanctity of our home, and lift the cur- 
tain to the public view ?" 

He looked bewildered, and then said: "What 
did you say, Sally Ann ?" 

I gazed scornfully at him, and repeating mr 
question, adding: "I know all; I have read 
your delectable effusion holding ray gray hairs 
up to the scorn of the world; and will now aay, 
that I shall not enter your house, until it is in 
the spotless order that I left it. I shall remain 
here, as you think it is so eeonomical, and you 
can pay the bills." 

I never saw a man look so crestfallen. He 
agreed to everything, and three days later, I 
triumphantly entered ni;/ house, and found 
everything in order, and new curtains, new 
mirrors, new carpet, a new canary bird and a 
beautiful Thomas Cat, which reminds me of my 
departed favorite. 

Timothy Toodles, Esq., has been very sub- 
dued since then, as I remind him of his article, 
only three times a day; and thanks to my train- 
ing, I am positive, gentlemen, that he will 
never trouble you again, by rushing into print 
in that ridiculous manner. 

Now you have heard my side of the story, do 
you blame me for my righteous indignation ? 

San Jofe, Jan. 1st, 1875. 



The Advantages of Winter — Winter makes 
nations manly by driving men into social uni- 
ties, and obligirg them to live with each other, 
and devise ways for their amusements and in- 
struction. In a mild climate, where there is no 
necessity for men to dwell under a roof, they 
wander abroad, and in a fjreat measure dispense 
with each other's society, bo that, although 
they may have a certain amount of cursory en- 
joyment, they are comparatively uninstructed. 
Hut, in a severe climate when the cold season 
shuts men out from the field and they retreat 
from their ordinary vocations, and the days are 
short and the the evenings are long, the dwell- 
ing becomes a school-house, and there must be 
conversation and reading. Under such circum- 
stances the family is a center of knowledge; 
and, if there be any leaven in it, a center of 
Christianizbtion. 

Mabbied Life. — Caresses and attention, and 
all the pretty follies of love, are for the idle 
hours and the cloudless sunshine; but the silent 
sweetness of married friendship is that for 
which men look in dark days, and the treasure 
on which they rest. Why cannot women learn 
reliance? they think. Why must they always 
need to be told again and again that which they 
already know, and begin to doubt so soon as 
they cease to hear? This is the first contest of 
natures in married life, but it is one wherein, 
if the woman is wise, she will yield without 
a murmur, and hide her disappointment as care- 
fully as the Spartan boy hides his fox. 

In the family all the children serve the fatheir 
and mother; serve them in love; serve them 
not in such a way as to abolish anything that is 
in them, but in such a way as to enable them 
to turn all their faculties into the current of a 
purified and noble affection. They grow up 
giving and taking, and lioing these things 
through disinterested affection, and being taught 
to do them so. What an education this is! 



Naming Babies- 
it is a fearful responsibility to be delegated 
to name a child which is not your own. So 
far as my children are concerned, I am never 
bothered; I just watch them for a few days to 
catch a leading trait in their character, and 
then found the name on that. If they are 
mild tempered and peaceful. I select some 
such name as Placid, Contentment, Harmony 
or Peace, and if ugly, I saddle 'em with Hurri- 
cane, Tornado, "Tom Sayer8,'Cape Horn or 
Texas Jack. Strangers are sometimes amazed 
to see me go down to the gate, and hear me 
call out: "Tornado, Sayers, Cape Horn, John- 
son. Quad, you and Contentment, Harmony, 
Sunflower, Burlingame come in to supper," 
but I run my domestic affairs as suits me best. 

Mrs. Daison was over the other day with her 
baby. It is a stub-nosed, red-faced rascal, and 
I hope he'll never be named at all. She put 
him into my lap and said: 

"Now, do give him a name — something sweet 
and handsome and good." 

The youug sc6undrel looked me in the eye 
for a moment, and then deliberately kicked me 
five times in the stomach and clawed my nose. 
I told his mother that she'd better name him 
Tarantula, or Centipede, or Cougar, and she 
picked him up, hugged him, and said that I 
had the reputation all over the neighborhood 
of being a brute. 

Mrs. Dogber also brought over her offspring 
the other evening. It is a girl with red hair, 
white eyes and large ears, and she spit at me 
the moment I took her up — spit full in my face, 
and howled and fought to get hold of my neck- 
tie. 

"She's such a blessed, sweet-tempered little 
angel, that you must give her some <iwful nice 
name," said the mother. 

I suggested Susie, Bessie, Bella, Dolly, 
Betsy, Mollio, Sallie, Tillie, and fifty other 
names, but Mrs. Dogber replied that I hadn't 
any refinement about me, and she said the dar- 
ling creature was to be named Mirabel Angus- 
tine St. Clair Dogber. 

There's nothing like having a high soundfug 
name for a child, no matter if his father has to 
work for a dollar a day, and his mother goes 
out washing windows. Very often as I come 
up to dinner I find George Washington Hugo 
Brown rolling in the dirt with Thomas Jeffer- 
son Adolf Le Grand Smith, while Darabel Flo- 
rian Victoria Grump is drawing a stick up and 
down the walk by a string, driven by Theodore 
Jackson Duke Albert Fleming. If those chil- 
dren had common names I shouldn't care a 
cent whether they lived or died. — M. Qttad. 



A Mush and Milk Sociable. — The Placer- 
ville Democrat says: Mrs. Kirk will give a 
mush and milk sociable in the basement of the 
Methodist Church, on Friday, Jan. 15th, 1874. 
Everybody is invited to be in atlendance. The 
proceeds are to be devoted to charitable pur- 
poses. 



When old people go back to their childhood, 
what things do they remember most? what 
do you remember about your mother that is 
gone? Not anything by which she was formally 
made known to the world, but some scane of 
tenderness, some fragrant bentimeut which lin- 
gei"8 in your imagination. 



Happiness IN THE Family Circle. — If a man is 
so situated that he cannot be happy in his fam- 
ily relations, he will not enjoy happiness at all. 
Man must cultivate, therefore, and look for this 
great end of his labors at home in the bosom of 
his wife, and in the affection of his children. 
Around his own hearth, in the presence of a lov- 
ing family, the husband and father, himdelf the 
affectionate head of the household, cannot be 
otherwise than happy. He has no competition 
iu business there, no opposing candidate.'^ for 
honors no grasping, un.-icrupuloua enemy, who 
may seek to take advantage of every weak point 
to injure him and tear from him his earnings 
and possessions; but every one near him givtg 
him preference, is awake to his interest iu 
everything; they emulate each other in doing 
him heart-felt honor, and without dissimulation 
or affectation, sympathize with him in all his 
.sorrows, hopes, joys and triumphs. His loving 
intercourse at home is followed by no remorse, 
is attended by no disquieting reflection or re- 
gret. He is there perfectly at ease, may be 
himself witliout reserve, and be sure that no 
unpleasant occurrence or consequence can re- 
sult therefrom. It is his kingdom, and he is 
beloved by every subject. His wife is the hon- 
ored queen of home; none dispute her benign 
sway ; she rules by smiles, and the whole fam- 
ily lives in her love, and can be happy only 
where they possess it.— /)/•. iJy/ord. 



An Old Time Custom. — The Babylonians 
had a law, which was also followed by the 
Heneti, an lUyrian people, and by Herodotus 
thought to be one of their best, which ordained 
hat when girls were at a marriageable age they 
were to repair to a place where the young men 
were assembled. They were then sold by the 
public crier, who first disposed of the most 
beautiful one. When he had sold her, he put 
up others, according to their degrees of beauty. 
The rich Babylonians were emulous to carry 
off the finest women, who were sold to the 
highest bidders. But as the young men who 
were poorlcould not aspire to have tine women, 
they were content to take the ugliest, with the 
money which was given with them; for when 
the crier had sold the handsomest, be ordered 
the ugliest of all the women to be brought, and 
inquired if any one was willing to take her 
with a small sum of money. Thus she became 
the wife of him who was most easily satisfied, 
and thus the finest women were sold, and from 
the money which they brought small fortunes 
were given to the ugliest, and to those who had 
any bodily deformity. 



A Yankee poet thus breaks forth: "Oh! 
the snore, the beautiful snore, filling the cham- 
ber from ceiling to floor ! Over the coverlet, 
under the sheet, from her wee dimpled chin 
down to her pretty feet ! Now rising aloft like 
a bee in June; now sunk to the wail of a cracked 
bassoon ! Now, flute like, subsiding, then ris- 
ing again, is the beautiful snore of Elizabeth 
Jane," 



Why '-Ugly Sam" Reformed. 

A Promise to a Dying Mother— A Story that 
Touches the Heart. 

He had been missing from the "Potomac" 
for several days and Cleveland Tom, Port Hu- 
ron Bill, Tall Chicago and the rest of the boys, 
who were wont to get drunk with him, could'ut 
make out what had happened. They hadn't 
heard that there was a warrant out for him ; had 
never known of his being sick for a day, and 
his abfonce from his old haunts puzzled them. 
They were in the Hole in the Wall saloon the 
the other morning, nearly a dozen them, drink- 
ing, smoking and playing cards, when in walked 
Ugly Sam. 

There was a deep silence for a moment as they 
looked at him. Sam had a new hat, had been 
shaven clean, had on a dean collar and a white 
shirt, and they didn't know him at first. When 
they saw that it was Ugly Sam they uttered a 
shout and leaped up. 

"Cave in that hat! " cried one. 

"Yank that collar off ! " shouted another. 

"Let's roll him on the floor ! " screamed a 
third. 

There was something in his look and bearing 
which made them hesitate. The whisky red had 
almost faded from his face, and he looked sober 
and dignified. His features expressed disgust 
and contempt as he looked around the room, 
and then revealed pity as his eyes fell upon the 
red eyes and bloated fuoes of the crowd before 
him, 

"Why, what ails ye, Sam ?" inquired Tall 
Chicago, as they all Btood there. 

"I've come down to bid you good by, boys! " 
he replied removing his hat and drawing a clean 
handkerchief fron his pocket. 

"What ! Hev yer turned preacher ? " they 
shouted iu chorus. 

"Boys yer know I can lick any two of ye, but 
I hain't on the fight any more, and I've put 
down the last drop of whisky which is to ever 
to go into ray mouth! I've taken an oath. 
I'm goins to be decent! " 

"Sam, be you crazy?" asked Port Huron 
Bill, coming near to him. 

"i'vecome down here to tell ye all about it," 
answered Sam. "Move the cha'rs back a little 
and give me room. Ye all know I've been a 
rough, and more too. I've been a drinker, a 
fighter, a gambler, and a loafer. I can't look 
back and remember when I've earned an honest 
dollar. The police hez chased me around like 
a wolf, and I've been in jail and the workhouse, 
and the papers has said that Ugly Sam was the 
terror of the Potomac. Ye all know this, boys, 
but ye didn't know I had an old mother." 

The faces of the crowd expressed amazement. 

"I n"ver mentioned it to any ye, for I was 
neglecting her," he went on. "She was a poor 
old woman, living up there in the alley, and, 
if the neighbors had not helped her to fuel and 
food, she'd have been found dead long ago. I 
never helped her to a cent — did not see her for 
weeks and weeks, and I used to feel mean 
about it. When a feller goes back on his old 
mother he's a gettin' purty low, and I know it. 
Well, she's dead — buried yesterday ! I was up 
there afore she died. She sent for me by Pete, 
and when I got there I seen it waj all day with 
her." 

"Did she say anything ?" asked one of the 
boys, as Sam hesitated. 

"That's what ails me now," he went on. 
"When I went in she reached out her hand to 
me, and, says she: 'Samuel, I'm going to die, 
and I know'd you want to see me afore I passed 
away !' I sat down, feeling queer like. She 
didn't go on and say as how I was a loafer, 
and had neglected her, and all that, but says 
she: 'Samuel, you'll be all alone when I'm 
gone. I've tried to be a good mother to you, 
and have prayed for you hundreds 'o nights, 
and cried about you till my old heart was sore !' 
Some of the neighbors had dropped in, and the 
women were crying, and I tell you, boys, I felt 
weak!" 

Ho paused for a moment, and then con- 
tinued : 

"And the old woman said she'd like to kiss 
me afore death came, and that broke me right 
down. She kept hold of my hand, and by and 
by she whispered : 'Samuel, you are throwing 
your life away. You've got it in you to be a 
man, if you'll make up your mind. I hate to 
die and feel that my only son and the last of 
our family may go to the gallows. If I had 
your promise that you'd turn over a new leaf, 
and try and be good, it seemsas if I'd die easier. 
tVon't you promise me, my son ?' And I 
promised her, boys, and that's what ails me! 
She died holding my hand, and I promist-d to 
quit the low business, and go to work. I came 
down to tell ye, and now you won't see me on 
the Potomac again. I've bonght an ax, and am 
going np in Canada to winter." 

There was a dead silence for a moment, and 
then he said: 

"Well, boys, I'll shake hands with yon all 
around afore I go. Good by, Pete — good by, 
Jack, Tom, Jim. I hope ye won't fling any 
bricks at me, and I shan't never fling at any of 
ye. It's a dying promise, ye see, and I'll keep 
it if it takes a right arm !" 

The men looked, reflectively nt each other 
after he had passed out, and it was a long time 
before any one spoke. Then Tall Chicago 
flung his clay pipe into a comer, and said : 

"I'll lick the man who says Ugly Sam 'ahead 
isn't levil !" 

"So'U I !" repeated the others. 



All the girls are becoming 
They wear tom-up bats. 



vegetarians. 



January i6, 1875.] 



ip^#iif» 



89 



The Way American History was once 
Written. 

Mr. Bancroft is familiarly charged with 
■writing the History of the Revolution in the 
interest of Washington and Franklin, and 
making them out to be perfect, while be slights 
or misuses all the inferior actors. This charge 
has no foundation in truth. He ia really v^ry 
fair, and knows better thau his critics do how 
to make allowance for failure, which could not 
but exist in such times. Ttie charge has been 
mursed by the amazement, which naturnlly 
grew into indignation, first of individuals and 
then of that indefluite being, "the general 
public," when they all learned that, the even 
seven years of the American Revolution was 
not an exceptional period, in which all who 
went and came were saints, Solons and Cassars. 
By an iugonous system of writng history, uuder 
which the American youth of the first half of 
this century were brought up, all defeats were 
omitted, all treasons, except Arnold's passed 
over, all follies forgotten, all cheats forgiven, 
and one clear sky of virtue unclovided was the 
back-ground of the whole narrative from the 
moment of Paul Rovere's ride till that dosing 
scene when amid the tears of thousands Wash- 
ington sheathed his sword at Annapolis. The 
■jurious lad who read sometimes asked meekly 
vhen he found how bravely Wayne took Stony 
"oint, how it came into English hands at all. 

Vlt neither book nor teacber gave any answer 

'^uch impertinent questions. 
\ !' Onward Btill tlie Yankee lion bore, 
\ And still tlie scattered Britons tied before." 

'jthing, therefore, could well be more amaz- 
i°lto a race of grandchildren and great- 
g']'children, as they read the four volumes 
'•' * Bancroft's Revolution, thau to find that 
tbis an blundered, that chat one stole, that 
anot; ^j^g Jq tijQ pjjy of Prance, and yet 
. anotl ^j^g such a confessed fool that nobody 
truste^juj ■5pitli any authority. To learn that 
that i,Qij,iy of sages, which men called the 
Congrtjjj- jjjg Qojjfgjgf£^fioji^ dwindled down 
into aiij^gmijiy pf incompetent twaddlers 
before ty^^j, ^^g done, has been perhaps, a 
sui'Pr'sa post as startling, g^^ really we do 
not see tf^j^^ fault, in thisjview of the drama, 
or of its I'jjmei.s^ jg to be charged on the 




"Prevention is Better than Cure. 



I was sittinR beside 

My destined bride. 
One Btlll, sentimental day; 

"How I long." said I, 

"But to make you cry, 
And I'd kiss the bright tears away 1" 

Fair Cecily blush'd, 

Her voice was bush'd, 
I thou!;ht she would cry, to be sure; 

But she lisp'd to me, 

J*outing prettily, 
"Prevention is better than cure !" 



who,. 



lis the cur'aiui aside. If these 



people w^fools he could not make them 
leave aeusi^gg^j^^jg behind thorn. To take 
him to tusk ij^iiy ^^j jjg^ jjj^j to falsify history 
His real ofle ggg^, ^^ be. not so much that 
he discloses^ imperfections of others the 
men who s ut,^ .^^^^ jgn^ j^g jj^.^j j^e proves 
them.-=i£os«o\;yg,,,jj^,_,g^_ 



Labob and ol E.iRs.— Large ears, as has 
been observed, V ^^^ j^ general, and de 
note broad coml^^j^^ ^-^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
thought; while i^ bear things in parti- 

cular, showing iLy^iti^^ ^^ individualize, 
often accorapameV jbe love of the minute. 
Large ears are ust^ satisfied with leaniiug 
the leading facts i ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^,^^.^^, 

principles inyolvedp ^5,^;^^ ^^ attention to 
the enunieration ofr, ^yp^dally all repeti 
tion ot the more uni^taut, is wearisome to 
them. People wlth^ ^ ^^.^ ^-^^ generally, 
and are usually fittX^^^^j^j^j ^J g_j^-;._ 

prises, to receive aui o,u money in large 
sums; in buying or seF^,,,.^ j/^. ^^^ j^^^^ 
a margin rather thei ^^^^ cjuantiiy of 

goods of any sort to tbU aimensions of' the 
measure speoihod and^^j ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
to give with free hand J.^^^.^j ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^ 
calculation as to the exai^_ ^^^,,1, 
on the contrary desire « ^^^ particulars 
of a story as well as th^ f,^^^^^ ^ ^ ^ 
light often in exammin^ .^,j ^^ ^^^ 
Btmct.ng tiny ^V^oinien^X^^^^^^ ^^^ 

disposed to be exact with ^^ ^^ .^^^^^ ^^^^ 
ounces in buying or selliO^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ 
least of knowing the exact i5^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
the stated measure given o> .^^^ p 
with such ears would, in m^g, prefer a re- 
tail to a wholesale hasilj,,^ .^^^ 
Journal. \ 

Female Education.— Cart~" , 
well furnished with instituti^^! thf Cw 
education of women. Tor^ '^^^^'g^f' 
London, Brantford, Whitby, oTi?,™. ,".; 
the Province of Ontario, havf"^' ''^^' J" 
well conducted ladies' coUei '''^^e ana 
proposed to commence one in B. '^ ^'^^'' 
fifty or sixty thousand dollars.? ^o "ost 
ince of Quebec, where the net?®. ^"^^' 
pressing, and where the mearf. ^^ ^^'re 
dance, it is hoped that soon if''' "Dwn 
brow at Montreal may be cro 
"Trafalgar Institute," a splendi 
to the liberality of its founder, \,, 
divcSting himself of ten acres ci?"" ^ ^ 
finest site in ttie city, worth a. left' *" 



li tain's 
ith its 
umeut 



and who has also bequeathed i lar] 



,00U, 



for its future extension and muntenF''''^ 



rth 
Im 

I'he 



A Well-obdeked home is a fsradisi 
No other earthly pleasure is ecual to 
contentment felt at the famiy firesi 
excitement of even successfu busiuesl 
tended with vexation; the enjymeuts or*j 
are associated with fatigue ind dang\';' 
pursuit of fame is dietructig; and ev 
pleasures of knowledge are cmbined wi 
terness. But the happiness of the fires: 
unalloyed. 



Popping Corn. 

<risn't it fun to pop corn? — and when it is 
popped isn't it good ? Most boys in the country 
grow a few hills of pop-corn to furnish them 
amusement in the winter evenings. There is 
some skill to be used in so simple a thing as 
pop|)ing corn. In the first place, the corn 
should be well dried, for when too fiesh and 
soft it does not pop well ai all. Then a wire 
popper with a long handle is the best thing" to 
pop it in. A very small handful of corn, only 
about enough to cover the bottom, is put in the 
popper and the cover fastened down. Then 
we must heat the corn gradually, holding it at 
a distance from the coals, and when it is wt-U 
heated through bring it nenrer the fire, when 
the popping will begin. You must shake all 
the time, and the more the corn pops the 
faster you must shake to prevent burniug. If 
tUa corn is of a good kind a very Utile will fill 
the popper when finished. Pop! how the little 
grains bounce abour as they jump up and put 
on their snowy night-caps. Look at a popped 
grain. It does not seem at all like a kernel of 
corn; it is fairly turned inside out. What 
makes the corn pop and behave in this way ? 
The chemist says that the corn contains an oil, 
and that the heat turns this oil into gas, and 
when the pressure of this gas gets strong enough 
to burst the grain, pop it goes. That corn con- 
tains oil may be new to you, but there is oil in 
it, and in some kinds of corn a great deal. 
Sixteen gal ons of oil have been obtained from 
100 bushels of grain, and veiy nice oil too. It 
has but one fault, and that is it costs too much 
to get it out of the corn; .while the mineral oil 
lasts— the petroleum from which they get kero- 
sene— it is not likely that we shall feed our 
lamps with corn oil. When you hear the grains 
go off with a "pop," and a "sput," jiistremem- 
ber it is the oil that affords you all the fun, and 
turns the hard and flinty grains into beautiful 
masses of corn-starch, not only pleasing to look 
at, but wholesome to eat. — American Aijrical- 
turist. 

Is it Good for the Boys? 

Boys think tobacco is good — at aijy rate they 
pfr.sist in trying to use it though it makes tLem 
ill, as if they thought it would prove to be good. 
A. boy nine years of age was recently brought in 
for examination by his mother, and having a 
twenty-two inch brain, we advised him never 
to touch tobacco, because it had such a tendency 
to induce the blood to the brain and keep the 
body lean and little. We remarked that if he 
ever expected to be a full-sized man he must 
keep clear of tobacco as he would of any other 
poison. The mother ri-marked that she had 
sneu enouiih of theuse of tobacco to make her 
very earnt-st in training her boy relative to its 
use. She said her husband used tobacco for 
ten or more years, becoming lean, billions and. 
sickly; that when he became so weak and ill 
that he could hardly walk or sit up, he would 
smoke several segars a day. Finally the doc- 
tors informed him that he must quit using to- 
bacco or go to his grave. This brought him to 
his senses and ho resolved to try the experi- 
ment. From that day he used tobacco no more 
and in three months' time he went from a 
Weight of 130 up to 185 pounds, and became as 
hardy, healthy and robust a man as could be 
seen in a day's ride. That woman thinks to- 
bacco is not good for boys, and she is sure it is 
not good for men. She is determined that her 
boys shall be kept from it. If parents could 
rtalUe the extent of the evil resulting from the 
use of tobacco, especially by youth, they would 
certainly refrain from setting them the b.id ex- 
ample. The appetites olall tobacco use is are 
perverted, and they are in an abnormal condi- 
tion of body and mind. 

As LITTLE Alice was walking around the 
garden with her great-aunt, amaidea lady, she 
caught sight of an insect upon the footpath, 
which shn immediately ran and crushed with her 
boot. "Oh, Alice," cried the lady, "you 
should not have done that ! Perhaps the poor 
thing was a mother, and had ^o^ne little ones 
to provide for." After a few minutes's con- 
sideration the child said, "But auntie, perhaps 
it was only a great-aunt." 



EESJIC EcQ 



Fatal Effects of Filth. 



X. A. Willard in a late address before the 
Connecticut Farmers' Convention discoursed 
as follows: — Many cases of fever have been 
traced to the consumption of swill milk; dis- 
eases have been traced to the milk drawn from 
cows by the attendants of sick persons; also to 
the impnre water with which milk-pans were 
washed. Cows that drink impure water give 
unwholesome miik. Milk becomes impure 
from particles of dust falling from the cow's 
udder, which has been gathered by passing 
through sloughs or mud-holes. Farmers do 
not as a rule appreciate this matter, but if they 
can dispose of their milk or butter before any, 
great change is effected, they think all respon- 
sibility is off their shoulders. The fine charac- 
ter of English cheese may be attributed to great 
care in all the operations, running from tbo 
conditions of the pasture, as to the cleanliness 
from slough-holes, through the stable, the 
spring-house, washing of pans, etc., to the 
production of the cheese. Cesspools or dead 
animals found upon the premises of English 
farmers are suVfjects for prosecution. 

Putrid water is ofttn the only kind by which 
the cow can slake.her thirst, and yet it is pro- 
ductive of disease. We have a law to prevent 
watering milk, and yet a farmer is allowid to 
permit his cows to quench their thirst in the 
most filthy and poisonous water. Which is the 
most deserving of punishment? A case of 
diarrhe.t in a family was traced to the milk ob- 
tained from a cow confined in a stable without 
proper ventilation. While the cow is under a 
violent excitement, or in an exceedingly ner- 
vous condition, the milk becomes highly poi- 
sonous, as many cases have abundontly proved. 
A child fed from the milk of a cow that drank 
from water oozing out of a hog-pen was covered 
over with sores and pustules. Every factory 
for milk should have a schedule of questions 
for its patrons, covering the whole ground of 
cleanliuess, treatment of the animal under all 
conditions, while in the pasture, at the stable, 
or in their passage from one to tbe other; con- 
dition of pasturage as regards grass, etc., and 
in every direction aft'ecting the product of 
milk. 



Care of Glass and China. 



It ought to be taken for granted that all china 
and glass-ware is well tempered ; yet a little 
careful attention may not be misplaced, even 
on that point; for though ornamental china or 
glass-ware is not exposed to the action of hot 
water in common domestic use, yet it may be 
injudiciously immersed in it for the purpose of 
cleaning; and as articles intended solely for or- 
nament may not be so highly annealed as oth- 
ers, without fraudulent negligence on the part 
of the manufacturers it will be proper never to 
apply water to when beyond a tepid tempera- 
ture. But when fractures take place, the best 
cement, both for strength and invisibility, is 
that made from mastic. The process, indeed, 
may be thought tedious; but a sufiicient quan- 
tity can be made at once to last a life-time. To 
an ounce of mastic add as much highly recti- 
fied spirits of wine as will dissolve it. Soak an 
ounce of isinglass in water until quite soft; 
then dissolve it in pure rum or brandy until it 
forms a strong glue, to which add about a quar- 
ter of an ounce of gum ammoniac, welled rub- 
bed and mixed. Put the the two mixtures to- 
gether in an earthen vessel over a gentle heat; 
when well united the mixture mav be put into 
a phial and kept well stopped. When wanted 
for use the bottle must be set in warm water 
and the articles to be mended must also be 
warmed before the cement is applied. The 
broken surfaces when carefully joined should 
be kept in close contact for at least twelve hours, 
after which the fracture will be scarcely percep- 
tible and the adhesion perfect. The broken 
portion will also be as strong as the unbroken. 
The same cement may be applied to marble and 
even to metals. — English Exchange. 



Industbious School Giels. — TheCal. Citi- 
zen says: We know of a school in this county 
where the large girls go to the school-house on 
Saturdays and scrub it out nicely, and keep 
everything around the building neat and or- 
derly. Such evidences of good will and indus- 
try are oomnieudable, and we hope their teacher 
will bo untiring in his efforts 



, , to give them a 

A TRAVELLER announc* as a fact thaWood education. 

once in his lite beheld peoe "minding tB ._, 

own business!" Tbia rt'arkalde occure\ "'^ '■'' 8''»'e «11 for the sight of the boy ten 
happened at sea— the >ssengers being ttf"'^^ P''' ^lio '^^u 8''*^ °''* °f bed in the "morn- 
"sick" to attend to each tier's concerns. \g ^^"^ '^"'^ **** ^^^ ^^^ shp^u without half an 



ur's hunt, 



Deaths from Lamp Explosions. 

There are so many circumstances under 
v/hich accidents, more or less severe and often 
fatal, occur from lamp explosions, that people 
cannot bo too studious in informing themselves 
with regard to su'h accidents, or too careful in 
seekiug to avoid them. But a few days since 
the following case occurred at the house of a 
friend on Perry street, in this city. A gentle- 
man entered a room late at night in which a 
kerosene lamp had been burning low through, 
the evening, ■stepped towards it and was in the 
act of extending his hand to turn it down, and 
out; but just bffore' his fingers reached tbe 
thumb-screw the lamp exploded with a loud re- 
port which sent it in fragments to every part of 
the room. Fortunately th^re was no fire set 
and no person injured. The next morning a 
lareful examination of the fragments to learn 
the c.iiise of the explosion led to the theory 
that tbe tube, which was rather a largo one, 
had beeu fitted with a very small wick, thus 
leaving a large air space by means of which, 
in all probability, the movement oi the air in 
the room, caused by the opening of the door, 
forced the small, flickering flame down into the 
tube far enough to communicate with and ex- 
plode the gas which would naturally, uuder the 
circumstances, have accumulated therein. 

In this connection it may be interesting, as 
well as useful, to call to mind the fact that 
Prof. Chandler, of New York city, says: "The 
total result for the year 1869, for the city of 
New York, which I myself have cut from news- 
papers, is fifty-two fatal accidents from dan- 
gerous kerosene, fifty severe and six slight — in 
all one hundred and eight persons, to my 
knowledge, from my own readin:», have been 
injured by kerosene in one year." 

Effect of Warmth in Pkeventing Death 
FROM Chloral. — Dr. Bruuton (who, by the 
way, has succeeded the lamented Anstie as 
editor of that excellent medical journal. The 
Practitioner) confirms the observations of Lie- 
breich and others, and finds that the subcuta- 
neous injection of a solution of chloral induces 
sleep, which is light and easily broken if the 
dose be small, but passes into coma if tlie dose 
be large. In dogs, considerable restlessness 
was oijserved before sleep came on, and the 
respiration was at first rendered rapid butsub* 
sequently became slow. A remarkable dimi- 
nution of temperature was observed, which 
appears to be partly due to greater loss from 
the surface, caused by the vessels of the skin 
becoming much dilated under the influence 
of the drug, and allowing the blood to b« 
cooled more readily by a low external temper- 
ature. It is partly due also to the diminished 
production of heat, which cessation of muscu- 
lar action always induces. Dr. Brunton found 
that an animal wrapped in cottonwool may 
recover perfectly from a doso of chloral which 
is sufiicient to kill it when exposed to tho cool- 
ing action of the .air, and that recovery from 
the narcotic action is much quicker when the 
temperature is maintained in this way, and still 
more rapid when the animal is placed in a warm 
bath, providing this is not excesaive. The 



Poisoned Butchers' Meat — It is well 
that all housekeepers, and especially all en- 
gaged in furnishing meat for the table should 
be impressed with the undoubted fact that ani- 
mals ought not to become excited before they 
are butchered, because their flesh is injured 
thereby, and it will spoil quickly. It is fre- 
quently the case that some mishap occurs 
when a hog or a fat steer is to be butchered, or 
when a hurt is given of great or less moment 
which puts the animal in deadly fear, and he 
is likely to break away; in which case men, 
boys, and dogs give chase, which makes mat- 
ters decidedly worse, and if, finally, life is 
taken, it is under pitiable circumstances. 
There is no doubt that much of the butchers' 
meat of the large cities is injured by reason of 
long journeys, inducing a condition of fear and 
trembling or a high state of nervous excitement 
which can but affect the flesh. There ought to 
be special regulations to guard against this in 
all slaughter-houses, and on farms the utmost 
care and deliberation should be taken so that 
butchering may be quickly and successfully 
performed. — Dr. Cross. 



Rolled Heerino. — Hen-ings having hard 
ro«s appear larger and finer fish than those with 
soft roes; nevertheless the latter are to be pre- 
ferred, as they really have more flesh and are 
more delicate. Having scraped the fish, cut off 
the heads, split open, cleanse and take out the 
roes. Take the herring in the left hand, and with 
the thumb and finger of the right press the 
back bone to loosen it, then lay the fish flat on 
the board and draw out the bone; it will come 
out whole, leaving none behind. Sprinkle the 
herring with pepper, salt and a little chopped 
green parsley; lay on the soft roe, roll up 
tightly, leaving the fin and tail outwards, and 
bind round with a piece of tape to keep it in 
shape. Have ready some water well seasoned 
with pepper, salt and vinegar, and when it 
boils put in the herring and let it simmer for 
ten minutes, or until cooked. Serve it with 
butter, parsley or egg sauce poured over. 



.Artificial Cheese. — As a .successor to arti- 
ficial butter we have now an article of artificial 
cheese. The experiment of its manufaeture 
has beeu made in Tompkins county. New York, 
it is said with great success; and the theory is 
simply that skim milk cheese, a food material 
of little value, may be so improved by tho ad- 
dition of foreign enriching material as to be 
much more valuable. The cream is therefore 
taken from milk and made into butter, and the 
skimmed material is made into cheese by the 
addition of a pure and wholesome, but cheap 
oil. ^ 

Fried Vegetable Mabbow. — Cut the marrow 
in strips an inch and a half long and three- 
eighths of an inch square; sprinkle freely with 
fine salt, and place the strips under an inverted 
plate in a basin. In a couple of hours put 
them in a cloth, and thoroughly dry them by 
wringing them in the cloth; then flour them in 
the same manner as whitebait, and throw them 
into plenty of boiling lard. As soon as they 
begin to take color drain thoroughly, sprinkle 
with salt and serve hot. 



Oyster Omelet. — Whisk four eggs to a thick 
broth; then add by degrees one gill of cream; 
beat them well together; season the eggs with 
pepper and salt to taste. Have ready one dozen 
tine oysters, cut them in half, pour the egg 
into a pan of hot butter, and drop the oysters 
over it as early aa possible. Fry a ligbt brown 
and serve hot. 



/ 



40 



[January i6, 1875 




in 

PUBLISHED BT 
. I. DBWKI. W. B. EWEB. O. H. 8TBOSO. I. L. BOONK 



^^^.^ylldl 



PriHOIPAIi Editob.. 



.W. B. EWER, A.M. 



OmOE No. 224 Sansomo street, Southeast corner of 
Oalffomia street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our SoniKriFio rnras, Patent Agency, EngraTlng and 
Printing establishment. 

Subscriptions payable in advance— For one year, f4; 
six months, $2.25; three months, $1.25. Remittances 
by registersd letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advebtibino Rates.— 1 we**. Inwnth. Smontht. lyea 

Per line 2'. .80 $2.00 $5.0 

One-halfinch $1.00 $3.00 $7.50 24.0 

Oneinch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.0 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper. 
Inserted at special rates. 



rio QiiacK Atlvertlsonients Inserted 
In tliese columns. 

The "California G-ranger." 

Subscribers will please settle all arrfarages for sub- 
BCriptlons lo the "California Gbanof.h'' at this office. 
All patrons of that journal are invited to forward their 
subscriptions to the Pacific Bcbal Pbesb. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January i6, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS.-The Alfalfa Para- 
site; Cheap Boxes for Plants; An Improved Harrow, 
33. Ten Years of the Wheat Market; Broom Com; 
"Our Departments;" Raisins from Placer County; 
Book Notices, 40. Silk Culture iu 1874; Whitford's 
Potato Coverer; Fine Short-H rn Stock, 41. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— A California Weed— Dodder 
upon Alfalfa; Whitford's Potato Coverer, 33. David's 
Difiintegratiug Mill; Donohue's Improved Harrow, 

41- 

CORRESPONDENCE.- A Chapter of Tulo His- 
tory— Statcn Island; Hint to Dr. Gibbon: Berryessa 
Valley and Yountville, 34. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— The Wool Clip of 1874, 
35. 

THE S'WTNE YARD.— Choosing a Berkshire; 
Remedy for Lice in Swine, 35- 

BEES.— A Paradise for Bees, 35. 

THE DAIRY.— "The Cow Theory:" A Nuw Cattle 
Disease in Jamaica; Holding up the Milk, 35. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; 
Etc., 36-37- 

HOME CIRCLE.— Give Me the People (Poetry); 
The Other Side of the Story; The Advantages of Win- 
ter; Married Life; A Mush and Milk Saciablei Nam- 
ing Babies; Happiness in the Family Circle; An Old 
Time Custom; Why "Ugly Sam" Reformed, 38. The 
Way American History was Once Writteu ; Large and 
Small Ears; Female Education. 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN —"Prevention Is Bet- 
ter than Cure" (Poetry) ; Popping Corn; Is it Good 
fur the Boys? Industrious School Girls, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH, ftital Effects of Filth; Deaths 
from Lamp Explnsions; Effect of Warmth in Prevent- 
ing Death from Chloral, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Care of Glass and 
China; Poisoned Butchers' Meat; Rolled Herring; 
Artificial Cheese; Fried Vegetable Marrow; Oyster 
Omelette, 39. 

HORTICULTURE.— Our Bay Nurseries— No. 3, 
41. 

THE VINEYARD.— Grape Culture, 42. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. -Black-Leading Iron; 
Cheap Telegraphy; A New Paper Board; India-Rubber 
Tires; To Remove Nitric Ac id Spots; Guns Discharged 
Without Caps; Insect Anatomy; Gum Arabic; H.w 
to Use a Grindstone; Cleaning Out-Door Statuary 
Etc., 42. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from varlons ooun- 
ties in California, 44. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Paper Manufacture, 34. 
Immense Photographs, 85. Australasian Intercolo- 
nial Exhibition; Salt on Wheat; Wagon Wheels and 
Draft, 4SJ. The United States of Colombia; Ripened 
Leaves, 43. 



8,104 Rurals. 



ConsolidatiDg the subscriplion list of the 
California Granger with that of the Pacific 
Bubal Pbess, as announced last week, brings 
our list np to over EIGHT THOUSAND, and 
the heading of this article denotes the exact 
number of copies printed of this paper this 
week. We wish to raise these figures during 
the next three months to Ovek Ten Thousand 
Copies, and now earnestly solicit uvery reader 
to help in securing that increase. We need it 
to make the paper as good as we desire to make 
it; as useful and popular as we intend to make 
it; and to render it profitable to its publishers. 
Will you help ns "on the home stretch?" 



Ten Years of the Wheat Market. 

In the Rubal Pbess of September 26, 1874, 
we published a table showing the fluctuations 
of the wheat market from July lat, 18G4 to 
September 23d 1874. We give to-day the table 
completed and brous;ht forward to January 1st, 
1875. It has been carefully prepared, involv- 
ing a good deal of labor, which we are confi- 
dent will be appreciated by our readers; and if 
any of these do not keep the file of the Pbess, 
we would advise them to cut out the table and 
put it in their scrap book for future reference. 



Fluctuations of Prices for ten years in the San Francisco Wheat Marl<et— Monthly 
Quotations from July 1st, 1864, to January 1st, 1875. 



1864. 1865. 1866. 1867- 1868. 1889- 1870. 1871- 1872. 1873. 1874. 



January 



Peb'y. 



March 



April- 



May- 



June. 



July. 



Aug'ust. 



Sep't.. 



October. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE.... 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE... 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE ... 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE... 

LOWEST 

HIGHEST.... 
AVERAGE . . . 
LOWEST 



1 65 
1 iS 
1 25 


4 31 h\ 
4 25 
3 46 


1 75 
1 55 
1 25 


6 30 
4 76 
3 90 


2 40 
1 85 
1 60 


6 25 
6 00 
4 75 


2 60 
2 25 
1 70 


5 26 

6 00 

4 77H 


3 00 
2 67J< 
2 46 


.5 00 
4 76 
4 62!ii 


2 75 
2 60 
2 30 


6 00 
4 75 
1 75 


3 625« 
3 10 
2 75 


2 00 
1 8854 
1 75 


3 65 
3 50 
3 26 


1 75 
1 70 
1 60 


3 65 
3 52)4 
3 30 


1 96 

1 87 
1 70 


4 am 

3 90 
3 fiO 


2 00 
1 96 
1 80 


i 3TA 
4 25 
300 


2 12-4 
2 06 
1 76 


3 75 

3 52M 
3 25 


2 10 
2 06 
1 94 



2 20 
2 20 
2 06 
2 26 
2 17J4 
2 10 
2 25 
2 17H 

1 8854 

2 25 

2 17 54 
1 65 

1 75 
1 70 
1 62 "4 
1 77J4 
1 7U 
I 47>4 
1 60 
1 50 
1 37)4 
1 60 
1 60 
1 40 
1 65 
1 46 
1 25 
1 95 
1 60 

1 36 

2 07 
1 80 

1 65 

2 00 
1 87 
1 75 



1 80 
I 77 
1 SO 
1 75 
1 71 
1 37>4 
1 94 
1 80 

1 42 

2 22 
2 00 

1 50 

2 15 
2 10 

1 65 

2 00 
1 77 
1 65 

1 82)4 
1 72 
1 60 
1 87 
I 77 

1 66 

2 16 
2 10 

1 75 

2 (H 
2 42 

2 17)4 
2 64 
2 53)4 
2 16 
2 64 
2 53)4 
2 50 



2 75 
2 68 
2 55 
2 91 
2 90 

2 42)4 

3 10 
3 00 
2 60 
2 70 
2 62 

2 37)4 
2 45 
2 22 
2 10 
2 50 
2 06 
2 00 
2 30 
2 00 

1 80 

2 00 
1 85 

1 52)4 

2 05 
1 90 

1 70 

2 05 
1 96 

1 27)4 

1 94 

1 88 

1 42)4 

1 94 

1 85 

1 52)4 



2 0^'A 
2 06 

1 62)4 

2 06 
1 90 

1 52)4 
1 96 
1 80 
1 62K 
1 77)4 
1 72 
1 32 
1 6.'j 
1 64 
1 17)4 
1 66 
1 57)4 
1 32 

1 80 
1 75 
1 56 
1 eo 
1 80 
1 42)4 
1 77)4 
1 75 
1 42)4 



1 70 
1 70 
1 40 
1 76 
1 70 
1 37)4 
1 70 
1 67 
1 27)4 
1 95 
1 62)4 
1 47)4 
1 94 
1 66 
1 47)4 
1 98 
1 66 

1 60 

2 10 
1 96 
1 70 
1 96 

1 88)4 
1 67)4 
1 80 
1 76 
1 55 



1 67)4, 2 05)4 
1 66 1 87 



1 20 
1 64 
1 6U 
1 06 

1 64 
1 .58 
1 17)4 



1 67)4 

2 17 

2 12)4 

1 87 

2 30 
2 20 
1 87 



2 60 
2 27)4 
2 00 
2 62 
2 40 
2 25 
2 50 
2 40 
2 22 
2 85 
2 63 

2 37)4 

3 15 
3 10 
2 60 
2 60 
2 45 
2 30 
2 45 
2 22 
2 21 
2 45 
2 27 

2 12)4 
2 85 
2 37 
2 36 
2 86 
2 65 
2 62 
2 80 
2 76 
2 50 
2 83 
2 67 
2 42 



2 62 

2 27 
2 20 
2 25 
2 17)4 

1 52)4 

2 26 
2 06 

1 85 

2 05 

1 82)4 

1 60 

2 16 

2 05)4 

1 75 

2 16 
2 05 

1 82H 
1 82)4 
1 t 
1 42)4 
1 6ti 
1 50 
1 26 
1 70 
1 62)4 
1 40 
1 TO 
1 60 
1 40 
I 80 
1 65 

1 40 

2 05 
1 93 
1 66 



2 15 
2 02)4 

1 76 

2 00 

1 87)4 
1 60 
1 98 
1 36 
1 70 
1 90 
1 82!^ 

1 75 

2 00 
1 91 
1 75 
1 85 

1 77)4 
1 60 
1 82)4 
1 74 

1 60 

2 12)4 
2 02 

1 72)4 

2 35 
2 25 
2 05 

2 37)4 
2 26 
2 16 

2 32)4 
2 27)4 
2 20 
2 35 
2 28 
2 17)4 



2 30 
2 15 
2 20 
2 25 
2 02)4 

1 85 

2 00 
1 90 

1 80 

2 no 

1 90 

1 80 

2 00 
1 80 
1 70 
1 85 

1 77)4 
1 70 
1 80 
1 66 
1 67)4 
1 80 
1 60 
1 40 
1 65 
1 52)4 
1 06 

1 57)4 
1 47)4 
1 37)4 
1 62)4 
1 52)4 
1 42 y^ 
1' 60 
1 47)4 
1 36 



Broom Corn. 

This is another of the products that are now 
diverting the attention of farmers from the too 
exclusive culture of wheat. It i.s also another 
of the subjects upon which information has 
been asked of us. A subscriber writes us from 
Merced county asking, for himself and others, 
questions that include both the agricultural 
and commercial points of the suViject. 

The question occurs to us here whether it 
would not be well for farmers to reverse the 
order of the above-mentioned points, placing 
the commercial before the agricuKural in con- 
sidering the farming operations upon which 
they are to embark. It appears to us the best 
starting point in examining the sul ject of broom 
corn culture. From our observations of the 
commercial aspect of this enterprise we are 
disposed to class it among the least inviting of 
the new products that are now receiving the 
attention of the farmers of California. Prob- 
ably it would have received little if any consid- 
eration from them at the present time bad it 
not been that the stock of good brush through- 
out the country is now extremely light, and 
prices consequently unusually good. This 
condition of the broom corn market was pro- 
duced by two unusual circumstAnces which are 
not likely to concur again for several years at 
least. 

In the first place over production in this 
crop has become chronic, with consequent un- 
remunerative prices. The South, which pre- 
vious to the war had furnished an extensive 
market for brooms produced by New York and 
the New England States, now to a great extent 
grows its own brush and makes its own brooms. 
This materially augmented the surplus, which 
would have probably occurred from increased 
production, even though the standard markets 
had been retained. In 1870 a very large sur- 
plus of brush and brooms had accumulated, 
and many producers of broom corn turned 
their attention to other crops. Much of the 
land in Connecticut that has recently been used 
for growing tobacco was formerly devoted to 
broom corn. Along the Mohawk valley. New 
York, and in other localities, the production of 
broom corn was also decreased. Meanwhile 
the surplus stock was being worked off, and 
there would undoubtedly have been a fair 
demand for the product of 1874, even though 
there had been a good yield from every ac re 
planted. But instead of this the crop was a 
partial failure; and this occurring when the 
old stock was pretty thoroughly cleaned out, 
sent prices up among dealers and manufactur- 
ers, and has created an unusual degree of inter- 
est in this crop on the part of producers. 

This condition of the business has existed 
for several months — sulficiently long to afford 
ample time for preparation for next jear's 
crop . From present indications we shall expect 
a material increase of acreage given to this 
crop the coming season. Yet even with this 
increase, coming as it will upon a healthy mar- 
ket, short of both brooms and brush, fair prices 
may reasonably be looked for. But although 
this product is one that maybe discontinued as 
readily as it is taken up, still we do not believe 
that our friends who are thinking of embarking 
in it would wish to do so unless there were a 
probability of it being somewhat permanent; 
and as a permanent crop it ranks among those 
that never pay very largely, that are liable to 
over-production, and are in a measure controlled 
by purchasers. 

It has been asked whether purchasers would 
be willing to contract for this crop? We are 



assured that they would not. It was formerly 
so disposed of, but is now principally bought 
by samples. The better portion of the brush 
of 1874 has been selling at five cents per 
pound; but this, as was stated above, is un- 
usually high. Three cents would be considered 
a fair price in ordinary seasons. About 800 
pounds of brush and 2,000 pounds of seed per 
acre is a good average yield. The expense and 
lal)or of putting in this crop is just about equal 
to that of Indian corn. It also requires about 
the s.-jme amount and precisely the same kind 
of labor during it growth that is bestowed 
upon Indian corn. 

Such is the commercial aspect of this matter 
as we look upon it. We may possibly be ac- 
cused of throwing cold water over a worthy en- 
terprise; but we do not gauge our views and 
efforts by any such probabilities. We write for 
candid, thinking men, and while we would 
rejoice to see this crop— if it will pay — intro- 
duced into the new farming schedule of Cali- 
fornia, we would desire to have our friends go 
into broom corn culture with their eyes open 
to the objectionable points as well as to the 
inviting features of the enterprise. If the 
matter is thoroughly sifted it comes simply to 
this: This is a standard product. In all sea- 
sons except those of over-production it is mod- 
erately remunerative. In these exceptional 
periods weak competitors — those who have not 
every advantage on their side— will be driven 
from the field. Then the question occurs, are 
we of this class? 

In our next we will give the strictly agricul- 
tural points of the subject. 



Our "Departments." 

The readers of the Pbess have probably no- 
ticed that the special departments of our paper 
— the dairy, the poultry yard, horticulture, the 
horse, etc., contain a goodly proportion of fresh 
matter, written expressly for the Bubal Pbess 
by men who know whereof they speak. The 
value of such contributions over the indiscrim- 
inate clippings that too oftf n fill up this space 
in agricultural papers, will not fail to be ap- 
preciated. By this means we have the benefit 
of local experience, and are not dependent 
upon imported rules and deductions that are 
partially, and sometimes wholly inapplicable 
to farming on the Pacific coast. Besides, the 
relations of the experience of the practical men, 
and especially of the experience gained under 
new and novel surroundings, is naturally free 
from that arbitrary autocratic air which per- 
vades much of the agricultural informatiop of 
the day. The discussions growing out of these 
varied experiences are, when conducted in a 
proper manner, — and the readers of the Pbess 
need not apprehend anything of an opposite 
character — both pleasant and profitable. 

It is especially important at this particular 
time, when so much attention is being given to 
diversified farming, that all information re- 
lating to the departments that constitute this 
diverhity should be freely communicated; and 
more especially the information that is of home 
production. We therefore desire still more 
contributors of this class; and if those of our 
friends who make a sort of specialtv of any of 
these departments will send in their sugges- 
tions and recorded experience, we think we can 
guarantee courteous treatment. Their contri- 
butions will be placed before 8,000 readers, and 
they will have the satisfaction of aiding ma- 
terially in the development of the agriculture 
of the coast. 



Raisins from Placer County. 

We have had placed upon our table to-day a 
box containing 10 or 12 pounds of as fine and 
perfect raisins as we ever saw of California 
growth; or in fact of any growth. Large 
bunches of well cured and well flavored 
raisins — such raisins as would sell in any 
market as quickly as any of foreign growth. 
These were grown by Mr. Otis Brown, on his 
ranch in the foot-hills in Placer county, some 
20 miles above Sacramento, about two miles 
northwest of Bocklin. 

We have before remarked the unusual ad van' 
tages of our font-hill ranches for the cultivation 
of raisius, as well as for fruits, nuts and oran- 
ges; but this exhibit of raisins, cured with only 
ordinary care in the sun, from muscat of Alex- 
andria vines fully satisfies us that the cultiva- 
tion of these vines and the proper curing of 
their products, presents one of the most profit- 
able fields for enterprise that is famished in 
our foot-hill regions. 

From 900 to 1200 of these vines can be cultU 
vated to the acre, and from five to ten pounds 
of raisins to the vine may reasonably be ex- 
pected. Indeed we were informed by Mr 
Brown that be gathered last year from some c 
his five-year-old muscat vines over 50 ponnf 
of fine grapes to the vine; and that from t^ 
and a half to five tons of raisins can easily' 
cleared from an acre of muscat bearing vif 
With a liberal estimate for cultivating, picfcJ' 
curing, boxing and freighting, it seems ar'' 
ent that these raisins can be delivered t'"^ 
grocer iu New York at an expense of 'l®" 
cents per pound to the producer. Esti''i"K 
only a moderate advance from this cost "^^ 
cents per pound, we have a net profit 'ro"! 
$250 to $500 per acre. 

On the other hand it requires thre''' '*""■ 
years time after putting out vines, b""^ "Jjy 
income from them can be obtained, 1 ^^.^ 
farmer, engaged in his usual put ,' .? 
waiting period can be economized,. ^"b 
all the enterprise evinced by our f '"^ com- 
munity, it is yet far behind a prop^PP"'®'"*" 
tion of its surrounding advantage regret 
to say that to others than ou-'r™*''^' «" 
generally given the advantager'*^*'' ij^™ 
forward enterprises of this c'^'*'''; ^^^ 
are too much inclined to do as // neighbors 
tfve faculties 

_ _ Ills to 

them opportunities of gain ""^^ quarters. 
Then all Hands rush in, and i<^>""ls or nops 
the market may sometimes "/fi""''?- ^T 
profitable raising of wheat /"'^^'^^^ nearly 
all the farmers in the State B'^«, '^*" ex- 
clusive attention to the cul'f"^ °\ tins pro- 
duct, while their labor la^**/, '>^'«'»t ^^"^ 
been given more profile V* ''^^ cultivation 
of other products. L , ... 

All farmers may not T*?,"? suitable to 
the cultivation of vines, P *" ^^"I'^S such 
and especially to iboe^l , i°?tn'H8, we 
would advise a giving cT ^''^nt'on to the 
cultivation of the raisjf P«- ^^^f ' raisins 
of a superior quality c* ^"ccessful.y pro- 
duced from our soil a^J^^'^ '^^.^ been too 
thoroughly demonsir "> lose time in the 
discussion. That it f^ ^^^'^ ^nd largely, 
seems to be beyond <'• ^, ^ ... 

Mr. Brown info "« *'^*' considerable 
tracts of foothill i,»«ll8iuted to this busi- 
ness, can be obtain',''- ^ • ^^^'tney a large 
land owner in his ^'i'- ^"'' "^^om most 
liberal arrangemei" ^ ^ "^^e- 

' B Notices. 

"A Free Lane"*® -field of Life and Let- 
ters," by Will Cleaver Wilkinson. The 
terin ' 'Lance"- K^^""" °^ warfare-is hard- 
ly in keeping ^'^•e character of the work 
before us, for '■"''=»1 portions of it, though 
plainly exprei''"'* bearing the evidences of 
strict candor "ot unduly sharp. On the 
contrary the *' ^'" ''« favorably influenced 
thereby towi^"y««t'»or introduced in this 
attractive ^^e■ Ihe book is made up of 
judicious 'io"^ f^Of^ George Elliot's 
novels iro'^^^ Kussell Lowell s poetry and 

prose, also'^ w^'*°*'^ P^*"'?;,'^'^ */^- 
view of h*"*'*"°'' "* *h® Illiad, and a 
careful es"^ of 'be character and influence of 
Erasmus. ^^ chosen and ample selections 
are given-' *^' above named authors, and a 
careful "' """^ ethical review is bestoweJ 
upon e'a " •« ^ "/'" and pretty volume of 
340 pac'"^ wolld be an appropriate gift to 
jj pgjgo taste. \ For sale by A. Koman & 
Q^ 1 jntgomey street. 



do, without exercising their re , . , 
until accident rather than forr'* exhibi 



Tbout at the UmvEBsiTy. — The State Fish 
Committee have put up a building on the creek 

near the Botanical propagating works -at - „= t om <.A j i. ' ", ■' 

Berkely, and expect to have trSut ova this nt it. as far as I am cAerned. by any other 
week. F®' 



On 
'The 



,E. — "'DAss 



at PonltJ 



Beform," N. A. D.; 

Show," M. E.; "Advan- 

tate Agency," L. B. K. ; 

th Song," F. P.; "Land- 

iirdening— I^. 2," F. P. H. ; "The 

T.; "An Occasion at 

"Florists'Flowers.Etc. ;" 

dding," W,; "Market 



tages be Grang. 
..pg,ua Grange 

scaj^ 

Qj.j Socially," 

Yo ille," W. H. : 

J C; "Grange 

picts," F. P. 



g EoBAL Pbess "< 
leading California 
llowa: "I am a sind 
her of the Pbess; I 



NOT BE Supplanted." 
Itry fancier writes us 
admirer and well 
ot, if I tried, sup. 



January i6, 1875.] 



41 



Silk Culture in 1874. 

(Written for the Psisaa by Felix Gilijkt, Kevada City.) 
(OontlDued from last week.) 
I will now entertain your readers about 
My Own Experiments 
Made last summer. I raised several lots of 
eggs of various races : A lot of French yellow- 
annual of California reproduction, a small lot 
of yellow-annnal of European origin, and a 
larger one of greeo-annnal from Japan. First 
let me say this: I have written so many 
communications so far to the Kueal Pbess on 
this question of silk-culture, that by this time, 
I hope, your readers are satisfied that I have 
tried to the best of my ability to help found 
in this State, on a non-specnlative foundation, 
this silk industry; so I will keep on telling 
them the plain truth, whether discouraging or 
not, or even against my own personal interest; 
the plain truth in my case, is, that with the 
yellow-annual races of California reproduction, 
I have totally failed — thanks to pebrine — but 
with eggs of European and Japanese origin, I 
have succeeded very well. An advantage, how- 
ever, with with me over other silk-growers who 
have likewise failed in meeting with a complete 
success, is, that I know positivdy why I did'nt 
succeed with those yellow annual races 
already acclimated in California. I fed some 
of the worms separately with all 
kinds of leaves, butit was of no 
avail against the pebrine, and I 
had to throw away most of the worms 
belonging to these races. On the 
other hand, the worms of European 
origin, and 15,000 Japanese behaved 
splendidly; if I lost one per cent, of 
them, it must have been even acci- 
dentally, through spiders, yellow- 
jackets and lizards. They all accom- 
plished molding almost simultane- 
ously, not one being sick, and all 
spinning a cocoon. With all the 
races above mentioned I hardly had 
any double cocoons; and the cocoons 
generally were very hard and made 
of very fine silk. But since pebrine 
is without the least doubt m our 
midst, all I have to say is that until 
the epidemic disappears it is useless 
to raise silkworms from eggs of Cali- 
fornia reproduction, and that to suc- 
ceed completely we must obtain eggs 
from abroad, particularly from Japan. 
That's what I am doing myself. In 
fact next summer I intend to raise 
one ounce of Japanese eggs, and one 
ounce of French annual from France; 
in this view I got cartoons of eggs -tJ 

direct from Japan, ten cartoons al- 
together of the finest green-annual, 
which have reached Nevada in a 
splendid condition. 

Conclusion. 
By all that precedes, your readers, I mean 
those interested in the question, must see that, 
First, notwithstanding our splendid climate 
and healthy food, the pebrine, the very epi- 
demic which has been devastating the cocoon- 
eries of Europe, Africa, Syria, etc., for the last 
twenty-flve years is raging here also, breaking 
out as in those infected countries, among the 
eggs raised in the State. 

Second, that it renders the eggs produced in 
California, at least those of French yellow- 
annual races, diseased, pebrined, and therefore 
unfit to either be exported or even raised here. 
Third, that, consequently, the only way of 
establisliing in our midst the silk industry, is 
to raise silkworms for the cocoons or raw silk, 
and not for the eggs. 

Fourth, that to raise successfully silk- 
worms, we must have "healthy" eggs; eggs at 
least exempt of corpuscles. In France and 
Italy silk culturists are divided into two camps 
concerning the causes and remedies of this 
dreaded scourge, pebrine; some asserting tnat 
all the trouble comes from the food, which, 
they say, is too watery or diseased ; others that 
the races, moths and eggs, are diseased, but 
the food good enough. If I was to decide it 
by my own experience, I would be inclined to 
believe that the latter are right; for instance, I 
do not think that anywhere else they can have 
a better, more substantial, healthy food, than 
that which we raise on the dry hills of Cali- 
fornia. I have resorted to all kinds of mul- 
berry leaves, but I did very little toward even 
impeding the progress of the disease. I am 
satisfied, therefore, that the whole trouble lies 
with the moths and eggs. In fact, if it was 
with the food, it ought then to affect in a simi- 
lar manner the other worms which I very suc- 
cessfully raised, in the same room, and side by 
side with the sick ones. In evidence of that 
fact, look at the so-called epizootic which over 
a year ago raged so badly in California among 
our horses. Did not that epizootic travel 
quicker than by steam, breaking out almost 
simultaneously all over the State? It was not 
certainly caused by the hay and barley the 
horses were fed with, nor by contagion; and the 
way it did originate and spread from 4,000 
miles away, is yet a mystery. So it is with 
silk-worms here; the food is all right, bat the 
fatal epidemic is either among the worms, or 
the germ of it in the very air they are breath- 
ing. 

As I am going next year to raise a rather 
large number of worms, I will let you know at 
that time the result of my experiments, and 
whether the pebrine will have or not disap- 
from our midst. 



Whitford's Potato Coverer. 

The implement represented by the annexed 
engraving is designed to be used chiefly as a 
furrower and coverer for potatoes, but it is also 
well adapted for hilling and ridging for sweet 
potatoes and other root crops. Our' illustration 
represents it as arranged for cutting the 
furrows. The furrow guides, A, having a steel 
share on their forward ends, form two parallel 
furrows, the bottoms of which are right angles. 
It is claimed that a man can drop the seed much 
faster in this furrow, as the potatoes will not 
"jump," and must fall into line. 

After the furrows are made and the potatoes 
dropped, the implement is turned over, bringing 
the plates, P, down. This is quickly done, 
by first removing the handles and detaching 
the thills. The handles are made reversible 
by means of the tie-brace, B, which is hinged 
to one transverse piece of the frame, the 
upper end of which enters a socket on the han- 
dles and is secured therein by a set screw. 
The front portion of the handles is attached to 
the other transverse bar by a bolt. After the 
handles and thills are readjusted the machine 
is drawn by the horse so as to bring each fur- 
row midway between the ridging plates, the 
soil is gathered between the latter at their front 



Fine Short-Horn Stock. 

We take pleasure in calling the attention of 
the readers of the Press to the advertisement 
in another column of our paper of Col. Peter 
Saxe & Sons, importers of fine Short-horn 
stock. Col. Saxe is widely known as an im- 
porter qf choice stock, and is probably second 
to no importer in California in regard to the 
amount and quality of stock which he has in- 
troduced into the State. From our conversa- 
tion with the Colonel, and from recent inter- 
views with other leading stock men, we are 
convinced that California is not behind any 
State in the Union in changing from common 
to choice stock. In achieving this reform much 
credit is due to the men who have furnished 
the requisite means, judgment and pluck, to 
inaugurate and push forward this important 
movement; and it should be noted here, that 
the class to whom we refer have manifestly 
recognized the peculiar wants of California in 
this respect; and that while they have im- 
ported liberally of stock, they have not im- 
ported with it, preferences and notions not 
adapted to the wants and condition of the 
country. 

Col. Saxe & Sons have some recent importa- 1 



I^Of\'riCllLTJl\E. 




IMPROVED DISINTEQRATINa IIILI4. 



A bauk will soon be organized inSanta Clara. 



ends, and delivered at their contracted extrem- 
ities, thus forming a neat ridge. The plates 
and guides are adjustible to any desired width 
of ridge or space between the rows. When it is 
desired to change the direction, as at the end of 
furrows, it is only necessary to lift the handles 
slightly, when the tongue, D, will enter a re- 
cess formed at the front end of the handles, 
and, bearing against it, will enable the horse to 
assist in lifting the machine clear of the ground, 
so that it can be turned without difficulty. In 
this cheap and 
simple machine 
the inventor — 
who we are in- 
formed is a prac 
tical farmer, 
has united three 
useful imple- 
m e n t s — two 
plows and a rid- 
ger. And when 
it is remembered 
that, with rare 
exceptions, our 
farmers raise po- 
tatoes by the old 
slow hand pro- 
cesses of a hun- 
dred years ago, 
it will be seen 
that; this inven- 
tion will supply 
a long felt want. 

This implement was patented August 4th, 
1874, by Le Roy Whitford of Harmony, Cha- 
tauqua county. New York. L. B. Cox & Co., 
197 Water street. New York, are to manufac- 
ture the potato coverer. 



tions of fine Short-horn stock now on exhibi- 
tion at their stables, No. 35 Ritch street, San 
Francisco. 




Whitford's Potato Coverer. 



The Squireel Strong in Death.— On the 
University grounds some thorough sub-soiling 
has been done recently, and conversing with 
parties in relation to this matter we were in- 
formed of a curious circumstance connected 
therewith. The depth at which the plow was 
tunning was about the level at which the squir- 
rels had taken up their winter quarters, and a 
good many of these "dives" were broken up by 
the ruthless plowshare. Sometimes the point 
of the plow would come in contact with a squir- 
rel, when the plow would be stopped at once. 
The subsoil being of solid clay, without seam 
or crevice, nothing but the clean, sharp point 
of the plow could pierce it, and when it struck 
a squirrel the carcass would form a tough ball, 
which so eflfectually obstructed its course 
that, as our informant puts it, "all the horses 
in California could not move it." Conse- 
quently the plow had to be lifted from the 
furrow and the caicass removed froia its point. 



AGRICULTUBAIi WoBKS AT HaYWAEDS. — Mr. 

H. W. Kice has a seemingly well conducted 
and flourishing machine shop running at his 
homestead in Haywards, Alameda county. 
Mr. Rice is a farmer who knows how to work 
both hands and brains. His patented inven- 
tion for burning 
straw in agricul- 
tural engines is 
leading to an 
important busi- 
ness. He has 
now 13 portable 
straw burning 
engines and boil- 
ers building, 
each sixteen- 
horse power. He 
5^ employs nine 
jSmen, and his 
J shop is furnish- 
ed with two en- 
gines and one 
wood lathe; two 
iron planers, a 
brass furnace, 
blower, forges, 
etc. Being a me- 
chanic and farmer, Mr. Rice has followed 
up his improvements so that he can now 
send out .his machines with confidence in 
their various parts. The machines of^this 
year will be improved in a measurel over 
his former issues. All but three are 
sold. The boiler in his shop is ten years old, 
and has been heated by straw fuel for over two 
years. A novelty to us, it seems to work like 
a charm. Mr. Rice's invention and its success 
ought to be more widely known. 

The Squirrel Law. — Farmers outside of 
Contra Costa and Alameda counties would 
doubtless like to know how the rodent nuisance 
is being abated within the " limits of the law." 
Will correspondents inform us? Mr. D. D. 
Mann, Inspector of Palamires district, near 
Haywards, says the work of destruction is go- 
ing on favorably; that the representatives of 
the railroad land, with the settlers generalh, 
are poisoning the "varmints" by the wholesale. 
It is important to all citizens in squirrel-in- 
fested counties, that this first efi"ort of exter- 
mination be a thorough one. Now is the time 
for all interested to be united and vigilant. See 
that every inspector and landholder does his 
duty squarely. 



Our Bay Nurseries--No. 3. 

Maple Leaf Nursery. 
S. M. Newsome, proprietor. Depot and green- 
houses corner 3d avenue and 12th streets. East 
Oakland. The nursery proper occupies five 
acres; and is devoted to fruit and evergreen 
trees, shrubs, flowers and green house plants. 
Mr. Newsome makes a specialty of the latter. 
He is extensively engaged in raising Australian 
gums, cypress and almost every species of 
evergreen. Mr. N. imports many new and rare 
plants, and also seeds, of which he keeps a fine 
stock. 

Nurseries of W. F. Kelsey. 
The depot of supplies and green houses are 
situated on West Telegraph avenue, near 
Sycamore street, Oakland. The two principal 
nurseries are near Berkeley, occupying 75 acres 
and are among the largest and oldest in the 
State, having been established in 1850. They 
are devoted to fruit trees, deciduous shade 
trees and evergreens. 

The list of fruit trees embraces al- 
most every variety known, and in 
connection with the nurseries is an 
extensive orchard where samples of 
the fruit may be seen. The stock of 
shade trees is very complete. The 
nursery in Oakland is devoted to 
tropical, semi-tropical, green-house 
and hardy plants. There are five 
large green-houses which are well 
kept by the skillful gardener David 
Tisch, a man earnestly devoted to 
his profession. The stock of oranges 
and lemons is very large for this lo- 
cality; but the trees are found to do 
well in the vicinity of Oakland, and 
it is being proven that they flourish 
in many portions of the State hitherto 
deemed too cold for them. Nursery- 
men find the demand for these trees 
increasing. 

Mr. Kelsey has been fortunate in 
securing a fine lot of the Norfolk 
Island pine, also the Oakland cy- 
press. The latter is something new 
and appears to be one of the finest 
evergreens. It resembles the Mon- 
terey cypress to some extent, but is 
not so dark a green, and the foliage is 
softer and finer. During a recent 
visit to Santa Barbara we noticed a 
fine lot of these pLints in Mr. Sex- 
ton's nursery. They were purchased 
of Mr. Kelsey who, we believe, has 
the monopoly of this truly beautiful evergreen, 
which was broui^ht from an island in the 
Pacific. The stock of pines is unusually large, 
and the plants very fine; the same may be said 
of the Lawson and Monterey cypress. As the 
teachings of the Grange are more widaly dif- 
fused and the love of the beautiful encouraged, 
the demand for these rich and delightful home 
adornments is laraely increased, and no one 
can visit these delightful spots around our bay 
and not be charmed and deeply interested in 
this truly interesting pursuit. 

In connection with this nursery is the Kelsey 
hotel, which is becoming a favorite summer 
resort. Besides the hotel proper, there are six 
beautiful cottages situated in different parts of 
the grounds and almost buried in evergreens. 
Six more will be built the coming summer, 
making the facilities for accommodating guests 
very extensive, and furnishing one of the most 
charming rural retreats on the coast. The 
walks, drives and recreation ground;! are un- 
surpassed; and all things considered, this must 
be one of the attractive spots both for the 
tourist and pleasure seeker. 



David's Disintegrating Mill. 

The David mill or disintegrator proper con- 
sists of several cylindrical cages formed of 
round bars secured to disks and annular rings, 
one inside the other, and made to revolve in 
opposite directions, but presenting no scrub- 
bing or grinding action. The materials to be 
disintegrated are received into the inner cage, 
and by the rapid revolving of the cages a cen- 
trifugal force is created that instantly projects 
the materials through the cages; disintegrating 
•them by a system of free blows, from which 
no friction ensues. At this time — less than 
four years since the makers commenced offer- 
ing the mill to the public— fully $150,000 worth 
of the mills have been put in successful opera- 
tion, and the very fast growing demand for 
the mills indicates that several of the largest 
machine works may soon be exclusively en- 
gaged in their manufacture. This being the 
view of the patentee, Messrs. Denmead & Son, 
the makers, are about to otfer the territory on 
our side of the mountains for sale. 

Very small mills are being prepared for 
grinding corn, etc., for feed. A 3-foot ordi- 
nary clay or bone mill will grind 120 bushels 
of corn per hour. Parties desiring infoimiation 
concerning these mills or patent rights may 
address Denmead & Son, Baltimore, Md. 



42 



[January i6, 1875. 



TljE Vl^EY^flD' 



Grape Culture. 

EditobsPbess:— This branch of business is 
every year becoming of more importance to 
the people of California, and hundreds of men 
are now looking to raisin grape cnlture as 
being the best business for them to engage in. 
Many of these, having no experience with the 
grap, every naturally look to the agricultural 
books and papers of the present day for infor- 
mation on that subject. Agricultural books 
are mainly written by scientific men, who 
have gained their information more by reading 
than by actual experience, consequently their 
modes of doing tbiogs are so expensive that 
men of small means cannot follow their ad- 
vice. 

This leads me to speak of the Kdbal Press, 
whoso pages are filled with the experience of 
the practical men of this State, and from the 
reading of which farmers may obtain more 
practical ideas in one year* than can be found 
in all the books in existence. I do not say 
this to flatter the editors, but becnuse I have 
never found book nor paper so filled with com- 
mon sense idcis as is the Kuril Press. 
Farmers, try it for one year, and my word for 
it, you will no longer do without it. 

There are certain natural laws governing the 
growth of trees and vines which should be un- 
derstood by all fruit growers. One of which 
is, tihat all things being equ«l, the roots and 
branches will grow in the same proportion. 
Wide-spreading tops will cause wide-spreading 
roots. A tall, slender tree, with but few 
branches, will have a deep tap-root with but 
few side roots. Cut off the top of this tree and 
it will soon make a spreading top, and you 
will invariably find that its roots will grow cor- 
respondingly. Then again, take a well bal- 
anced tree, and cut off the greater portion of 
its top and branches, and it will make a tre- 
mendous growth the following year; and this 
simply to gain au equilibrium or an equal bal- 
ance between the roots and its branches; but 
BO soon as this is doue the tree is checked in 
its growth, and then grows more moderately. 
This is the main cause of well cultivated 
fruits being better than those in a natural state. 
Fruit trees in a natural state do just what na- 
ture intended them to do; that is, produce 
seeds after their kind. But when trees are ju- 
diciously pruned and thinned out, this gives 
their roots an over supply of sap in the pro- 
portion to their branches, so that when they 
commence to grow, there being a less number 
of fruits, they receive a greater share of sap, 
and consequently grow larger and better. 

I have been led to .make the foregoing and 
following remarks by reading a letter on this 
subject in the Kural Press of December 16th, 
1874, written by W. S. Sanders. He seems to 
think that in planting cuttings the more vine 
is buried in the ground the more roots it will 
produce. Now, Messrs. Editors, judging from 
my own experience, I think he was never more 
mistaken. A cutting is not a rooted vine, and 
one planted twelve inches deep, perpendicular, 
will produce as many roots as teu feet of vine 
buried in a trench, simply because the roots 
and the branches must grow in the same pro- 
portion. 

Mr. Sanders says of pruning: " Prune so as 
to leave three or four primary buds on each 
bunch," etc. In following this advice there is 
no provision made for a renewal of wood for 
next year's crop. Not only that, but it will 
so spread the tops of the vines that in 
a few years they will meet between 
the rows. To avoid this cut half of the 
branches to two buds each, and the remainder 
to five or six buds each, or as mary of them as 
are required to procure a full crop of fruit. At 
the next pruning time cut off the long stems of 
the previous year close up to the main stalk or 
vine. At this time there will be found two 
branches on each of the short spurs; of these 
cut half to two buds and the remainder to long 
stems or spurs, as before, and so on from year 
to yepr By this plan of pruning the vine is 
kept within due bounds, and still has plenty of 
the best buds left to produce bountiful crops of 
fruit each year. 

Mr. Sanders says of planting the vine: 
"Make each cnttiug at leist three feet long. 
All of this, except one bud, should be buried 
under the ground. Each vine »o buried wid 
throw ont a spraut{le of roots, thereby yiviny 
the vine a much greater growth than by the old 
way of using short cuttings, only half buried 
in the earth." etc. Now, Messrs. Editors, this 
plan ot cutting the vine is as "old as the hills," 
and has been practiced by Enrnpi-an vinegrow- 
ers for centuries. But the Americans are a pro- 
gressive people and have long since learned 
better and cheaper ways of planting the vine. 
In an experience of 16 years with the vine in 
California and having rooted and taken up 
thousands of vines, I have failed to see wherein 
long cuttings, buried in trenches, had any ad- 
vantafje of rhort cuttings propiTly planted. On 
the other hand, I have invunably found that 
cuttings planted perpendicular, from 12 to 15 
inches deep, had better roots and more of them 
(because they stood upright) than when planted 



as Mr. Sander's advises in tsenches. I have 
also failed to see roots produced from the bud 
of the vine. Cuttings of any kind, whether of 
grape or other wood, do not taka root from 
their buds, but from the bottom end of the 
cutting. 

Mr. Sanders' plan of planting the vine is 
tedious and expensive, not only in planting, 
but vines thus planted must be staked to in- 
duce them to grow upright, and must be kept 
tied to the stakes for four or five years. Their 
roots being all on one side, their tops have a 
tendency to fall over in the opposite direction 
uifless tied to stakes. 

The better and cheaper way to plant vines is 
to take cuttings about 20 inches long, plant 
them perpendicular, from 12 to 15 inches 
deep, leaving five or six inches above ground. 
The latter is to form the head of the vine; by 
this way of planting, there is no need of ftakes. 
The vines being perpendicular will root even 
all around like a tree, and will stand alone 
much better than when burfed in a trench, 
while the expenses will not be more than one- 
fourth as great. 

In the years 1865»6-7, I superintended the 
planting of Lone Hill vineyard, of Santa Clara 
county, owned by D. M. Harw6od, and they 
all Were planted in the manner I am here de 
scribing, and to-day, it has the name of being 
one of the tlnest vineyards in the State, and 
there never was a stake in it. At Riverside we 
have thousands of vines planted in this way, all 
doing well and jieldiug the second year from 
planting from four to six pounds of fruit to the 
vine, (variety muscat Alexundra. ) 

We have plenty more Inud of the same sort, 
and plenty of water so that others may come 
and do likewise. P. S. Bossell. 

Riverside, Jan. 7th, 1875. 



Australasian Intercolonial Exhibition. 

The interculoniad exhibition of the Australian 
Agricultural Society will be held in Sydney 
next year, opening on the 9th of April. Mr. 
Wm. Westgarth, Commissioner from Australia, 
has recently come to this city in order to pro- 
cure samples of California products and mau; 
uiactures, machinery, agricultural implements, 
etc. Mr. Westgarth has brought with him let- 
ters to many of our prominent merchants, and 
has already accomplished considerable. The 
schedule of exhibits embrace both agricultural 
and non-agricultural exhibits, including the 
fine arts, apparatus and application of the lib- 
eral arts; in fact, all the products and indus- 
tries of the colonies. A seetion has been set 
aside in the exhibition for the articles from 
California, and it behooves our manufacturers 
and artinans to bestir themselves and get np a 
creditable display. Viewed simply as a matter 
ot business alone, it would be of benefit for us 
to send a large exhibit, as the communication 
between the two countries is likely to be much 
more intimate in the future than in the past. 
It is Mr. Westgarth's intention to establish, 
after the conclusion of the exhibition, an agency 
in Sydney for the exclusive sale of California 
products; and in view of the regular steamship 
communication now established between the 
two countries, the enterprise promises to be 
thoroughly successful. Communications for 
Mr. Westgarth should be addres.sed care of J. 
C. Merrill & Co., or to him at 619 Pine street, 
and he will gladly make arrangements with 
those who may choose to become exhibitors. 

He will give his personal attention fo the 
display and will take charge of shipments from 
here. He leaves from here on the steamer 
which starts about the 30th of January, and 
goods which are to be sent should to be ready 
go with him. 

Salt on Wheat. 

Some soils are benefited by au application of 
salt, but we do not belive there is any efficacy 
in it to keep whMt from freezing out. Tho- 
rough drainage is the remedy for that. Every- 
one knows, or ought to know, the value of ashes 
as a fertilizer. Salt furnishes two of the most 
important elements of the ashes of plants— 
S'ldium and chlorine, and hence it will be valu- 
able to lands deficient in these. Every farmer 
must determine for himself whether his land 
needs salt or any other substance. Sow salt on 
alternate strips of your wheat, marking where 
you sowed and where you did not, and then 
observe the difference in the crop next year. 
Where the constituents of salt are wanting 
wheat will almost always lodge, even though 
the crop of stra* be light. If you have been 
troubli d with tliis salt will be useful, though 
we should prefer to mix it with the manure. 

Professor Mapes' famous receipt is: One 
bushel salt, three bushels of marl; let lie under 
cover four months, and then mix it with one 
cord of muck. This is no doubt a valuable 
mixture for sandy land. Where salt is sown 
broadcast do it after the wheat is sown, giving 
from one to five bushels per acre. Mr. Geddes, 
of New York, in an es-^ay on salt as a manure, 
comes to these conclusions: "Some soils ha • 
enough of salt, and more added does an injury. 
Lands away from the sea coast are greatly ben- 
efited by light applications, but heavy quanti- 
ties are injurious even there." — O/iio Fanntr. 

Waoon Wheels and Draft. — Experiments 
recently m^de in England indicate that wagons 
are most easily drawn, on all kinds of road-i, 
when the fore and hind wheels are of the 
same size, and when the pole lies lower than 
the axle. 



UsEpjL IflfOe^fii^TIO'*' 



Black-Leading Iron. 

In these days of general diffusion of chem- 
ical knowledge it is scarcely necessary to state 
that the " black lead " or "plumt>ago" of com- 
merce, is not lead at all, or any compound of 
its composition. Neither is it a carburet ot 
lead, and thtit it inclndes no lead whatever in 
iron, as is sometimes stated. It is simply car- 
bon. Pure plumbago is pure carbon, impure 
plumbago is impure carbon. Its proper name 
is graphite, that is, writing stone. We may 
venture to describe it as the softest of all true 
solids, and have often pondered wonderins^ly 
upon the apparently unnoticed, but very curi- 
ous chemico-mechauical paradox that the hard- 
est and softest of all the solids existing upon 
the earth are, chemicidly speaking, the same 
substance, graphite and the diamond being 
both carbon. 

It is this wonderful softness, combined with 
persistent solidity, that enables us to smear it 
over any other solid surface, and thus obtain a 
solid paint, all body and no medium. For the 
class of castings to which it is commonly ap- 
plied where iis application can be readily re- 
peated and where it is not exposed to the direct 
action of water it is unrivalled as a protecting 
film for iron. Its chemical action, so far as it 
does act when cold, is reducing, or anti-oxid- 
iziog. Its color and tone are so similar to iron 
ihu Mr. Ruskin himself could Si-arcely make 
any asthetic obj etion to its use, and the film is 
so marvelously thin that it obliterates nothing. 
There does not apper to have ever been any at- 
tempt to estimate the thickness of a well 
bru-hed film of graphite, but it would seem 
that if a hundred strata of such films could be 
piled in contact with each other, their com- 
bined thickness would fall short of that of the 
thinnest gold leaf. 

Cheap Telegraphy.— President Orion's re- 
port of the affairs of the Western Union Tele 
graph company is calculated to inspire much 
hope in those who believe that the Govern- 
ment can run the lines at cheaper rates to the 
public. On the first of January, 1873, a reduc- 
tion of more than 50 per cent, was made in the 
maximum tariff between the most remote 
points on the company's line. This, though 
occasioning a temporary loss of revenue, has 
resulted, during the last few months, in a larae 
increase. The reduction was from $7.50 and 
$5 to $2.50. President Orton now adds that, 
owing to Messrs. Edison's and Prescott's quad 
ruplex apparatus, which is, at the pn sent time, 
working successfully between Chicago and Ni w 
York, and by which two messages are sent in 
the same direction and two more iu the oppo 
site direction simultaneously on a single wire, 
ho believes it practicable before long to cut 
rates down still lower, and ultimately to estab- 
lidh but four rates for day messages, namely, 
twenty-five, fifty, seventy-fivo cents, and one 
dollar, with half charges (except for the low- 
est; for night messages. 



A New Paper Board. — A new method of 
manufacturing paper board, to make that arti- 
cle more generally useful and dur ble, is de- 
scribed as follows: When a sheet of paper is 
immersed in an ammonical solution of copper, 
and then dried, it is said to be quite impregna- 
ble to water, and does not lose this quality even 
though the water be boiling. Two sheets of 
paper thus prepared, and passed through a 
cylinder, adhere to each other so completely as 
to be quite inseparable. If a large number of 
sheets so prepared be cylindered together, boards 
of great thickness are obtained, the resistance 
and cohesion of which may be increased by 
interposing fibrous matters or clothes. The 
substance so prepared is quite as hard as the 
closest grained wood of the same thickness. 
The ammonical solution of copper is prepared 
by treating plates of copper with ammonia of 
the density of 0,880 in contact with the atmos- 
phere. 

India-Rubeer Tires. — Messrs. Bird & Co., 
of London, have lately brought into notice a 
•new and improved wheel, with India-rubber 
tire, which is claimed to be capable of weatmg 
as long as, or longer than an iron tire, and to 
have the great advantage of perfect noiseless- 
ness and absence of injurious jar. The draft 
of the carriage is said to be reduced by the use 
of this tire nearly one-third. It appears to be 
simply a tire of solid rubber, fastened on the 
exterior of an ordinary wheel by bolts, such as 
are used with iron tires, and it may be thinner 
than the usual kind, merely serving the pur- 
pose of a band to hold the wood work firmly 
together. 

To Remove Nitric Acid Spots. — The yellow 
spots produced by nitric acid may be removed 
from brown or black woolen goods, while fresh, 
by repeatedly dipping them into a concentrated 
s ■lution of permangate of potas'sa and then 
washing them with water. The yellow spots 
on the hands may be removed in the same waj , 
the brown stain produced by the permangate 
being removed by an aqueous solution of sul- 
phurous acid. 

The United States is now paying over $100,- 
000,000 per annum lor freight "and passaga on 
foreign ships, to be carried abroad and expend- 
ed in the employment and support of other 
peoples beyond a fair percentage of what 
should go to foreign vessels, estimating on the 
tonnage and traval of each respeotively. 



• Guns Discharged Without Caps. 

It seems almost impossible that a gun should 
be discharged without the presence of either 
cap or flint; yet a well authenticated case of 
the kind seems to have occurred, recently, near 
Napa, as narrated by the Rtgisttr of that place. 
It seems that Benjamin Bergria, being out with 
some companions duck shooting, had ju^t fired 
one barrel, and hearing the shot loose in the 
other, turned up the gun into his left hand to 
pour out the charge, taking the precaution to 
first remove the cap Notwithstanding the ab- 
sence of tl:e cap, the gun went off and made a 
bad wound in his left hand. It seems almost 
incredible that a. gun could be discharged after 
the cap is removed, but the phenomena is ac- 
counted for by experts on the hypothesis that 
the percussive quality of the cap had— the 
weather being damp— adhered to the nipple of 
the gun and iieen sufficient to explode it on 
being jarred incident to shaking th • chjirge out, 
the hammer beng down. That this theory is 
a correct one, is confirmed by a similar acci- 
dent which occurred a few days previous fo 
one of the .\-'yluin apprentices, who had been 
shooting, and having both charges left in his 
gun, thought to nave them by leaving them in 
till next day, when he would go out again. To 
tbis end he removed both caps, let one hammer 
down carefully, and was lowering the other, 
when it slipped from his thumb on to the nip- 
ple, and discharged the barrel The other bnr- 
rei w( nt off at the same instant, as is supposed, 
by the shock of the first one — both discharging 
their content.s up through the roof. The youth 
had a nsirrow escape, and the two accidents 
confirm the theory of the total depravity of 
guns, "dauiicrous without either lock, stock or 
biirrel, becuDSO a man once whipped his wife 
to death with a ramrod." 



Insect Anatomy. — Dr. R. U. Peper, the 
naturalist, in giving an ace uut of some micro- 
scopic investigations, in which he has recently 
been engaged, says: I have managed to make 
a very careful dissection of the tongue cf a 
house fly, and now I can show the so-called 
tracluie on the tip of the tongue very neatly 
dissected by my own hand. I can also show a 
very fine specimen of a parasite from a blowinq 
fly, with all its organs perfect. I have noticed 
what I think is a fact th..ttbe flies which survive 
the winter are all, or nearly all. perhaps females; 
and have just dissected a house-fly, in which I 
find IOC eggs. I have also demonstr.ited what 
is, perhaps, an ontological discovery — that the 
central lancet of the horse-fly is tubular. For 
what reason, as he has a sucker from which be 
draws blood from the wound he makes? The 
lancet of the horse-fly — the female, for the male 
has no biting organs, is a compound instrument. 
\Vhen closed it presents a point; wheu open it 
shows several points radiating from its base. 
The two outside lancets have rows of teeth, 
like those on the jaw of a shark. I suppose the 
creature introduces the lancet shut, like the 
sticks of a fan. When it is withdrawn it is 
opened iu the process, and thus makes that 
ugly tormenting wound which these in.sects 
inflict upon horses and cattle. The hollow 
lancet perhaps carries some kind of fluid to 
poison the blood or render it more fluid. There 
is, however, no gland to be found by which 
this fluid is secreted. That the lancet is hollow, 
however, I have shown without a question, as I 
have contrived to make fluid pass through it. 



(iDM AuAiiic. — This useful product come 
from Morocco, instead of Arabia, as its name 
would imply. About the middle of November, 
that is, after the rainy season, a gummy juice 
erxudes spontaneously from the trunk and 
branches of a species of the acacia in that 
country. It gradually thickens in the furrow 
down which it runs, and assumes the form of 
oval and round drops, about the size of pigeons' 
eggs, of different colors, as it comes from the 
red or white gum tree. About the middle of 
December the Moors encamp on the oorders of 
the forest, and the harvest lasts a full month. 
The gum is packed in large leather sacks, and 
transported on the backs of camels and bul- 
locks to the seaports for shipement. The har- 
vest occasion is made one of great rejoicing, 
and the people for the time being almost live 
on gum. which is nutritious and fatt«Ding. 
Such is the commercial story of this simple ar- 
ticle. 



How TO Use a Grindstone. — Common grind- 
stone spindles, with a crank at one end, are 
open to the great objection that the stone will 
never keep round, because every person is in- 
clined, more or less, to follow the motion of 
his foot with his band, which causes the pres- 
sure on the same to be unequal. The harder 
pressure is always applied to the very s,ime 
part of the stone, and will soon make it un- 
even, so that it is impossible to grind a tool 
true. To avoid this, put in place of the crank 
a small cog-wheel of 13 cogs, to work into the 
former. The stone will make about .07 of a 
revolution more than the crank, and the harder 
pressure of the tool on the stone will change to 
another place at every turn, and the stone «ill 
keep perfectly round if it is a good one. This 
is a very simple contrivance, but it will be new 
to many of our readers. — Cabinet Maker. 

Cle.\ninq Out-Doob Statuary, Etc. — It is 
recommended, in cleaning moss-covered stat- 
uary iu gardens, etc , first to kill the vegetation 
by the application of petroleum or benzine, 
which wid not injure the stone, and to remove 
it when dry by brushing, finally rubbing with 
a rag. 



January i6, 1875.] 



wsMmm 



The United States of Colombia. 

We had a conversation this week with a gen- 
tleman who has recently returned from the 
United States of Colombia. He speaks hope- 
fully of the prospects of the Americans who are 
opening up the grayel mines in the interior. 
The gravel mines owned by Weaver & Co. are 
30 miles from Barbacoas, on the Nyambe 
river. They have plenty of water for hydraulic- 
ing and have one monitor at work, employing 
seven or eight men. The other mines are 15 
or 20 miles above Barbacoas, and a company of 
. San Franciscans expect to take down the re- 
quisite machinery to work them. There are 
some five or six companies, some getting their 
claims in order to work. Brown & Gentry have 
a large estate on which one monitor is at work, 
and three or four more will be added. These 
mines are on the Yacula river. The gravel is 
pretty good, aud where water can be had, will 
pay well. Some of the gravel will pay hand- 
somely. Labor is pretty cheap and men can 
be employed for from 3T% cents to i^l per day 
aud board. Weaver & Co. pay 37>i cents and 
board for common men and $1 per day and 
board to drifters. Most of the companies have 
just started in and have done little as yet. On 
all the large estates the natives mine in a rude 
way for a share of the profits. All the mints 
pay well where the water can be brought on; 
some, however, have very little water. 

The gentleman who gave us this information 
brought up with him a number of articles from 
the country which are interesting. He showed 
us the Brazil nuts in the gourd-shaped cover in 
which they grew. Also, some "milk" of the 
India-rubber tree which grows up in the moun- 
tains. He brought souje co£fee from the 
Cauca valley, which is of excellent quality; an 
American there has a plantation of 70,000 cof- 
fee trees which yield an average of 3% pounds 
to a tree. The cofi'ee grows there plentifully 
and his trees are of such a growth that he is 
continually gathering, as some trees are in 
while others are out of season. The owner of 
this plantation also has 160 acres in sugarcane. 
This sugar cane takes 15 mouths to mature af- 
ter each cutting, the roots of cou'se remaining. 
We were shown also from the Cauca valley, 
some excellent wild cotton. This valley is 
about 48 miles from the coast on an air line, 
and has an elevation of 3,000 feet. The cotton 
has a first-rate fibre. It has never been culti- 
vated there to any account. Our iuformaut, a 
practical cotton grower and maniifacturer, 
thinks the Canca valley thn best locality lor an 
investment for a cotton mill there is in the 
world. The natives would cultivate the cuttou 
if there was a demand for the product. A 
small cotton mill of 50 looms would do exceed 
ingly well, and our iuformaut thinks it would 
clear $G00 per day right along. Common cot- 
ton cloth, without print, could be sold there in 
quantifies at 20 cents per yard. There is 
plenty of water power to run a mill and plenty 
of ground to be had to cultivate the cottou, and 
the product would meet with ready sale. We 
should judge flrom the figures shown us, that 
this favorable opportunity will not long lie idle, 
for some enterprising American will take it up. 
We were shown among other things several of 
the "ivory nuts" grown there, from which 
small articles are made. Also a species of 
cloth, resembling the Kapa cloth of the South 
Sea islands, made from the inner bark ot a 
tree. It is tough aud thick, and in a cold cli- 
mate would do very well for clothing. Some 
of the wood grown there is very hard aud fine 
grained. 

There are no roads in the mining part of the 
country, except the trail from Barbacoas, all 
the travel being done in canoes or on the backs 
of Indians. The trail to the mines has been 
traveled for 300 years, and worn down in places 
from ten to forty feet. The government is now 
building a road from Barbacoas to the interior 
80 miles long, 20 mile^ of it being finished, and 
200 men being at work on the rest. To the up- 
per mines they go by the trail. The road will 
give access to the mines so that horses can be 
used. To the Cauca valley there is a trail or 
small road, which is pretty good for this 
country. 

A ledge of silver ore has lately been discov- 
ered in the State of Cauca, in the foothills, 
which assays f 50 per ton in silver aud $6 in 
gold, 



Ripened Leaves. — Many persons think that 
when the leaves turn red and yellow in the 
fall it is because they have been killed by 
the frost. But a little observation will show 
thiit such is not the case, and that the autumns 
when the haves are most beautiful, are those 
in which the frost is the latest. A severe 
frost kills the leaves at once, and they soon 
fall, brown and withered. To be brilliant 
they must ripen naturally, and our hot Sep- 
tember and October midday suns have prob- 
ably much to do with it, as in England, where 
the falls are apt to be damp and cloudy, the 
leaves are not so bright, and American artists, 
who strive to paint our maples and dogwoods 
as they see thpm, are unjustly accused of 
over-coloring . — £x. 



Gbben wood can be easily finished by scorch- 
ing the piece after it is shaped out. A few 
lighted shavings will suffice. 



Poultry Breeders. 

BRONZE TURKEYS. 

THE HEAVIEST IN THE WORLD 1 

BEY SPECIALTY. 



I was the first man on this Coast to import and 
breed mammoth Bronze TurlieyH. I have as IJrof^eny 
of my imported birds, the largest single Tom, Hen and 
pair or trio of Turkeys, fer their age, that the world 
ever saw. One pair, 19 months old, now weigh over 
72 pounds; Toms 40 pounds and over. Hens W to 30 
pounds. This is not what the birds weighed six 
mouths since or what they will weigh when fattened , 
but what they weigh now as they run with the flock. 
During the coming season I propose to sell eggs for 
hatching from this stock; the eggs will be packed in 
my improved shipping box, which carries safely. 
Orders now received for early Spring delivery. I can 
spare a few extra large Toms; also, a few pair -of great 
size. Weight guaranteed or no sale. I offer fowls and 
eggs from my very fine and choice collection of 
Brahmas, Cochins, Leghorns, Houdans, Ducks, etc. 
My yards contain the best strains of the above varie- 
ties. For further information apply to 

C. W. WILSON', 



P. O. 1874. 



San Francisco. 



I^ O O It ! 

ALBERT E. BUKBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, otc. Also Eggs 
for hatching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. gg; and Fowls at 
reduced prices. jend for Price 
List. 

ALBERT K. BURBANK, 
lv8-3m 43 & 4' Ca. .Market S.F 




WHITE LEGHOKNS. 

I ni.ake the-e fowls a speciality, and have 8p;ired no 
pains or troub'o in procuring stocli from the tincst strains 
in the I'nited States, and now ofler eii«s for hatching at 
Eastern prices from the finest fowls on the Pacific coast. 
They are small eaters, non-.>etters and very hardy, and tor 
ei^ns are without a ri»al, beini,' almost constant layers, and 
are truly styled the "fanner's fowl.'' Egg*, f 3 per dozen, 
(I3)iir six dozen for $l.i. Securely packed to carry iiny 
distance, and delivered to the express on roceipt of price, 
t'ash to accompany order and ortlers taken in rotation. 

VI. J. HUNT. 
Sebastopol, Sonoma county, Oal. 



California Farmers Mutual 
Fire Insurance Association. 

OCace, 6 Leidesdorff St., - San Francisco. 

Directors: 

A. 'Woi.F, A. W. Tbomp.^on, I. C. Steele, 

I. G. Gabdnee, J. 0. Merhyfielo, J. D. Blanchab. 

G. P. KEU.OGG, Treag. 

Finance Committee: 

I. G. Gabdner, J. C. Merhyfield, A. W. Thompson 

Trustees: 



J. M. Hamilton, Lake Co 
J. C Mb iiRYFiELP, Solano C' 
G.W. OoLBV, - - Butte Co 
H. B. .loLLEY, - Merced Cu 
A. Wolf, San Joaquin Co 
J. D. BLANCHAR, Pres't. 



I. C. Steele, San Mateo Co 
A. B. Nalley. Sonoma Co 
0. S.Abdott, S'taBarb'aCo 
A. W. Thompson, Sonoma Co 
E. W. Steele,SL Obispo Co 
W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 



This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of safel}' 
insuring against loss by fire, at actual cost of insurance, 
without being connected with city risks. a822-tf 



TilJti: CEUJEIiRA.T'JEl) 

H. H. H. 

HOR-Sli: MEDICITSTJE 

IS STILL AHEAD OF ALL OTHERS. 

. The Wholesale Druggists of San Francisco, give 
evidence of its appreciation throughout the State^ by 
aud rapidly increasing orders. We pledge it a cure for 
SPAVINS, WIND GALLS, 

SWEENY, SCRATCHES, 

LAME AND STIFF JOINTS, 
GALLONS, LUMPS, 

AND ALL BLEMISHES, 

SPRAINS OR BRUISES. 
It is a household blessing and no family should be 
without a bottle in the house. For sale everywhere. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's., 

25v8.6i» Stockton, Cal. 



THE ^ILiDEN 

Fruit Preserving Company 

OF C A r. I F O a ]V I A , 

Is now prepared to sell rights and furnish the necessary 
machinery for using the "ALDEN PROCESS," ac- 
knowledged to be the best method known for 
preserving Fruits, Vegetables, Meats, etc. 

For full particulars call at the company's 

Office, 426 Montgomery St., S. F. 

G. W. DEITZLER, President. 
W. M. WHERRY, Vice-President. 
FRANK PYLE, Sec'y and Sup't. 
BANK OF CALIFORNIA, Treasurer. 
Uv7-6m 



^j^ 5,500 ACRES 

8Piw Of the best portion of the old NOMELACKEE 
•Ui«*l«KESEKVAT10N, in Tehama County, for sale 
very low; only five dollars per acre; one-third down, 
one-third in one year and one-third in two years, with 
interest at one per cent- per month. Will bo sold all 
together or in two parcels, '^his is one of the finest 
tracts of grazing land iu Northern California; is abun- 
dantly watered uy numerous perpetual springs and has 
two miles of the Elder Creek, a clear mountain stream. 
Its grass ni'V(T fails from drouth, and is of the best 
quality for sheep and has no clover burr. 800 acres of 
level plow iand; timber for posts, fuel, etc. Enquire of 
ALLEN WILCOX, Loe Angeles, or F. B. WASHINGTON 
on the tract, twenty miles west of Tehama. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



. E. OUMMICQS. 
1858. 



H. EALSTON. 

1875. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commisaion 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 18S8. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively OGiamission, we have 

o interests tJiat will conflict with th- ise of the producer. 

«v23-lr 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse. 

Japan and Townsend Streets. 

San Francisco, July, 1874. 

I bes to inform you I have leased the above first-class 
Fire-Proof Brick Warehouse, now beintj erected by Geo 
F. Hooper, Esq., and will be ready to receive storage on 
the 1st oi Augu3t. This warehouse oilers superior induce- 
nmets to parties desiring to store grain and Hour, a*; it i^ 
situated on the Water Front, and on the line of the C. P. 
R .R. and S. P. R. R. It is well ventilatctl, rat proof, and 
combines all the nmdern advantages and imnrtivements 
Yours respectfully, JOHN JENNINGS. 

Advances and maurance effected at the lowest rates 
Storajie taken at lowest current rates. 4v8-ft 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Com- 
munications should be received a week in advance and 
adv«rtUement« an early iu the week as possible. ■ 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO,' 
Manufacturers of 

Liuseed a-nd Caxtor Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid tor Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 

Office, 3 and 5 Frontstreet. 

Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. fel5-eow 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

*21 Pine street, between Montgomery and ( 

Kearny, San Fbanoiroo. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA. OAL. 

A Boarding School for Boyi and Girl-. otTerinK all the 
advantages of a thorough mndfrn educatinn. French 
German, ^punivh, Latin, Greek, Drnwin'^', the Naturiil 
Scienrea, Gymnastics ami Dancins tau^'lit without extra 
charge Vocal and Instrument;il Music reoeive particular 
attf ntion. Pupils furnish onh/ a pair of heavy blankets. 
N<!Xt leim opens January fith, iHli. 
Writ* forCaialogue to ELWOOD COOPER, 

'^2v(;-lv President Board of Directors. 



BELLA UNION HOTEL, 

JOHN F. MILLER, Prop., 
SAN BERNARDINO, CAL. 

This fine hotel is situated in one of the best parts of 
the city, and the proprietor will at all times use his 
best endeavors to promote the comfort of his guests. 



BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

418 & 430 Clay Street, S F. 

B 1 auk Books Ruled, Printed and Bound to Order, 
janl-ly 



STOCKTON, CAL. 
JAMES COLE, Proprietor. 

This House contains all modern improvements; Sa 

loons, Bath Rooms and Telegraph. 
The only first-class Hotel in Stockton . 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 



I have a lot of choice HOP ROOTS, and also healthy 
BLACKBERRY SETS for sale at LOWEST RATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Dewisy & Co., of the 
Rural Press, San Francisco: RoBi. Wiixiamson, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to me, 

CALTEET T. BIRD, 
24v8-3]ii San Jase, Cal. 



REAL ESTATE BROKERS 

■ Employment and Intelligence Office. Horse and 

buggy free to see property. Oflices at Compton, and 

at corner of Court and Spring streets, Los Angeles, Cal. 

25v8-ly 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the sale of Butter. Et^f.-.'s 
rheese. Hnpi, Green and Uried Fruits, etc..7.'> Warren 
street. New York. Refrr to Anthouy H;ilsey. Cusliier. 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell wanger A Barry . 
Rochester, N. Y. ; f). W. Reed, Sacramento, Oal.; A 
Lusk .t Co., I'acific Fruit Market, San Francisco, Oal. 
3vM-lv 



Orders Wanted at the National Em- 
ployment office, 608 Market street, room 9; office 
crowded daily with good men and women, seeking em- 
ployment; particular attention paid to country orders. 

26v8-3m A.BRANDT & CO., Prop's 

Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

iitoves and Metuls, Tmnorii' Goods, Tor Is and Machines, 
111 and 113 California, 17 anil 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, S^-'-ramento 



For the very best Photographs go to BRAD- 
LEY & RULOFSON'S GALLERY, with an " Elevator- 
439 Uontgomer; street, San Francisco. 2T7-6m 



CENTINELA COLONY 

LOS ANGELES CO.. CAL. 

SIX MILES WEST OF LOS ANGELES, OAL. 
The unparalleled success of the 

LOMPOC COLONY, 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY, 

Has induced the "CcntiBela"Land Company of Los An- 
geles" to subdivide and place iu market for sale and 
settlement, under the direction and management of 
the "California Immigrant Union.'' of San Francisco, 
the "Geutinela and Sausal Kedondo" Ranches, contain- 
ing Twenty-tive Thousand Acres of Beautiful Valley 
Land, located seven miles west of the city of Los An- 
geles, and extending to and fronting on the Pacific 
Ocean. There is now on the tract an orchard of about 
three hundred acres, containing Orange, Lemon, Lime, 
Fig, Walnut, Almond and Olivs; trees, and a nursery of 
young Oraugs and Lime Trees. Some of the Orange 
and Lime trees are in bearing. The tract will be sub- 
divided in twenty, forty, eighty ,one hundred and sixty, 
acre farms, and sofd upon easy terms and long credits. 

Auction Sale of Town Lots 

■ — AND— 

5, 10, 20 and 40 ACRE FARMS, 

WILL COMMENCE OH 

Monday. Jan. 18, 1875, at 12 o'clock, M. 

And continue Five Days. The sale will take place on 
the Rancho. Parties desiring to purchase should be on 
the ground a few days prior to the sale, in order to ex- 
amine the ipoperty. Title— United States patent. 
SrrtTATioN. 
"Centinela," with the addition of the "Sausal Ee- 
d(mdo," contains 25,000 acres. The boundary of the 
Rancho commences three and a half miles from the 
city limits of Los Angeles, and extends to the Pacific 
Ocean. 

TOPOGBAPHT. 

"Centinela" is made up of one broad, level, fertile 
Talley, of over twenty thousand acrts, aud beautiful 
fertile rolling hills near the ocean. 
Son,. 

The soil is an exceedingly fertile loam, aud is, with, 
out exception, the richest and most productive In 
Southern California. Its vicinity to the ocean insures 
a crop without irrigation. Excellent wheat has been 
raised for the last two years upon the hills adjoining 
the ocean. This wheat field contains 1,01)0 acres, and 
covers the lightest soil upon the Rancho. There is no 
alkali or barren land. 

Semi-Tkoicpal Fbuits. 

There are a few bearing orange and lime trees upon 
the Centinela, and The fruit they produce is of the 
largest and finest quality. There is an orchard con- 
taining 6,000 orange trees three years old, and 1,700 
almond, lime and lemon trees. The almond, lime and 
Icniim trees will bear fruit in 1875. The orange trees 
will bear in five years. There are 7,000 three-year-old 
orange trees in the nursery near the orchard. Fig, 
pepper and gum trees grow without irrigation. The 
entire orchard can be taken care of by three men with 
six hof ses. The orchard will be kept undivided by 
the company, to save the expense of each shareholder 
having a few trefS to take care of. Each share will 
entitle the owner to about 1.5 trees iu the orchard and 
about the same number in the nursery. The almond, 
lime and lemon trees will yield au immediate return. 
In five years each orange tree will produce $20 per an- 
num, or $aO0 per share for those now planted. There 
are flowers in the garden in bloom every day in the 
year. 

Sheep. 

A flock of about 14.000 sheep will be kept undivided, 
to save expense to the shareholders. This will give 
about 30 sheep to each share. The sheep will produoe 
in increase and wool over $2 each, jearly, over ex- 
penses. They will be grazed upon outlying and un- 
sold lands of the company. The "No fence" Law is in 
force in Los Angeles County. 

Climate. 

The climcte of the "Centinela" is without exception 
the tinest and most equable in the world. It varies 
but little throughout the year. The mean temperature 
is about BO degrees. The mercury falls but little below 
fiO in winter and rises but little above 60 in summer. 
You sleep under one pair of blankets and with your 
bed-room window open every night in the year. 

AGRICnLTUBE. 

The soil of the "Centinela" is admirably adapted for 
all kinds ot grain, vegetables and fruit. 
Watee. 

The Centinela creek rises upon the Rancho and runs 
through the northern ijortion of the tract. It affords 
an abundance of clear sprine water. The source of the 
Centinela creek consists of several natural artesian 
springs, showing that artesian water can be obtained 
by boring. 

The To\vn. 

A square mile is laid off at an eligible point on the 
•tract, with lots 31x135; avenue 100 feet, and streets 80 
feet wide. A stream of water can be brought in so as 
to supply every lot with crystal, cool, sweet water. 
One of the (orty-acre tracts is net apart for a College 
and Farm School, and tk 're will be a Ten-acre Park on 
each of the four sides of the town, and Font Blocks in 
the center of the town for Public Buildings, Schools, 
etc. A large lot will also be set apart for each Relig. 
ions Denomination, and a block given for the erection 
of a large hall by the different Fraternil, Grange and 
Temperance Societies. 

Fare. 

Parties desiring to visit the Rancho can take the 8:10 
A. M. train of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Soledad, 
thence by Coast Line Stage to Los Angeles: by 4 P. M. 
train to Bakersfield, thence by stage to Los Augeles; or 
by Pacific Mail Co. '3 and Goodall, Nelson & Perkins' 
steamships direct to Los Augeles, where conveyances 
can be had to go to the Rancho free of charge. 
Railroads And Wiiauf. 

Iho Company intend building a wharf to enable 
Steamships from San Francisco and other places to 
land ijasseugers on the tract. A narrow-gauge railroad 
will be built from Los Augeles to the wharf, a distance 
of about 12 miles. The Main Street and Agricultural 
Park Railway will soon be built to the park, about — 
miles from the tract. This railway will be exte«ded to 
the tr.ict as soon as the settlement will justify it 
Apply to W. H. MARTIN 

General Agent California Immigrant Union, 5:i4 Califor 

nia street, between Montgomery and Kearny streets, 

San Francisco, to TEMPLE k WtJKKMAN, Bankers, 

or Gen. SHIELDS, Los Angeles, or O. L. ABBOTT, 

CoiTespondiug Secretary State Grange Immigrant Aid 

Association, Santa Barbara. 

P. S. — A second sale will take place on the Rancho, 
commencing on Monday, the 8th of March, 1875. 

Further i>articulars will be furnished by the officers 
and directors of the Centinela Land Company, of Los 
Angeles, who are : F. P. F. Temple, President; F. P. 
Howard, Vice-President; J. S. Slauson. Los Angeles 
County Bank, Treasurer; J. M. Griffith, of Griffith, 
Lynch k Co.; Gen. J. H. Shields: O. W. Childs; D, 
Jreeman, on the Rancho; W. H, J. Brooks, Secretary. 



44 



ws.otwm nwii&s PftBsi 



[January i6, 1875- 



^qV^lcJLTURi^L ^OJES. 



AliAMEDA. 

PBO8PEBO0S. — Livermore Enterprise, Jan. 9: 
A correspondent writes from Sunol: The hand 
of prosperity seems to be open in this valley 
and, judging from the number of houses 
erected during the last year and the number of 
families 8^ttling hereabouts, she has blessed us 
bountifully. The population of the State has 
increased upwards of 50,000, and we are proud 
tp say that Snnol has done her share towards 
swelling these figures. Our farmers are near- 
ly through seeding. Having no rain does not 
seem to discourage them in the least. They 
say they will do their part and leave the rain 
to Him who rules alL But liltle grain Is 
sold, as many think we shall not lose by hold- 
ing on. 

Ancthkb correspondent writing from Pleas- 
anton sajs; Our farmers "in the lowlands, 
low," are all in good spirits. A dry season 
will suit them belter than a wet one. In other 
localities, however, the severe frosts are begin- 
ning to affect vegetation to some extent. The 
fields do not look as green as they did two 
weeks ago — though I am informed that the 
ground is moist enough for plowing. 

Watebcbbss. — One of the most prolific vines 
of watercress in the valley can be seen at the 
residence of Mr. C. Garthwait nearPleasonton. 
Mrs. Garthwait threw several slips i^o the 
trough, used for watering the animals, some- 
time since, and now she has all they can use 
on their tab'e. It has spread to such an extent 
that it has to be cut away from about the 
trough. The water is supplied from a spring 
near by and is beautifully clear, and the cress 
grows spontaneously. No healthier salad can 
be used than the watercress. 

BUTTE. 

Rain Needed.— iJeeord, Jan. 9: Farmers tell 
us that these continual warm days and frosty 
nights have a tendency to rot the grain already 
sown, and that if we don't have rain shortly 
a great deal of ground already seeded, will 
have to be resown. 
CAXAVEKAS. 

Rain Needed. — Calaveras Citizen, Jan. 9: 
Ruins are needed in other parts of the State 
more than here. We, of the foothill section 
are not as yet in much need of rain, though a 
nice little shower would bw quite acceptable. 
In the lower counties grain which reached the 
hight of a foot or over has become quite black 
frum the eflftct of the cold weather aud frosts. 
If a good rain should now come the check, 
from the frosts would prove beneficial, as the 
growth would perhaps otherwise be too preco- 
cious. 
COLUSA. 

Wheat. — Colusa San, Jan. 2: The dry 
weather has given the wheat market a decided 
advance. Jackson Hart sold 1500 tons this 
week at $1.52% here. Dr. Glenn sold 13,000 
tons on Christmas day, but at a much lower 
price. 

The Season.— Although this season so far 
is without a parallel since the settlement of 
California by the Americans, we ar« not at all 
alarmed as to the result. The ground is now 
thoroughly wet, and a few showers along 
between this and the first of May will make 
good crops. Much wheat, however, will rot 
in the ground if we do not have rain in a short 
time. 
CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

Fa.osTY.— Ledger, Jan. 9: The frost and fog 
still continues. The days are sunny and 
pleasant, but as evening comes on the atmos- 
phere firows cold and at daylight there is a 
white hoar frost, accompanied with dense fog, 
which vanishes about 9 o'clock a. m. The 
grain is not yet sufifenng, but rain will be 
needed soon, else the prospects will be gloomy 
indeed. Six inches nf rain distributed at op- 
portune intervals would insure a crop. In the 
upper San Joaquin stock is dying and the 
young grain assuming a yellowish tinge. It 
would be s-remii^gly wrong to desire two or 
three successive droughts in this valley and it 
would occa-'iou much sufl'ering; but if by 
reason of it the people would arouse to a real- 
izing sense ol the benefits of a canal for irriga- 
tion, it would in the years to come be a blessing 
and not a curse. 

Ant och. — Oiir people will rejoice to know 
that henceforth our town may be supplied with 
good water. George Wiggins, of Pacheco, ha.s 
recently been boring on the New York grant, 
in every instance obtaining good drinking 
water at a depth of .30 and 35 feet. The phil- 
osophy is this: The surface water is alkaline, 
but at a deptn of 35 feet there is a stratum of 
gravel. In boring a well he goes down to the 
surface water, puts in an iron pipe, and then 
bores with a smaller auger inside of this pipe 
till he reaches the gravel formation, which 
abouni's in fresh cool water. 
FRESNO. 

The cold frosty weather, says the Expositor, 
Jan. 6tb, still continues, and is sapping the 
life out of everything green. The flush pros- 
pects of a month ago are fading away, and 
gloom is following. Such weather as the past 
month has been unprecedented, and more 
fully demonstrates that no one can tell any- 
thing about the character of the seasons in 
Ortlifoinia. Rain we must have soon, or else 
all land that is not irrigated will fail to produce 
anything like a decent crop. It is true that 
there is yet time to save the grain and grass, 
but that time is rapidly drawing to a close. 
Sheep iftQge is getting scarce. The grass, 



which Lad a fair start, hag not grown any for 
three weeks, and the myriads of sheep which 
swarm the county in every direction have eaten 
out nearly all the available range, and unless 
the weather moderates and rain comes very 
soon, a large number of sheep must of necessity 
be driven from the county in search of other 
range. 
KERN. 

The Irbiqatino Canal. — The work on the 
Kern Island irrigating canal is progressing 
rapidly. Mr. Souther promises its completion 
during this month. Tne big plow has been 
run as near Kern lake as the ground will per- 
mit, and the waters of the river and the lake 
may now join at the head for the first time 
since 1867. It is proposed to divide some of 
the lands into tracts of 10, 20 and 40 acres 
each, for orchard and vineyard purposes, and 
offer them for sale, on three years lime and on 
such terms as to make them available to all. 

Small farms, provided with a constant sup- 
ply of water, are needed to develop the rich 
resources of our county. 

LAKE. 

Plowino. — Lake Co. Bee, Jan.7tb: Mr. T. 
Deming, who has a fine farm of 240 acres in 
Scott, s Valley, is still plowing his land, not 
having yet sowed any grain. He thinks it best 
to wait until the present frosty spell shall have 
passed away, aud is succeeded by more moder- 
ate weather. 

We ake informed that the tobacco crop plant- 
ed near Guenoc last year by A. A. Ritchie has 
proved successful. The crop has been cut and 
saved, aud will be cured the coming Spring. 
MONTEREY 

Wheat fob the Mabket. — Centreville Ardus, 
Jan 9th: The long-continued term of cold and 
rainless weather is producing, among all classes, 
considerable anxiety respecting the character 
of the present season. So far, however, as the 
grain interest is concerned, we are not willing 
to anticipate auytliing approaching a frilure. 
The "latter" rains may be tardy, but they are 
aim ist certain to come, and can hardly fail to 
assure at least a half crop. Stock at the 
present writing, will be more likely to suffer, 
grass je^shorut and scant. 
NAPA 

The Outlook. — St. Helena Star, January 7: 
The outlook for another bountiful harvest in 
his valley was never more promising than 
now. 

Ouanges. — A few days since a small limb was 
broken from an or mge tree growing on the 
farm of Mrs. Youut. seven mil> s from St 
Helena, which contained fourteen full grown 
oranges. The Stftr thinks that is a hint for the 
more general planting of orange trees in Napa. 
NEVADA COUNTY. 

Obanoes in the Foothills. — Foothill Ti- 
dings, Jan. 9: Silas Beezley, of Rough and 
Ready, has an orange tree that he laised from 
the seed, which has matured fruit for several 
years past and this year had over thirty perfect 
oranges, some of them very large. There are 
thousands of sheltered titu tions like Mr. 
Beezley's all along the foothills, where the 
oran^ie will grow and fruit finely. 
PLACER. 

Olives in the Foothills. — Rev. N. R. Peck, 
of Ophir, Placer county, has an olive tree, six 
years eld, from the cutting, that is now fnll of 
finely developed olives. It has been bearing 
two years. 'The olive is easily propagated from 
cuttings, and grows well in that vicinity. It 
should be more generally planted. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Obanoes ON THE Coast. — Santa Cruz Enlti-- 
prise, Jan. 8: Wm. Kerr, of San Francisco, pro- 
prietor of the Scott ranch near Santa Cruz, has 
sent a fine lot of orange trees to be planted in 
the grounds about the houne. There is no 
doubt but that they will grow rapidly, but the 
fogs will prevent their producing anything like 
nicely flavored fruit. 

The Weather and Crops. — Watsonville Pa- 
joranmn, Deo. 31 : There seems to be some ap- 
prehensions of a dry season on the coast, but 
there is still time tor ample rain to fall fur 
farming purposes. In this valley a dry season 
does not result seriously. This immunity from 
the eft'ects of a drouth| is due to the fogs which 
prevail here, and green grass can be seen in the 
Pajaro valley in mid-summer. Should the 
crops prove a partial failure, grain will n«xt 
year be high, and as thousands of farmers have 
a good deal of last year's crop on hand, they 
will make money whether they harvest good 
crops or not. 

SAN MATEO. 

New Potatoes.— San Mateo Times, Jan. 9 : 
The first of the new potato crop was shipped 
to San Francisco on Thursday by the railroad. 
The}- were from the farm of Johnson, near 
Spanishtown. This shipment is unprece- 
dently early, the new potatoes rarely coming 
in before the middle or latter part of February. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Wheat AND Froit — Their Reiative Chances. 
Santa Barbara Index, Jan. 7: We are yet with- 
out rain, but while sheep raisers are making 
lamentations, and wheat growers scanning the 
bright heavens and the baking earth with rue- 
ful looKs, there are some among us whose for- 
tunes depend on the products of the soil, who 
are secure from loss, let there be rain or no 
rain. A fruit grower, who has been a resident 
of Santa Barbara about twenty years, informs 
us that, should there be no rain from now 
until the next rainy season, his fruit harvest 
would not be injured in the least. If affected 
at all, he thinks it would be improved, Much 



rain, he holds, rather detracts from the ■ sweet- 
ness and rich flavor of fruit. This fruit grower, 
keeps his soil in a thorough state of cultivation, 
so that whenever moisture is afloat, his eoil is 
prepared to gather it in, and store it in its 
bosom to meet the demands of the trees. In 
all this there is a lesson. Crops are uncertain. 
Fruit raising, then, is the proper agricultural 
industry for the farmer of the Santa Barbara 
valley. 
SAN BENITO. 

The Probpeot. — San Benito Advance, Jan. 
9: The young wheat is sprouting np over 
thousands of acres of seeded land. The mois- 
ture in the ground resnlting from the heavy 
rains bad a few weeks since is not exhausted. 
While the weather remains cool, the atmos- 
phere moist, and there is no hot sun or drying 
winds to blast the prospects, there is really no 
cause for alarm in this valley. 

The grain yield of Quien Sabe valley last 
year was 25,000 bags. Twice the surface of 
land has been seeded this year and a crop of 
50,000 bags is anticipated.' 
SONOMA. 

Cbop Prospbcbs. — Petaluma Argus, Jau. 8: 
W. M. Connolly left at this oflSce on the last 
day of December a bunch of wild oats of this 
season's growth, from the ranch of John Lynch, 
in Vallejo township, that are two lett in length. 
This is one of the numerous proofs of what we 
have often said regarding the mildness of our 
climate, the fertility of our soil, and the value 
of our agricultural lands. H. A. Heineken, of 
Hicks valley, informs us that the prospects of 
dairymen in his neighborhood are anusually 
pood. Grass is coming on finely, and stock is 
doing well. Mr. H. has a ranch of about 1,000 
acres, and milks 100 cows. L. N. Harmon 
will have green peas in the market in a few 
days. They were sown on October 10th. 

SAN JOAaUIN. 

The Crop Prospects. — Stockton I.,eader, 
Jan. 9: The continued dry and cool weather 
gives rise to the very serious apprehension of 
disaster to the wheat crop of this year. Those 
apprehensions undoubtedly have some effect 
on the market, inducing many to hold on, who 
would otherwise let their stock go at present 
rates. 

Says the Independent, Jan 11: Farmers in 
the vicinity of Linden, and in other portions 
of the county, while not complaining to any 
great extent, are beginning to be apprehensive, 
on account of the continued dry weather. Un- 
less we are favored with rain as soon as the 1st 
of Februa'y, there is danger of a partial, if not 
total failure. 
STANISLAUS. 

Pcospects ON the "West Side." — A corre- 
spondent of the S^uislauH News writing from 
Grayson, December 29th, says: The dry 
weather seems prevalent thrrughout the val- 
ley, but notwithstftnding. wh' at still assumes a 
bright, h' althy. growing appearai>ce, though a 
ereat many farmers are getting frightened, and 
fears are apprehended of another di-outh 
Many who have volunteer wheat are wishing 
for stocks of various kinds to eat it down; for 
they say it draws all the moisture out of the 
ground, whereas if it is eaten off the ground 
would retain all its moisture, and the wheat 
would attain a deeper root, and would be better 
prepared to withstand a drouth, should any 
happen to come. 
SANTA CLARA. 

The Weather and Crops. — Mercury, Jan 
10: From all portions of the State come re- 
ports of a threatened drouth. In some coun- 
ties it is already beyond the probabilities that 
more than half a crop can be secured 'for next 
season. In this county we are not quite so 
badly off, but we must have rain soon or much 
damKg>» will ensue to the farmers. We want 
ruin immediately and a good deal of it. 

Several families from Oregon have recently 
invested in farming lands in this county. 

A Pdblic Garden for San Josk. — Mr. 
O'Donnell, whose place is situated in the south- 
east part of the city, some years ago resolved 
upon getting up a public garden, something 
after the style of Woodward's Garden, only, 
of course, on a smaller scale; and to carry out 
this resolve he has been at work in. building 
his fountains, basins and ponds, or tiny lakes 
for his fish of different kinds, his seal pond, 
and swan and pelican basin or pond, etc All 
are so arranged that at every turn you take in 
the grounds some new and interesting view is 
opened to the visitor. * " ' It is intended 
to have these splendid grounds so far completed 
that ihej can be opened .tne fore part of the 
coming summer. 

At Gilroy, says the Adoocate, January 9th, 
the farmers are heartily wishing for rain, al- 
though they are not very much alarmed as yet. 
The mornings were frosty up to Friday, when 
we had the heaviest fog we have seen in a long 
time, in fact it was almost a rain. A few more 
such mists would greatly benefit vegetation. 
TRINITY. 

Nut Trees in Trinity. — Trinity Jownal, 
Jan. 9: Detlef Hansen has received a number 
of chestnut and other trees from San Francisco, 
and will set them out on bis premises in Fagg- 
town. We learn that others hereabouts will 
follow his example by cutting down cotton- 
wood and other non-productive shade trees and 
replacing them with nut bearing varieties- 
something that will be useful as well as orna- 
mental. 
TULARE. 

Crops, Etc.— The editor of the Tulare 
Times ha^ been visiting some of the ranches 



noticed land that is said to have yielded a good 
crop for 23 successive years. Alfalfa which 
was sown last year looked well. Good com 
crops, small grain, melons and almost every- 
thing appeared to have grown abundantly there. 
The portion spoken of is reclaimed swamp 
land, and needs no irrigation. His attention 
was next turned in another direction to the 
dryer, or what was once thought to be barren 
alkali land, but now presents quite a different 
appearance by the agency of water. The re- 
mains of corn-stalks, tomato vines, and other 
vegetables now growing, clearly indicate what 
can be done when proper attention is given to 
almost any of the lands in the county. The 
sugar beet appears to be particularly adapted 
to this kind of land. 
YUBA. 

Oe.anoes.— -4ppeo/, Jan. 6: Jack Smith, of 
this city, grew 400 oranges on two trees, and of 
excellent flavor and large size, and has made 
no great fuss about it. There are a thousand 
or more oranges hanging upon trees in this 
city, which are the pride of their owners. 

No Rain Needed.— While the farmers in 
many of the southern counties are exercised 
with fears about a failing crop for want of rain, 
the farmers in this section were never in better 
spirits. Though less than six inches of water 
has fallen in this vicinity, the crops are most 
promising. This section of the State never 
fails to produce her grain crops. 

To our Bee Correspondents and Others. 

Cards from par ties wishing to pnrchase or to 
sell bees are coming in upon us at a rate some- 
what beyond our means of disposal. Those 
who mean business in this — as in every other 

department of stock or farm equipments 

must have noticed how promptly any calls put 
forth through the columns of the Rural Press 
are responed to, and knowing as they do the 
reliable character of the advertisements which 
it issues, they shoulj publish their wants 
through our advertising columns. Onr paper 
is thoroughly read by shrewd, practical people; 
and such advertisements would "tell" at once. 
In this connection we would give a 
Hint to Seedsmen. 

Mr. Samuel E. Reed, of Lino's Valley, eays 
in a letter published in the Press of Dec. 26: 
'I have received more than my money hack 
every year that I have paid for ihe Rural 
Pbkss in the farm and household deparlmen's; 
besides the advant'ige of knowing where to get the 
cheapest and best seeds the market affords at rea- 
sonable rates." The readers of ttio Pbess will 
have noticed that we have given particular at- 
tention to this vexed question. The labors 
that we have bestowed upon this important 
matter are redouniling to the advantage of all 
parties. Reliable seedsmen — and we endeavor 
to have nothing to do with those who are nol 
reliable— will appreciate the efforts made by us 
to secure for the business a sound, legitimate ' 
basis, and to dispel the too general distrust 
which has prevailed among seed purchasers; 
while the practical inftrmation given through 
the Pbess in regard to testing seeds, with other 
facts and suggestions in conneciion with this 
subject, have done much to divest the matter 
of seed buying of its unceitainty. Add to 
this the confidt-nce whii'h the farming commu- 
nity feel in what the Rubal Pbess advertises, 
and the reliable seedsman can scarcely fail to 
recognize the advantages of advertisln^' with us. 

The same timely hints may be made availa- 
ble by stock-breeders,, nurserymen, etc., as 
well as by seedsmen and the buyers and sellers 
of bees; for our paper goes among a class who 
de-sire to purchase, and possess the means for 
doing so, wanting nothing but the reliable in- 
formation as to the best parties to purchase 
from. 



New Music— Among the new pieces of 
music recently received is Davy Crockett's 
motto, "Behure You're Ri^ht then Go Ahead." 
It is published by Sherman & Hyde, 139 Kear- 
ney street. The words are by Sam. Booth, and 
the music by (!has. Sehultz, We have also 
received the Benniigton Quickstep, com- 
posed by Dr. O. B. Dickson, who is well known 
in Sonoma rounty. especially about Tomales, 
Bodega, Blooi:li( id und P- 1 luma. The latter 
piece was arranged by Prof, .lohn Knill. 



The Kino Iron advertised in the Press is al- 
luded to as follows by the Pittsburg Christian 
Advocate: We can conscientiously recommend 
this iron to agents and canvassers, and 
believe that those who engage in its sale will 
find it a pleasant and remunerative business. 
Being an article of household use it will re- 
commend itself especialty to lady canvassers. 



Opening of the North Pacific Coast Rail- 
road. — This interesting and important occur- 
rence took place on the 7th instant, under the 
most favorable auspices. We had prepared a 
full account of the affair, but an unusual press 
of matter compels us to defer its publication 
until our next issue. 



Fabmers' Fire Insur.ince Association. — 
The readers of the Rural Pbess will be pleased 
;o learn that the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insn- 
runce Association is now in prosperous condi- 
tion. The Secretary is preparing an annmal 
statement, the substance of which we hope to 
just out of town. On Mr. Owen's ranch be I be able to place before our readers next week. 



January 16, iSysJ* 



45 



s. F- 



KEJ f\E[»©!\T. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



At Wholesale when not Otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 



f^» DOMBSTIO PRODUCE. 

Saw Fbamoiboo, Wednesday, Jan. 13, 1875. 
Becelpts of produce for the week are as follows, as 
far a« reported at the Produce Exchange: Flour, 31,1.55 
qr sacks; Wheat, 237,817 ctls; Barley, 17,523 ctls; Oats, 
11,033 ctls; Beans, 3,660 sks; Corn, 1,837 ska; Potatoes, 
16,074 Bks; Onions, 881 sks; Bran, 653 sks; Hay, 449 
tons; Siraw, 75 tons; Hops, 12 bales; Wool, 137 bales; 
Rye, 331 sks. 

It will be seen by the above that the receipts of Flour 
reported are less than last week ; of Wheat, the receipts 
are larger; Beans, do.; Potatoes, do.; Onions, do.; 
Barley, do. 

B trley has advanced considerably. Coast is now 
bringing $1.50@$1.60, while brewing touches $1.70 
®$1.76. 

Bran is $2 per ton lower than last week, being now 
lacad at $17 per ton. 

Butter shows an advance of 'iViC. in outside figures 
and appears to be affected by the advance in the retail 
market. It now rates at 40@50c. 

Buckwheat has gone up 25c, rating at $2.25@$2.50. 
Corn like other grain, shows a decided advance. 
We note White at $1.47 }4®$1. 65; Yellow, $1.60. 

Beans remain steady and there is no change to 
note. 

Broom Com is unchanged. The lowest price, 6c, 
is for that which has been sopiewhat damaged by get- 
ting wet bufore being harvested. 

Cotton remains unchanged, that of California pro- 
duction, only, being quoted in our list. 

Eggs — Cal. Fresh of best quality are 2^o lower than 
they were in our last week's quotations. Duck Eggs 
show a like decrease. 

Flour is reported higher, standing now at $5 and 
$5.37)4 for Extra and $4.37^@$4.50 for Superflae. 

Fresh Keat — Beef is a trifle lower for best quality 
and does not exhibit so wide a variation in prices for 
different qualities, as appeared in previous list; first 
quality now rates at 8@8J4o. Not being liirniHhcd 
with prices of second and third qualities, wo quote no 
figures on those kinds this week. Veal exhibits a wide 
range of prices when large and small are both included; 
large, we note at 6(3)8c ^ I)>. Mutton has risen and is 
now reported at 5@6c. Lamb shows a still more 
marked increase, rating now at 7@8c, an advance of 2o 
over last week upon the outside figure. Pork, un- 
dressed, exhibits a slight change and now stands at 
6@65«c, some soft hofjs bringing but 6c. Pork un- 
dressed, rates at 8ii@8Mc. 

Middlinirs show a decrease of $1.50 per ton, being 
now rated at $27. 

Oats exhibit a very liberal advance in outside 
figures and now rate at $1.75®2.10 for choice and $1.60 
to $1.75 for common. 
Rye has risen to $1.32H@$1.40. 

Wheat is rating higher. Choice Milling baa 
reached $1.70. The Merchants' Exchange gives tlio 
Liverpool Wheat market to-duy at 9s 7d to 10s for 
average California and 10s@10s 6d for Club. The 
same authority gives tho New York market as dull; 
nominal rates $1.25@$1.30. 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



15^ 



Beans, sm'l wh. lb SH' 

do. batter 4Ji 

do. bayo, 

ao, pink 5Mft 

ao. pea ZW^ 

BKOOM CUKN. 

Per lb ,5 @ 10 

COTTON. 
Cal. 1S74. «».... 15 @ . . 
D.A.IRY PIEUIttJCK 
Butter. Cal. choice 

lb 40 @ SO 

do, Kood 35 @ 40 

d( . inferior 30 @ ib 

do, llrkin iO Co) 35 

do, pickled .. . — ® — 

Uhfese, Cal 12>^'a 17 

do. Eastern .. 15 S 20 
EGOS. 
EggB, Cal. fresh 37>^@ — 

do. Orecon 30 (S 35 

do, Ea-^tern — — @ — 

do, DucLa' — @ 35 

FEEn. 

Bran, per ton —317 00 

Middlings - '5)27 IIO 

Hay 12 00-317 00 

Straw, V bale. . to 

Oil cake meal... — (|30 00 

Corn Meal 32 50i<833 00 

FI^OITR. 

Extra 5 00 ®,5 3TA 

Superfine 4 37;^@4 5(t 



FKCXSH ME^I 



S'A 



Beef, fr quality. .lb 8 

00, seoond do. . 

do, third do. . .. 

Veal 

Mutton 

Lamb 7 

Pork, undressed. 6 

do. dressed 8!4l 

eKJLIN, ETC. 

Wheat, coast. . . 1 .M) 

do shipping ..1 65 

do milling.... — 

Barley, coast — .1 50 

do brewing.. .1 70 

Oats, chi ice. . . 175 

do common . A hO _ 

Com. White 1 «;^®1 65 

do, Yellow — (31 60 

Buckwheat 2 25 @2 60 

Rye 1 32'^1*1 40 

HOPS. 
CaliforDia,1874. 30 @ 36 
Eait'rn,'74,ch3co — ffl — 
MISCEl,tA.I«EOlJ8. 
Beeswax. per lb. . 27-2(i^ aO 
Honey in comb..— (^ 20 
do Strained.... HI O 12 

Pulu 10 (q) 10 

Onions I 25c4l 3.5 

NUT»-aoI»BlNO. 
ChI. Walnuts .... 19 
<_;. Peanuts per lb 6 
Chile Walnuts.. 10 

Pecanuts 12S( 

Brazil do IKi® 

Alin'dsh'rd shell 8 

do, soft 15 

Filberts 17 (3 

rjocoanuts, lOOO.-Wl 003 — 

POTATOES. 
Sweet, per owt .. — fcii2 00 
<;uffee Oovel — @ — 
H. M. Bay.. - 4 - 
Pmeon Pt... 1 40@l 60 
Humboldt.. 1 75@1 87 > 
Tomales....! 70-(d)l 80 



Wednesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 

Mission — 'a) — 

•Salinas — ^ — 

Bodega 1 40 Si 75 

St Barbara. — @ — 
isac. River.. — (ol 
POKJ1.TKV dt GAME. 
Live Turkeys, 

henaporO) 14 @ 16J.i> 

do gobblers... 12 (^ 14 

rto dressed 15 @ 19 

Hens, per dz. . . .6 00 -5 7 00 
Roosters, young, 

large 5 00 SB 00 

Br. iters, small.. 2 .50 W 00 

do large 4 00 @5 00 

Ducks. tame.dnzT 00 @8 00 
Gee-e, per pair 2 00 @3 .'SO 
Hare, per doz. . . 2 00 ■@3 00 
Snipe, EnB., doz — ©1 75 
(Juail.per doz ...1 ■W ml 62^i 
Mallard Ducks.. 2 00 @ 3 00 

do small 75 '3 1 25 

Wild Geese, gray — @ — 

do white. .2 00 34 00 

Doves, per dozen 50 w 75 

Prairie Chickens ~ @ — 

Rabbits 1 25 m 50 

do tame 5 00 @6 00 

Venison, per lb.. 6 i^ 7 

PROVISIONS. 

Oal.Baci<n.Lit;ht — @ 14!^ 

do Medium — — tai 13H 

do Heavy 13 ® Viii 

Kastern do \i'4m 14>-» 

Hams. Oal 13^@ U>4 

.lo Whittakers — @ — 
do Duffield, ch — @ — 
do Plankton & 

Arm' ur 

do Boyd's 

do Stewart's .. 

itastern Should's 

do new hams 

Oal. Smoked Beef 

l-ard 

SREDS. 

Alfalfa, Chili.. . 15 

do California. 18 

Canary 8 

Cotton 6 

Flaxseed — 

Hemp 8 

Ky. Blue Grass..' 50 
do 2d quality.. 40 
do .W quality.. 30 

Millet 10 

Mustard, white. 1' 

do. Brown !■ 

Italian Rye 30 

Perennial do 30 

Rape... 11 

Timothy 8 

Sweet V Grass. 



isj^a - 



9 B 
15X@ 

9 m 



LEATHER. 

Wedhesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 
This commodity remains steady and the figures ar > 
un changed from those of last week's report. 

Olty Tanned Leather. %» lb 265 '< 

^anta Oruz Leather, ^ lb '26^', 

Country Leather, f) t> 24^ 

Stockton Leather, ^ lb 26(6 

Jodoi;,8 Kil., per doz $60 00® .54 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 OuS 90 ' 

Jodot, second choice. 11 to 16 Kil. ^ doz 55 00# 72 

Oomellian, IS to 16 Ko .57 OOtffl 6'. 

(Joraellian Females, 12 to 13 63 UU(a) 67 

noraelliaH h males. 14 to 16 Kil 71 iiixS) 76 

Simon Cllmo Females, 12 to 13, Kil 60 00@ 6J 

Simon Ulimii Fema es, ll to 15, Kil 70 UOai "2 

Simon UUmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 00 a 75' 

Simon, 18 Kil.,4* doz 61 00® s:' 

Simon, 20 Kil. 11 doz 65 OOKu 67 

Simon. .!4 Kil. * doz 72 00® 74 

RobertOalf, 7 and »Kil 35 om 41 

French Kips, ^ lb 1 tiO® I 

Oalilormia Kip, « doz 40 00(a» f 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 00(g> 15 

EasternOalf for Backs, |l lb 1 00(5 1 . 

Sheep Roans for Toppmg, all colors, 11 doz 9 00@ U 

Sheep Roans for Linings,^ doz 5 .50t9 10 ■■ 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7.'i(<d 4' 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 00® 5 2 

Good French Ualf iioot Legs, V pair 4 00(a> 4 7 

French Calf Boot Legs,?* pair t 00® 

Harness Leather, i» lb 30® 37 

Fair Bridle Leather, W doz 48 00® 72 1. 

Skirting Leather, i« * 33^^ 37 

Welt Leather, « doz 30 00® 50 

Buff Leather, |» foot 17(3 

Wax Side Leather. IfUoot IWi 

Eastern Wax Leather — Cdl— - 



Orchard do.... 

Red Top do... 

Hungarian do 

Lawn do 

Mesquit do... 
Clover Red 

do White .... 
WOOL, 
FALL— 
Good to choice. 

Fair grade 16 (oi 

Heavy free '* @ 

Defective 12 @ 

liides.diy WAd 

do wet salted S'iS 
Tallow, Crude.. 5 @ 
do Refined 6 @ 



15 



65 ® 
ETC. 



18 ® 



LUMBER. 



Wednesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 
Prices are reported to us the same as las t week. 
CAReO PRICES OPiPUGET SOUNB PIKE 

RED-WOOU. 1 Fencing a* dSteppinS" 

Rough, ^ M »18 00|Fencing,2d quality,^ M 

Rougn refuse,^ M 14 OOiFencinir, ^ M 20 00 

Rough clear. 1ft M 30 00| Flooring and Step, ^ M 30 Oi 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 20 00 Flooring, narrow, ^ M.. 32 50 

Rustic, ^ M 32 50 Flooring, ^d quaUty.M. .25 00 

Rustic, refuse, 'SI M 24 001 Laths, "# M 3 511 

Surfaced, 11 M 30 OOiFurrinc. TS lineal ft 

Surfaced refuse, «» M... '20 uO RED «VOOI»— Retail. 

Flooring, *M 28 00 Rough,"* M '22 5;. 

Flooring, refuse, ■» M.. '20 00 Rough refuse, * M 18 Oti 

Beaded flooring. ^M... 30 OOjRough Pickets, 1* M. .. . 18 on 
Beaded floor, refn.se, M. '2.5 OURough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Half-inch Siding, M 22 50' Fancy Pickets, |» M 30 00 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. IS (WSiding, i« M 25 00 

Half-inch, Surlaoed.M. 25 00 Surfaced and Long 

Half-inch Surf, ret., .VI . 18 0«i Beaded 3i 50 

Halt'iHch Battens, M... 2^2 50 Flooring ,.... 35 00 

Pickets, rouKh, 'SI M.... 13 OOl Do do refuse, %« M '22.50 

Pickets, roUKh, p'ntd... 16 00 Halt-inch surlaoed, JM.. :I2 50 

Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 25 OOlRustic, No. 1,11 M 

Rbingles. la M J OOiBattens. It lineal foot. . 

Rough, 11 M 20 O^lshinirles IBM ., 

S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



METALS. 

Wedneiday m., Jan. 13, 1876. 
The only change given is in Quicksilver, for which 
ee table below. 

American Pig Iron, V ton @ 46 00 

Scotch Pig Iron, # ton 42 00 Ul 46 UO 

Vhite Pig, * ton « <§ *? 

Oregon Pig, « ton ... ® ^S"",, 

lotined Bar, bad assortment, ^ lb g — 3>» 

toflned Bar, good assortment, II lb 9~ * 

toiler. No. 1 to 4 @— 5HI 

'late. No. 5 to 9 @— !>^ 

^heet. No. 10 to 13 @— i'ii 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 " Z ^ ~ Jl"* 

iheet. No. 24 to 27 ; ~ 08 @ -- OS 

lorse Shoes, per keg 7 511 @ 8 00 

>Iail Rod —10 @ 

Norway Iron — 9 @ 

iolled Iron — 6 (§» 

Jther Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, •to. ® — 4/4 

IPPER.— 

Iraziers* — 31 @ — 32 

OopperTin'd —45 @ 

J. Kiel's Pat , — 50 @ 

Sheathing, W lb @ — 24 

Sheathing, Yellow & — 25 

Sheathing, Old Yellow O — 12.>< 

Ooirpoeition Nails —24 & 

Composition Bolts — 24 @ 

Plates, Charcoal, IX 11 box 13 00 @ 15 10 

Plates, I O Charcoal U 00 (a U 5« 

Roofing Plates 12 50 @ 15 00 

^ancaTin, Slabs, fS lb — 32;^® - 33 

teel.— English Oast,* lb — 20 © — 25 

Anderson 4 Woods' American Caat m— idH 

Drill @ - 16H 

FlatBar - 18 @ — 22 

Plow Steel - 9 @ — 10 

iitia (8-11 

Zinc, Sheet — ® - UX 

-Vails— Assorted »ize» 4 25 a 8 00 

iniOKSILVEB. per B) — — W 1 50 



40 Oil 
3 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



Wednesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 



13 
13M 

60 



FRUrr MARKET. 

Tahati. Or. ^ M 



a — 

Lorita, do.. ...-. 40 003145 06 

Oul. do 15 004(40 00 

Limes, H M.... 8 OOfculO OH 
Cal.Lemons.ll .M20 00(_a30 00 

Ausfr lian do — SillD 00 
do Sicily 'ft b'x.'l 00(31' '0 
Bananas, 11 bnch .> OOoi 4 du 
C .coanut8,111000.60 00(3)^0 00 
Pineapples, %*dz. — HI 06 
Apples,¥boi...l 00 ®1 '25 

Onerries — (<S — 

Blackberries.... — @ — 

d.' wild — @ — 

Huckl. berries. .. - ® — 
Strawberrieslilb — @ — 
Gooseberries.... — @ — 

Raspberries — m — 

Currants — ^ — 

do black — @ — 

Apncutd — ifiU ~ 

Plums — @ — 

Peacnes. bskt. . — @ — 

do. 11 box. — @ — 

do ext Mouut- 

tain.tb — @ — 

Pears, Bart'l, bl. — ^ — 

do Cooking — 75 @1 00 

Crab Apples — @ — 

Nectarines — (a) — 

Wafrmel'slllOil — (gl — 

MusKm'l's'JiiOO. @ 

Pomegran's'8*IOO ® — 

Figs - @ - 

Grapes.Bl'k H'g — M — 
do Muscat.. — w — 
do Malavo'e.. — @ — 
do Sweetw'r. — ® — 

do Mission — W — 

do Rose of Perul— ^ -- 

do Tokay — tqj — 



Wednesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 

do Morocco — (d) — 

do St. l-cter....- w) — 

jiRiEii FRvrr. 

apples. ^ lb — @ 4' 

cars, H lb —f0 H 




Peaches, ■« lb 
Apricots, It lb. 
Plums, ll lb 
Pitted. 0" « lb 

do Extra, ip ;b.. 

Raisins, f) a> 

Black Figs, II lb.... 

White, do 
Prunes 

do uerman 

('itron 

Zunte Currants 

Dates 12;^! 

VEOETABl>ES. 

Asparagus 50 

Beets 20 (a!25 

Cabbage, H 100 lbs.. 50 ® 7,5. 
Carrots, per ton.... 6 00(^10 09 

Caulitlower, Uoz 1 25®1 a> 

>;elery,doz 40 ®.')0 

Oanic.l* lb 18g;25 

Green Peas 6 (a.10 

Green Corn H doz..— ®— 
Suin'rSquash per ion — ®— 
Marro'lat Sa'sh.tn — di— — 
Artichokes,!! doz.. 75 ;gl 00 
String Beans, 1» lb .. 12>^g)15 

Lima Beans 12,'.&ail5 

Parsnips 15 @20 

Shell Beans — ®— 

Peppers, green, box — ® — 

Okra, Green — ® — 

Cucumbers, box — — ® — 

Tomatoes, box — ®— 

Egg Plant, box — M— 

Khubarb — @- 

Lettuce 30®4(> 

Turnips, ton — @— 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., Jan. 13, 1875. 
Since our last report we have the following changes 
to notice: Choice Butter shows an advance'of 5 cts. per 
pound. California Cheese shows a reduction of 5 cts. 
per pound on outside quotation. Corn Meal now rates 
at 2ii@'i cts. per pound, a lower marking than our table 
showed last week. 



Bntter.Cal.oh'ice — (g 55 

do common — 40 ® ."iO 

Oheese.Cal., lb.. 15 (g 20 

Lard. Oal., lb.... 15 (^ 17 

Flour, ex.fam, bl 5 00 (g(6 50 

Corn Meal, lb.... i't ■■03 09 

Sugar, wn.orsh'd — (Qt 11'^ 

do lt.brown,lb 7 ;<^ 10 
Coffee, green, lb.. 22)i'4 26)4 

Tea, fine blk, 50, 65,75 ®1 OO 

Tea.ttnBtJap,.55,75, 90 Ml 00 

Candles,Admant'el5 @ 20 

Hoap.Cal., lb.... 6 ® 10 



Rice, lb B m 10 

Yeast Powders. dx.l 50^2 i> 
Oan'dOysler8,dz.'200 @3 Oa 
Svruo.S F.Gol'n. — ''" ""■ 
Dried Apples. ... 
Dr'd Ger.Prunes 
Dr'd Figs, Cal... 
Dr'd Peaches.... 
Oils. Kefoaene .. _ 
Wines. Old Port 3 60 
do Fr. Claret..l 00 
do Cal.,dz.bot.3 OO 
Whisky,O.B,gal.3 50 
Fr. Brandy 4 "" 




RA«8. 

fl'.iig. Stand Wht..llM-@12 
B>etriok's Machine 

Sewed, 22x36 E..12 —(3>\2\\ 

do 22x36, do E W- -(a>\i'/!i 

do '20x40, do A.. 

B'lour Sacks i^s.. 

'• 'Ai. 

S land. Gunnies.. 

double seam. . . 

single seam 

•• Wool Sacks. 
Rarloy Bags 24x39 13 
do '23x40 - 

do 24x40 — 

do 2Sx36 - 

Oat Bags, 24x40.... 16 
do 28x36.. . — 

Hessian tO-in.gds 9— 
do 45 10'^ 

do 60 -14 ®I5 

CANNTED «001>». 
ftsst'dPie Fruits 
in 2.'6 lb cans. 2 .*>C 
do Table do.. .3 .'iO 
Jams* Jellies 3 75 
Pickles >i gl.. — 
Sardines. qr hoxl 80 
do hf boxes.3 20 
CO A I<— Jobblue. 
Austrnhan.lltonlO 50 @12 .'iO 

Coos Bay 

Bellingham Bay. 

Seattle 

Oumberl'd, cks.. 

do bulk.. .16 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 

Lohigh ®17 00 

Liverpool 10 .50 ®U .50 

West Hartley .... — 

Scotch 

Scranton 

Vancouver's IsL.ll 00 
Charcoal. Vsk... 75 

Coke, llbbl — 

COFFEE. 
Sanflwich Island — 
Central A merio'n 
Costa Kica per lb 

Quatemala 

Java 

Manilla 

Ground in cs — 

Chicory 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new 5 

cases 6 

do boneless.... II 

Eastern Cod. 

Salmon in bbls..9 00 

do >i bblsl 50 

do 2.^& cans — 

do 21b cans. .2 65 ''0)2 75 

do lib cans .1 75 ® — 

DoCol. R. >5b...5 00 (a5 60 

Pick. Cod. bbls.22 (10 m — 

do H bi.lsll 00 @ - 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'g40 @ .50 

Mack'l,No.l,'4bl69 00 gill 00 

Extra — @12 00 

" in kits 2 00 'a)2 50 

" Ex mess. 3 00 @3 .50 
Exmes».}^bs-.S13 00 
Pio'd Herr'g.bx.. 3 00 (3 3 50 

NAI1,S. 
Assorted size. lb. 5 3'1'AW 50 

OILS. 
Pacific Olne Co. 
Neat F't No. 1. — @1 00 

Pure 

Castor Oil, No. 1. 
do do No.2. 

Oocoanut 

Olive Plagniol. 
do Possel... 

Palm ft. 

Linseed, raw — — 

do boiled 

China nut in OB.. — 
Sperm, crude. .,. — 
do bleached..! 90 
Coast Whales... il^iL 
Polar, refined.... — (g) 60 

Lard 1 30 ®1 15 

«;oal, refined Pet 40 ® — 

Oleophine — W) 24 

Devoe's Bril't... 25 10 '28 

Long Island — ^ ^^ 

Knraka — (St — 

Devoe's Petro'm — @ — 
Barrel kerosene — O — 



Olive — @3 50 

Downer Kerose'e — & 3Ti 

Gas Light Oil... - W '26 

PAINTS. 

.Atlan. W.Lead. — ® 10'.., 

— — (3),13>4lWhiting — ® 2 

9'^— ®ll'<; Putty 4 (g 6?4 




12 

119 50 
(815 .50 
®2 80 



Chalk — ® 2ii 

Paris White iH® — 

Ochre ^ S * 

Venetian Red... 3!i3 5 

Red Lead 7 @ 11 

Litharge 10 ® U 

Eng. Vermillion 2 00@2 10 

RICE. 

China No. 1, 11 lb 6;,.'^ Ii^ 

do 2, do. 6 (o) 6!ii 

lapan 6 @ 7 

Siam Cleaned. .. " ® ~ 

^atna 6 @ 6'^ 

lawaiian 714® 8 

larolina 10 IS loy, 

8AI.T. 

Jal. Bav.perton 10 00®13 00 

dolOommon.. 5 00®10 Oo 

Carmen Island.. ®14 00 

Liverpool fine.. '23 00.324 OO 

do ooarse'20 00® 

SOAP. 

Castile fl lb 10 @ 13 

Local brands 5 ® 1(^ 

SPICF.S. 

Cloves 60 @ .55 

Oissia 26 Si 2T 

Citron 33 ® 3.5 

Nutmeg I '20 (31 30- 

Whole Pepper... 21 ® 23 

Pimento — S L51^ 

(Ir'nd Allspprdz — @1 K'i 

do Cassia do.. — @1 .50 

do Cloves do.. — Si .W 

do Mustard do — ®1 20 

do Ginger do.. — ®1 OO 

do Pepper do.. — @1 00 

lo Mace do.. . — ®2 00 

SUeAR, ETC. 

(Jal. Cube per lb., ll.'-i® — 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bbloriOOlbbxs — @ II?. 

do in .50 lb bxs.. — m 12 

do in '25 lb bis. — (3 >i'/. 

'ircle A crushed — @ 11'^ 

Powdered — ® Hf. 

Fine crushed... — (51 11,K 

adulated — ® ll!< 

Dolden O — 'S lU 

Hawaiian 8 0i lI5 

California Beet. lOJ^® »1> 

Oal. Syrup in Is. — a 67> 

dj in 'i bis. — ® 7» 

do in kegs.. — ® 75 

Hawaiian Molas- 



Wednesday M., Jan. l3, 1875. 
California Eggs are rating much lower than las 
week's figures, being now reported at 45 cts. Leg Mut- 
ton has risen, best quality being now rated at 2 cts 
Salmon are lower. Dry Codfish show a marked a d 
vance. 

POCI.TRlr. OAME. 
Spring Chickens .50 @ 75 

Hens 75 (Oil no 

- ~ ■ " S - 

@ 40 



Choice D'meld . .18 (3 2-2 
FISH. MEATS, ETC. 



75 




Flounder, ^ ft... 

Salmon. 11 lb Vmiaj 

Smoked — 

Pickled. » lb.. 5 
do Spr'gp'kl'd — 
Salmon bellies 
Rock Cod, 1* lb.. 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 

Jo fresh 

Perch, 8 water, lb 

Fresh water, lb 

E^ke Big. 'Prout* 

Smelts.large^lb 

Small Smelts 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Pilchards, ■#! lb.. 
Tomood, ^ lb — 
Terrapin, K doz. 4 OO 
Mackerel, p'k, ea I2'i2(m 
Fresh, do &> ... — ® 
Sea Bass, 11 lb... - ® 

Halibut 62 '2 3 

Sturgeon, 1* lb.. 5 ® 

Oysters, 11 100... 1 00 ® 

Ohesp. 11 doz.. 5« ® 

Clams ^ 100 — (A 

Mussels do - ® 

Turbot - fa) 

Crabs 1* doz....l 0« 
do Soft Shell. 35 

Shrimps 10 

Sardines 10 

Anchovies 10 (j 

Soles 37.'^'( 

YoungTrout.bay 75 
^oung Salmon.. — 
Salmon Trout eal 00 

Skate, each 25 

Whitebait, 1* lb.. — 
Orawfi.-.h 1* lb.. 
Green Turtle., 
do * lb 



Eggs Cal 45 

do Eastern.... 30 

do Ducks' — 

do Farallolles. — @ — 

Turkeys, 1ft lb, . '20 ® 25 

Ducks, large, pr.l 00 @2 00 

do small, pr. 37'2'S 50 

Tame, do 1 .50 @2 00 

Teal, ea '25 ® 

Geese.wild, pair. 75 ®1 00 
Tame, v> pair.. 3 .50 @4 00 
Snipe, 11 doz ...2 01 ©2 50 
do English.. 2 50 @3 00 
Quail, per dozen2 25 ®2 50- 
Prairie Ch'k's,ea — @ — 
Pigeons, per pr. . 50 ® 75 

Wild, doz — ®2 09 

Squabs, doz... 4 00 @4 ,50 
Bares, each ... 37'^(; 
Rabbits, tame,ea 50 '< 
Wild, do, H dzj 00 j 

Squirrels oa 10 ( 

Beef, tend, 11 lb. - i 

Corned, ^ lb.. 8 ^ 

Smoked,* lb.. 10 i 

PorterHouseSt'k — 1 

Sirloin do 15 ( 

Round do 8 ( 

Pork, rib, etc., lb — 1 
Chops, do, ll lb 15 I 

Veal.^ lb 12X1 

Outlet, do 16 ( 

Mutton-chop»,Ib IS L 
LegMutt,in,l> J) 12)^® 

Lamb, V ft 10 "" 

Venison 15 

Tongues, beef, .. 60 
do, do, smoked 75 
Tongues, pig, tt) 12H 
Bacon, Cal., V lb 18 
Hams, Cal, 1»B). 16 
Hams, Cross' a 12M 

FRU1T8. VB«KTABI.ES. ETC. 
The Call of the 9th inst. says: "For the first time in 
three years Green Peas are out of market. The un. 
precedented period of cold weather and frosty nights 
has finally put an end to the supply of Green Peas, 
String Beans and Tomatoes and materially curtailed 
receipts of Mushrooms." We note but little change in 
the prices of Fruits and Vegetables in market. Oranges 
are somewhat lower for best quality. Eastern Chest- 
nuts have risen 5c. 

Lady Apples 1* lbl2>^'a) 20 |Oabbagej,per hd.. 10 @ 20 
Apples, pr lb 6 LO) 10 



®l '25 
® 40" 
® - 




Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

iCorrected Weekly by Chablks Sutro £ Co.] 

Sah Francisco, Thdrsday, Jan. 14, 1876. 

Legal Tenders in S. F., 11 a. m., 89 to 89'4. 

Gold Bars, 880. Silver Bars, 3 per cent, discount, 
.Mexican Dollars, l^and 2 per cent, discount. 

Exchange on N. Y., 6-10 per cent, premium for gold; 
Currency, 15 per cent. On London— Bankers, 49l.ii : Cora- 
mercial, 50. Paris, 5 francs per dollar. 

London— Consols, 92,'^ to 22%; Bonds. 907i; Liverpool 
Wheat 98. 7d.to 10.i. 6d. 

Quicksilver in S. F., by the flask, per fti, $1.60 



25 @ 




TEA. 

Oolong,Cauton,lb 19 (^ 2& 

do Amoy... 28 S 5» 

do Formosa 40 ® 80 

Imperial, Canton 25 @ 4& 

do Pingsuey 46 (& SO 

do Moyune . 60 @1 06 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 30 @ 42!* 

do Pingsuey 50 © 90 

do Moyune. 65 ^l 25 

Y'ngHy., Canton 28 (a) 40 

do Pingsuey 4«> (al 70. 

do Moyune.. 65 ^ 85 

Japan, H chests, 

bulk 3a @ 7S 

Japan, lacquered 

bx3,4Hand5 1bs 4S. m 6? 

Japan no, 3 lb bxs 45. ® 90. 

do pl'nbx.U^lb S6> ® 65 

do SjAl lb paper 30 ® 55 
TOBACCO— .»4rt»l»tnis- 



Bright Navys.... 


80 ® W 
.50 ® .5» 


Dark do 


[)wa. f Twist 


m (^ 75- 


12 inch do — 


60 m 75 

70 @ 80- 


Light Pressed... 


Hard do 


5t' m 60 


3onn. Wrap'r.... 


35 ® 40 


Penn. Wrappur. . 


20 S 4.5 


Ohio do 


15 ® '20 


Virgi'aSniok'g. . 


45 ® 75 


Fine ot ohe'g,^r. 


8 50 ®9 2» 


Fine cut chew- 




ing, buc'ts.H lb 


..75 @ 90 
9 00(®^9 25 


Banner flae cut. 


Eureka Cala 


- ®9 00 


TCRPKNTINB. 


Eastern 


5t — 



Pears, per lb 8 ® 12^ 

Aorioots, fi) — ® — 

Peaches, D) '- (S — 

Plums — 13 — 

Pin6Apples,each 75 Ml 00 

Crab Apples — @ — 

Grapes — @ n 

Bananas, 5^ doz. . 50 ® i5 

Musknielons ... — @ — 

Watermelons... — @ — 

.ilackbernes — @ ~ 

do wild... — @ rr 

Cal. Walnuts, lb. - M 20 

Green Almonds. ~ ® — 

Oranber'e8,Or.,g 50 ® 60 

do Easlern 75 ® 85 

Huckleberries.. — @ "7 

Strawberries, lb — ® 40 

Chili Stra'berries — (S) — 

Raspberries. lb.. — ® — 

Gooseberries' — ^ ~ 

Currants — A — 

do Black — @ — 

Cherries, 1% 'b... — i^ — 

Nectarines — ® — 

Oranges,H doa.. 6« (^ 75 

Quiooes r^ *^,Z, 

Lemons 'f> JJll 60 

Limes, per do?... 25 @ 3» 

Kigs.dried Cal. . Wim 25 

Figs, fresh ~ ® 7^ 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 25 (a so 

Asparagus, ».. «fl @ J» 

Artichokes, doz. 4" 0r In 

do Jerusalem.. — @ A9 

Beets, Titdoz 29 ® 2/ 

Potatoes, 1< lb '^ ^ i 

Potatoes, sweet.. 3 @ o 

Broccoli, each.. '20 (41 25 

Oaulitlower, . .. i\ U 25 



ICabbage, per hd.. 10 _ 
Oyaier Pfant.bn H'iai 



Carrots, IB doz. . — 

Celery,^ dz 65 

Cucumbers, doz. — 

romatoes, ^ lb.. — 

Green Peas — 

String Beans ... — 

Egg riant, lb.... — 

Cress, 11 doz nun 20 

Onions 3 

Turnips, 11 doz 

bunches 20 

Brussels Sprouts 12. 

Eschalots — 

Dried Herbs, doz 30 

Garlic 1» lb '20 

Green Corn. doz. 
Lettuce. 1ft do/... 
Mint. 1* bunch. 

Mushrooras, tt ft) 12' 

Horse radish>,lb 15 

Okra, dried, 1* B) 40 

do frssh, ^ tt) — 

Pumpkins. V lb. 2' 

Parsnips, doz — 20 

Parsley 20 

Pickles, fwh.l*lb — 

Radishes, doz.. 20 

Sage — 

Summer Squash — 

Marrowfat, do — 

Hubbard, do — 

LimaBe.ins.fr'sh — 

do fresh shelled — 

do dry shelled — 
I Butter Beans ... 
ISpinage, It bskt. 

Rhubarb 

Green Chilies. . 

do Dry 

\Sa»t Chestnute . 



30 




"Rural" Facts. 

The RnaAL a high priced paper I— is it ? Not much ! 
Let us consider the matter a moment. 

Most agricultural papers space their lines out with 
leads. The Bubal is made mostly " solid." This 
gives it nearly one-third more lines. 

Again, many rural journals contain more than one- 
half advertising. The Rdbal runs regularly about one- 
half that amount, or one-fourth advertising matter. 

Again, it contains more original agricultural matter 
more original domestic and farming correspondence, 
matter more condensed and carefully prepared and at 
greater expense than any other agricultural issue pub- 
lished in the United States. 

Again, it is illustrated with a greater number of in- 
fieresting and instructive engravings (greatly more ex- 
pensive to publishers than reading matter) than can 
be found in any other agricultural weekly in the 
Union . 

Again, the Rural inserts no quack advertisements; 
humbug, enticing, immoral advertisements. 

Again, by producing on this coast, for the benefit o 
all on this coast, so good a paper for our limited popu- 
lation, is it not comparatively cheap? 

Again, would the class of readers who take the Rural 
Pbess prefer a paper at half the price of the P.ural 
with its advertising columns filled with quack adver- 
tisements? with intriguing, debasing notices and 
shrewd dodges? or its reading columns profusely inter- 
spersed with wily paid puffs? We think noti We know 
you would not! We have not made money out of the 
Rural Press. We hope it will pay well eometime in 
the future. But it will not be from doubtful advertise- 
ments, paid pnffs, contracted and eareless editorial 
work. Unscrupulous publishers make the most 
money on cheap subscription and reckless advertising 
sheets; but are they the best, or really the cheapest 
papers for patrons to spend their time in reading? 



GUADALUPE ISLAND COMPANY. 

Notice is hereby given that the annual meeting of 
the stockholders of the QUAD ALUPE ISLAND COM- 
PANY will be held at its olHce, 306 Pine Street, San 
Francisco, on Saturday, January 30th, 1875, at 3 p. m. 
WM. M. LANDRUM, President. 

ARTHUR RODGEBS, Secretary. 



JOHN H. HEGLER, 

N08. 412 and 414 Sansome Street, S. F. 

Grangers' 
D AIRY PRODUCE 

—and — 

COMMISSION HOUSE, 

HAS EVERY FACILITT FOB SELLINS 

BUTTER, CHEESE, 

POULTRY, EGGS«, 

LABD, HAMS, 

HIDES. BAOON. 

WOOL, PELTS, 

POTATOES, 

DRIED & CANNED FRUIT, HONEY, Etc. 



BETTER THAN MINING STOCK. 

A valuable Patent for sale. No objection to taking 
real estate in part payment. Realdence, Washington 
street on the levee. P.O., Sacramento. 

jan2 bp-tf 



O, A. DAVIS. 



Woodward's Gabdens embraces an Al""'""' "" 
seum. Art Gallery, OonservatorleB, Tropical Hoiisea 
menaeerie Seal Ponds, and Skating Rink. 



46 



[January i6, 1875. 



Agricult ural Ar ticles. 

THE CALIFORNIA HARROW, j 

— MANUrACTWKKD BY 1BX— J 

Kimball Car and Cairiag^ 
Manufacturing Company, 

Oor. Bryant and Fourth sts., San Iranciscoi 



Patent, First Premium Windmills & Horse Powers, 
W. I. TUSTIN, Patentee. 

Pioneer and Largest Manufacturer of Machinery (In this 
linft) on the Pacific Coayt. 

FACTORY, Corner Market and Beale Streets, 

SAN iRANCISCO. 
tT" Send for Circular and Price List.'^B 





IN THE FIELD. 

The California Harrow, lareP niinrticrs of 
■which wp are now imikinH, both of wood ami tiibula* I 
ron, bas seven diKtinct snd. well defined improvement i 
p.isH.BHeil by no other Harrow, each of which save* 
oth time and labor; 

l-jusT Thin Harrow has an easy seat and three wheels, 

all attached to the central section, on which the driver 
rides and manages the Harrow and team with ease and 
comfort. 

Second— By means of but three levers the driver in 
his seat on the Harrow can raise the Harrow and himl 
self on the wheels, and trot to and from the field, and 
without leaving his seat can let the sections down and 
proceid witli his work. 

THrRi>— By the nse of but one lever convenientlj 
situated at the right side, the driver in his seat, and 
without stopping his team, can recuUle the deptti of 
the Harrow teeth in the ground, and can set them deei 
or shallow, as the conditions of the soil require. Thii 
meets a demand for harrowing Alfalfa or small graiuj 
n the spring. 

FoUKTH— This Harrow is made in three sections, con* 
nected by loose hinges. The driver, as he moves alnaj 
on the field, can raise any one '-f the sections, and pasg 
a tree or stump, or otiier obstacles, without interfering 
with the work of the other two sections. 

Fifth— B.v the use of a-braee made of a board but t 
feet long aiiil Ux* inches, let on ihe top.s of tlje levers 
of the willies, this can be made a ttilT narrow, and tha 
driver by lowering tint lever at his right can throw hit 
weiglit and that of ; he wheels and extra fixtures on 
and off at his pliu sure. 

Coniplelo work can be done up to and all around 
trees, without changing the course of the team. 

We build these Harrows of wood and tubular iron, 
making beautiful and very powerful Harrows, unaft'ecli- 
ed by exposure to the weather. 

We have any number of letters in praise of these 
Harrows from farmers who liave put them to practical 
use. 



RT'RKKA. 

We have made the man- 
ufaiture of Pumping Ma- 
chinery a specialty for th« 
past twenty-four years in 
California. Recelvad all 
the First Premiums 
awarded by the Meehan- 
ics' Institute for the past 
seven years, iu oar li^e. 

Our Windmills are pre- 
ferred by the great Rail- 
road Companies of this 
cast, and are in general use along their line, giving perfect satisfaction, which can be proved by reference. 

av7-iam 



EAOI..E-For Oae or Two Horse*. 




ON XUli liUxiD. 

The K(MBAI..L 00. are the owners and sole manu- 
fa-turers of the celebrated IMPROVEO EAGLE HAY 
PUE83, wliich has become so popular the past few 
Tears. For further Information send for circulars. 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 



Y <> XJ 



TO XUI6E LAROE CBOrS 



T X 



To irrigate succesefally, you ma^t, have the power that 
does not give uut when the wind fails. 

Lanfkotter Bros. & Chnrchmatf s Horse-Power, 




[V \ ! KOART Uth, l-fT2.1 

Never fails to . . v\at€r than lour or five Wind- 

mitW, even suip-.-nK ^ '»'; ha.l all the wind you want. It is 
al-;o suuitlik' (i.rrunnini; I'cht machinery, such as Barley 
Orackere. (y'om bhelUr?^. Kannini; Mills, (irain S«- pa raters, 
or. for SawiiiK Wootl. They an- never failing, cannot get 
GUI ot ordttr^eyily worked, subtstantial, and alway.> kiva 
satisfaction wtwrevei' tliey have been nsed. One htir-e can 
easily work two H-inch pump-J. with a continuous How of 
wftt«r. Krttce Pnmps. trim 3.("J0 to 10,* W eallons per hour. 
WIN'DMiM.Sni all kinds niantitaetured to onler. Wells 
Borpd, Winilmilla and Horse-Powers set in any pan <>f tlie 
Stale, and rt-patrinj; .'f all kinds done. 
< ManiifactuRid anfi ftir sale by 

LAUFKO^TER BROS.. 

40or. •) and 10th SiM., Sacrammto. 



'^*f:«PL. 



f^armers and Thi-ewliert* 

WISHINQ TO HAVB 

STRA.W BURNING- ENGINES 

For next season must engage them soon, as most of 
those now building are already sold. Thres Ing En- 
gines for Repairs should be sent in now. A number of 
»"Cond-baud Kuglues— taken in exchange for "!5traw 
Burners"— for sale cheap. For particulars and prices, 
add'ess: H. W. BICE, 

'iuvg.Sm Haywood, Alamsda Oountj', 




THE BIRMINGHAM SHOVEL. 
These Shovels have No Rivets nor Straps. 



The blade i« made of one piece of BEST SOLID CAST STEEL, 
the blade and shank being one pi^ce. 

TBEY WILL WEAR TWICE AS LONG 

As the ordinary shovel. They are the STRONGEST, BEST and 
CHEAPEST SHOVEL EVER MADE. Examine the engravings cars- 
fully and you can see how thsy are mads. 

THEY NEED ONLY TO BE TRIED 

To prove their value. SG^Priees same as ordinary shovels. Afk 
for the lilRMlNClHAM SHOVKL. Take no other. 

TREADWELL 6t CO., Sole Agents for Pacific States. 
2v8-eow-l)p San Francisco, Cal. 




MANTFACTUKKB OP 

FRENCH BURR MILL STONES AND 
PORTABLE MILLS. 




General Mill Furnishing. Portable Mills specially 
adapted for Farmers' use. 113 and 115 Mission street, 
San Francisco. 13v7-3m-2ain 



8. 0. BOWI.*'- 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers, aixl Rf anulivoHircrs 

—or— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 merchant's EzchanKo. 

CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANOI.SCO 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Truck and 
Koad Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular atteution to our fine stock 
of light Koad and Trt>tting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Heliield & Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, I)olaware; 

And the first-class niskers, which we are prepared to 
sel] on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double F*«r- 
nes(, of the most celebrated makers: 

C. Oraham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
fe Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO <i BOWLET, 
No, 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

34v5-3ai San Franolsco. 



THE CALIFORNIA SCRAPER, 

— VAM) 1 . I 'Jl ) ) 1 11 ■. ) 1 - 

Kimball Car & Carriage ManTg Co. 

COR. FOURTH .<: BRYANT STS., 8. F. 




THE CAL.irO±iNIA SCRAPER. 

This Scraper has been long needed in many depart- 
ments of labor. Heretofore all classes of Scrapers have 
imposed immecse labor and hardships on the driver, 
but this one is so constructed as to give him a plMce to 
ride, and yet manage the team and Bcrax>er with esse 
in all classes of work. 

The driver can throw his weight in front, and force 
the Scraper into the soil, and when he has gathered his 
load and driven to the place of deposit, he can throw 
his weight on the rear part of the platf<jnu and leave 
the li>ad all iu one place, or deposit it gradually, as the 
case may require, leaving the ground smooth and level. 

This impr<)vement is well adapted to leveling all 
irregulnritii s on the surface of the soil where parties 
are preparing to irrigate. 

For making roa<ls, removing dirt from ditches, clean- 
ing up barn yards or sheep corrals, it has no equal. 

The KIMBALL CO. are sole owners and manufac- 
turers of the celebrated IMPROVED EAGLE HAY 
PRESS, also the California Harrow. For further inlor- 
mation send for circular. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long In the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
iu the world. Send for circular to 



14va-»m 



UATTESON h WILLIAHBON, 
StscktoD, Osl. 



THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the great<st improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating grain, while it combines all the 
essential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been Invented for the sepa- 
ration of grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the dilferent kinds of mixed grain. It takes out Mua. 
tard. Grass Seeds, Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of Wheat if desired. 
For further information, apply to 



lOvS-eow-Sm 



R. STONE, 

422 Battery street, 8. F. 



THE TREADWELL SULKY 




GANG PLOW. 

Improved for 1874, with BLAf-'K HAWK Plow 
Bottoms, is the best GANG- PLOW in the world. 
It is Simple, Strong and Dnrabia, and dues it-s work 
effi-ctually. Ihis high wheels, running b<ith on un- 
plowed land; iron axle, wrought iron beams, and is 
built nearly all of iron and steel. No farmer should neg- 
lect to see it before buying. Send for descriptive circular 
and price. We h.ive also the " VICTOR GANG," with 
hard wood beams and heavy east iron stamlards; price, 
$75. Also the "GOLDEN STATE GANG," with all 
iron beams; price $7,'>. " PFIEL'S GANG," improved; 
price 550; old style. $25. The largest and l)est slock of 
Plows, H«rrowB, Cultivators, Grain Drills, Se«d Sow- 
ers, Farm Wagons, etc., in the country, 

TREADWELL & CO., 

isvt-if San Francisco 



Flows 



a@-Black Hawk, 
Collins, 
"Jones," 
Peoria, 



Of all kinds and sizi s. The largest stock ever offered 
in California; all NKW and just received, at low prices. 
Also, Cultivators, Harrows, Seed-Sowers, etc. Sold by 

TREADWELL & CO., San Francisco. 

»-8end for Price List. ISvS-tf 



Notice— To Tule Land Owners. 

I am manufacturing a Gang Plow specially adapted 
to ploughing Tule Lands. Address 

Vallejo Foundry, J. L. Heald, Prop., 

lav29.3m VALLEJO, CAL 



POISON ! 



POISON 



WAKELEES PATENTED 

Granulated Squirrel Exterminator. 

A NEW AND MOST DESTRUCTIVE POISON FOB 
THE WORST PEST OF CALIFORNIA. 

For years the farmers of the Pacific Coast have been 
spending nu>uey In experimenling to find a safe, cheap 
anri efficient way of ridding their grain fields of their 
worst enemy, thk ayiinREi.s, which destroy Millions of 
Dollars' worth of grain every year; and unless a strong 
»nd comf/i'ned effort Is made to kill them off, they will 
become more numerous every year. 

Wakelee's Granulated Squirrel Exterminator 

Is just the thing the farmers of California have been 
lookint; for. It is stjre de4Th. One or two grains of 
it will kill a Squirrel so quick that if it is five feet 
from his hole it dies before It gets there. The Poison 
is put up DRY and in granular form, and ossily han- 
dled; iu one pound tins at $1 per pound. It goes a 
great way, as 10 to 1!> grains of it are safflclent to 
place at each hole. Also successfully used for killing 
Gophers and Kats. It has been thoroughly tested in 
diflerent parts of the country, and gave universal satis- 
faction. It is kept and sold by druggists and dealers 
generally through the country. The following are 
some of my testimonials, viz: 

Santa Ci.ara, April 20th, ISTl. 
II. P. Wakelkr. Esq :— Year Sqmrrel Kiterminalor was 
used according to your directions, on my ^"i/o funn with 
excellent success, and in my e-timation is Just the thing 
the fariusra waiA to kill their Squirrels. 

J. R. Abuuells. 

Ran Leandro, Cal., April 3d. 1874. 
H. P. Wakelrk, Esq.— 7>'(o- .str: I liave given your 
SQUirrel Exterminator a lair trial an4 find it to be aa 
economical and very destructive preparation, and 1 oaa 
safely recommend it to our farmers. \ourB, 

J. M. ItorcDrLLo. 

DoDOHBilTT Statiok, Alameda Co.. Cal. 
Mr. H. p. Wakeler, San Francisco: I have used your 
8>iuirrel Poison and (oand it to be Just what 7on claim for 
It. It Is sure death. Yours. O. M. DouoBERTT. 

H. P. WAXELBE, DrugTBrist, 
Oor. Montgomery and Bush streets, 8. F. 



Geo. W. Chapin, Real Estate Arent, 434 

Montgomery St., San Franolsco. bavH and 8«I1b Ranches 
in all parti of the State. (^Ity Real Estate axchanged for 
Csu»tr»Proper*|- . MSNET LoaKED. Post UScc Box 1 I'M 



January i6, 1875.] 



Live Stock Notices. 




We respectfully invite tbe attention ol wool growers 
to our fine stock of Cotswool Sheep and Angora Goats. 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from; 
we have some of the linest Goats in America; we 
guarantee everything we sell to be as represented; our 
prices are as low as auy in America for tke same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, 

13v7-eow-tf Watsonville, Cal. 



B.W. Owens, San Francisco. | E. Moobe, Stockton, Ca) 



Nurserymen. 




O TV^ E IV !*i &. IWCOOIIE, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

DEA1.EB9 IN 

WOOL, HIOES, PELTS AND GRAIN. 

Office— 405 Front street, S. F. Uv7-;im 



EtBta.1>lisliecl 1S33. 

Stocks for Nurserymen. 



Plum Seedlings, Mirobolan, the best French 

stock, does not sucker $50 per 1000 

Apple Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 10 per 1000 

Cherry Seedlings, Mazzard 12 per 1000 

Cherry SeedJinga, Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Walnuts, English, 4 to 6 feet 15 per 100 

Cork Elm, best Elm, 4 to 6 feet 15 per 100 

Blue Gum or Eucalyptus, in variety 5 to 10 per 100 

Magnolia Grandiflora I 

Magnolia Acuminata 

Magnolia Tripetela 

Golden Arborvi taa [ LARGE STOCK 

Cnitagus Arbona ( 

Swedish Juniper 

Irish Juniper 

Heath-leaved ArborvitiB 

Heath, Mediterranean $2 50 per doz 

Lauristiuus, 6 to 12 in 2 60 per doz 

Making the growth of Oranges and Lemons a special- 
ty, I have imported from all sources the best known 
viirieties, arid now offer five thousand Grafted Trees 
properly worked and twice transplanted at il8 per 
dozen. Graf ed oranges by the 100 or 1,000 at prices on 
application. The amateur in want of large PALMS, 
large AUBICAEIAS, large CAMELIA8 and large TREE 
FERNS, a good stock on hand; also the usual large 
stock of fruit and ornamental trees. 

BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

TH08. MBHERIN, Agent, 516 Battery Street, San 
Francisco. 2J,y83m. 

The Au^hinbaugh Blackberry 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 



OAKLAND, 



OAL. 



Established 1852. 



More largely stocked this year than auy prevfous 
year. Embracing all and every kind of 

FRUIT, DECIDIJOUS, ORNAMENTAL AND 

FLOWERING TREES AND 

PLANTS, ETC. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List free on appli 
cation. 

• W. F. KELSEY, Prop. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



REEDVILIvE HERD. 

PROPRIETOR, 
S. O. REED. - - Portland, Oregon. 

I have for sale, Shorthorns of the most approved 

and iabUlUl*..Vl- e^r^iM^m nn^cnaa ♦t^<na arW » row ..r.o 

year old Bulls of great merit, the produce of Cows 
imported direct from England, and sired by the 
renowned Mantalini bull, GOVERNOR GENERAL, 
10,166, A.H.B., Vol. X, pl75. Alsoir. hand, 

AYRSHIRE CATTLE, 

COTSWOLD AND 

LEICESTER SH^lEP, 

AN» BEJlKSHIRE PIGS, 

of the highest standarS. For particulars apply to 

S. G. HEED, Portland, Oregon, 

r- WM. WATSON, HillsborJ, Oregon. 
lvQ-9w-tf. 




This new and excellent variety of Blackberries, 
are ready for martet from the first to the fifteerth 
of Miiy, and continue to produce berries until the mid- 
dle of July, about the time other varieties begin 

'" ■■'»«"■ , .. -na lor sale 

Plants are now ready for transplan^- ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^ 



23v8.tf 



O. AUOHINBAUGH. 



SHINN'S NURSERIES, 



I^II^aS' JtTNCTIOIisr, 



U. S. LIVE STOCK EXCHANGE, 

Mf^ft-^ Fresh Milch Cows ai,^-.^'""'"; **r^,-^ 
Saddle, Work and CaiTiage Hrj,,j,B(.,,^. rouglj 
Duriiams and Devons; P"™ R^;^^.„am, j, "e ^^^ 
Thoroughbred Cotswold, So--^^ coirufssion or^'^^'ght 
Spanish Merino Sheep, s;- pj^-wfN & BApl'OFT 



Alameda e"nty, 



California. 



FOR SA^- 



A pair of thoroughbred C^ tr ^hit^^Hogs, 
one year oM; jjayidJauta Clara Oo„'oal. 



^ T „v. ^Tiofnnr"' '"""^'"'fi'^fi yearsoW. 
Two fine Jacks one four ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^^ 

large and V'^<='y ^'"^f. ^Vstok of the kind in the 
Kentvicky Jmnctts, the i> g (, eppeRSEN 

State. Address „, Valey, Colusa County, Cal. 



Ff 



SALE. 



HOMESTEAD^^ ^RUIT ORCHARD 

, . . ilei from Stockton, containing 
About thirty-five •> 

. 1, I good house of eight rooms, 
three acres of 

. Toitwo hundred fruit trees all in 
good well, etc 

; sich as Peach, Pear, Apricot, Ap- 
flne bearing < 

„, , Ganges. A fine chance and a good 

pie, Plum, 7 

,. 1 „ »l,a)0. Title perfect. Apply to 
market. Pr 

1 GEO. W. CHAPIN, 

Montgomery street, S. F., or this OfBce. 



HAPE VINES FOR SALE. 



ad buttings of the best foreign varieties in 

Bqt, it ten to twelve dollars for the former and 

lotiave doUars lor the latter. Thirty th<«i6and 

tht_ iLuscat, Alexandria, &c. Orders solicited 

roc 

e» H. W. CRABB, 

W •akville, Kapa «•., Cal. 



The ''"Won of persons intending to set out Trees 

is rcqv ^"' ''° *''" '"'"l' grown and large variety oflfered 

for »r\: 'y "^® undorsigued at the abt)ve Nurseries 

An f<-"'jDn''OD of our stock will satisfy any one of ti>J 

'JiU ' 'S "■^^ "'"•* i^au be aeied, and when the i«w 

^8 we have fixed are taken into consideration, we 

,iieve we are offering the very best inducement.'' for 

uyers to deal with us. For full particulars w* refer 

o our circular for the approaching season, whiJh will 

be sent, as requested, on application to either of the 

undersigned. SHINN & CO., 

Proprietors. 
Address James Shinn, Niles, Alameda County, Cal., 
or, Dr. J. W. Clark, 418 California street. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 8vl7-4mo. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 
M EVERGREEN TREES M 

— AND — 

Plants for SsJale- 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets, 
directly opposite Post Office, San Francisco. 

I NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Largrest and Best Collection of Fruit 

Shade and Evergrre-^a Trees and Plants 

ever offered in this market, and at 

Reduced Prices. 



Encourage home industry and make a 
saving of at least 30 per cent. 

If you want Seed that you can depend upon as to 
variety and freshness, why not send your orders 
direct to the grower and make a saving of at least 
thirty per cent, on the prices of other seedsmen. 
Send for catalogue, free, post-paid, and compare with 
prices of other dealers. Just received. 
Grasses, Clover, Alfalfa and Field Seeds, 
Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Shrubs, 
Flowering Shrubs, and Green-, 
house Plants. Cabbage, 
Onion and Cauli- 
ilower Plants. 
Large assortment of Bulbs from Holland. Address 
all orders or letters of inquiry, to 

SEVIN VINCENT, 
607 Sansoma street. Sen Francisco, Cal 
22v8-3m 



Persons laying out new grounds would do well to 
call and examine our stock before purchasing else- 
where 

ORDERS FROM THE COUNTRY 

Promptly attended to and packed with great care 
A Urge stock of Cypress, Pines and Blue Gums for 
sale verj low. Send for Price Catalogue. 

Agent for B. S- Fox's Nurseries, San Jose 
Address 

THOMAS MEHERIN 

S. F 



P. O. Box, 722, 



516 Battery St 



SUPERIOR vnviT TREES 

TltXJIi: To wABUE. 

A fine collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Aust'Alian tJum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or th»us'"id. Monterey Cypress in quan- 
tities and si-ef to suit all. Orange and Lemon 
Trees at rtdi>^ed prices. A general variety of Nursery 

stock. 
Also. E)<ibarb an*" Asparagus roots. 




18v2' 



J 



T. CORLEY, 
315 Washington Street, S. F. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

Saix Jose, C«.H*«riiJa. 

We offer this ««ason a Complete Stock of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

. SMALL FRUITS AND PLANTS. 

The attention of Dealers, Nurserymen and Planters 
ia invited to our Large Stock of Fruit Trees. 

All Leading Market Varieties are grown in large quan- 
tities To all those purchasing largely we will make a 
Liberal Discount. 

Catalogues FKEE on application. 

23.v3-tf . JOHN BOCK, San Jose, Cal. 



ALMOND TRE;ES. 



35,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees, 

one and two years old from the bud. This is the only 
Almond planted on a large scale, being hardy, late 
blooming, beautiful tree It bears the second year 
from planting. The Almond is large and sweet with 
soft shell. Also, two year old Peach and English Wal- 
nut trees. Liberal terms to the trade and persons 
planting large orchards. Send orders to 

W. W. BRIER, 

21v8-3m Ccnterville, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Peaches, Apricots and Priuies arc specialties 
at the Vacaville Nursery, Solano County. (Jalif 



Aleiander'.s Early, Thuiber and Peento in bud. .'lO cents 
each , Beatrice, Louise, Rivers' Early, Lord i'jilniers'on. 
Lady Palmerstcn, Prince of Wales, PrinceBs of Wales. Pic- 
quetV Ldte. Liidy Parhani. Italian Dwarf, Gulden Dwarf, 
Bloddleavtd and in. my other varieties of new Peaihes in 
iiud, at '2.^ ceni- eacli ; Tree^ of Alexander's Early, $1 each : 
Beatrice, Plowden, Freemason and a t'eneral aBQortrae't 
vif the leadin.; varielios, ■.;,, cents each; ApricotB, Plums, 
Apples, Pears. Cherries, Alniondfl, Figs, Olives, Pomegra- 
nates and including most of the Iftading varietie6 of fruit 
for 8al« at low priees. D. E. Uout;h. Vacaville, Solano 



TMOS. A.. OA-REY'S 

Semi-Tropical Nurseries. 

LOS ANGELOS, CAL. 

Forty varieties of the Citrus family of semi-trop- 
ical trees, including many rare and beautiful, as 
well as useful and profitable kinds. 

Grafted and Budded Orange Trees a spec- 
ialty. Trees packed to arrive in good order. 
Priced Catalogue sent free. Address me P. O. Bux, 
528, Los Angeles city, Cal. 

2.3v8-6m THOS. A. GAREY. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Fstablishe(?ln 1858.) 



PETALUMA, CAL. 



Green Houses and Tree Depot corner "Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 

i Green Houses. 3,000 feet of Glass- Fruit, Trees a 
Specialtv- 

We offer for sale nt lowest market rates a gener.-il .as 
sortment of Fruit and Shade trees, small Fruits, Vines 
etc. Evergreen trees and Shrubs in great variety. Green 
House, Con^-ervatory and Beddins Planta, Roses, etc. 

We ui e now ready, Nov. \)^t. to fill orders lou trees and 
plants. Catalo;^ue and price-list furnished on application. 



Address, 



19v8-tf 



"W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

Petaluma, Senoma Co., Cal. 



t!iO,000 

AUSTRALIAN G-UM TREES, 

rOR BALK AT THK CELEBRATED 

GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

Haywards, Alameda Co. 

Address 

JAMES T. STRATTON. 

No. 306 Pine street, over Pacific Bank, S. F. 
22v8-tf 

£:sta,V>llaili«d A. X>. 1S03. 

BAY J^URSERY, 

TELEGRAPH AVENUE, east bide. 

Nursery Depot, corner 13th St-, & Broadway. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 
JAMBS HUTCHISON, .... Proprietor 




My annual catalogue ui v gnable and Flower Seed 
for 1875, will be ready by Jan. 1st for all who apply. 
Customers of last season need not write for it. In it 
will be found several valuable varieties of new vegeta- 
bles introduced for the first time this season, having 
made new vegetables a specialty for many years. Grow- 
ing over a hundred and fifty varieties on my several 
farms, I would iiarticularly invite the patronage of 
market gardeners and all others who are especially 
desirous to have their seed pure and fresh, and of the 
very best strain. All seed sent out from my establish- 
ment are Covered by three warrants as given in my 
catalogue. 

JAMES J. H. GBEGORY, Marblehead, Mass 




I •will Bend 12 Flowering Plants for Onp Dollar 
( yonr chotop from 100 sorts), by MAIL O" K-XPRERS- 

*" =* MY ILLUSTRATE CATALOGUE, 

dcscribesthe— """^"f P'snt* * Se«d«, 
MH^M^iSi^^iM to cuK*"'"^''' free; othetfl. 30c. Addreit 
ffS^^O^TDjTCM, 646 Warren St., Boston, MaM. 



lotof f fon 

15 



A GOOD GARDEN 

Can not be had witliout GOOD SEED, anfl I have en- 
deavored in every way to make mine THE BEST. My 
GARDEN MANUAL, brieides containiuu the rfiost COM- 
PLETE TRUATTSE on Hot-l>ed.s evcrpuljlishcd, is FULL 
OF PBAOI'IdaL HINTS and LABOR-SAVING METH- 
ODS, learned in many veara' inarket-KardeninK. S<'nt lor 
two stamps. J. B. ROOT, Seed-Grower. llockford.IU. 



FLOWER 
SEEDS. 

VEGETABLE 
SEEDS. 



Spooner's Prize Flower Seeds, 
Spooner's BOSTON MARKET 

VEGETABLE SEEDS. 

Descriptive Priced Catalogue, 
with overlto illnstrations, mailed 
free to applicant. 

W. H. 8P00NER, Boston, Mass. 



WANTED. 

SWEET CLOVER, (Meliotus Alba,) about 500 pounds 
cured like hay. Anyone having ilio above article to 
the amount of 500 pounds, more or less, will please 
address the subscriber, who will purchase at remu- 
nerative ratcE. Address A. J. HATCH, 

2v9-lin Reno, Nev. 



AMERICAN SW^ET CHESTNUT TREES. 

Thirty Thousand American Sweet Chestnut Trees for 
ftle clienp, in lots to suit, at Room 32 Merchants' Ex- 
change, San Francisco, where samples may be seen. 
10" The trees are two years old, and in prime order- 
Will be delivered either in this city, Oakland or Sacra, 
mento. These trees are valuable for nuts, timber, 
shade trees or lawn trees; and are preferred by many to 
Uny of th« foreign varieti«». *' 



48 



BM^mtm 






[January i6, 1875. 



Ayerill Chemical Paint, 

Cal. Ohemieal Paint Co. 



P0EE WHITE, AND ANY 8HADE OB COLOR. 

This Paint is prepared in liquid form, READY FOR 
APPLICATION— requiring no tiiinner or dryer, and will 
uot Bpoll by standing any length of time. 

It in Cheapsr. more durable, more Elastic, and pro- 
duoee a m jre Beautiful Finish than the best oJ any 
other Paint. , _ . _,,, 

It win not Fade, Chalk, Orack, or Peel off, and will 
last twice as long as any other Paint. 

In ordering White, state whether for Outside or In- 
side use, as we manuticture an Inside White (either 
Flat or Gloss) for inside use, which will not turn yel- 
low, and produces a finish equal to the finest China 
Oloas. ^ . 

Put up in hi, a, 1,2 and 5 gallon packages, and in 
Barrels. Sold by the Gallon. 

HFor further information send for Sample Card and 
Price List, or apply to the manufactory and oflice, 

Cor. 4th and Townsend streets, S. F. 

TYLER BEACH. M. C. JEWEL!,, 



President. 

3T!^eow-bp-ly 



Secretary. 




AND EXPENSES. 



STUART & ELDER, 



WHOLESALE 



COMMISSIOiV MERCHANTS 



FOR THE SALE OF 



Men and Women Wanted 

TO 8KL.L, OCR 

K I IS O I K O IV - 

Four Oomplet* Irons In one. Circulars 
and UrmB sent free. Address 9. M. WOODS, 
No. 205 Sansome Street, S. F. 

•ystate. County and Town rights for sale. 



BELLE VIEW NURSERY 

Telegraph Avenue, Oakland. 



WE OFFEE FOR SALE THE PRESENT SEASON A 
L.\RaE ASSORTMENT OF 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs 

OF BEST TRIED VARIETIES. 

Many fine specimens of good size can be seen on the 
grounds to select from. Choice collections (true to 
name) put up for those starting a garden. 

Street cars pa88 eTery fifteen minutes. 



California Dairy Produce, 

GRAIN &. QUICKSILVER, 

204 Front Street, San Francisco. 

AGENTS FOR THE 

Missouri, 

Kentuck, 

Ida Clayton 
and Yellow Jacket 

Quicksilver Mines. 



All orders fo. supplies ana M.a..v,inery for 
Mines pr.mDtly attended to. 



RETORTS. POWDER and MINERS' TOOLS 



Supplied at Importers' Pric g. 
.3vl)-eow-bp 



3v9-tf 



8. NOLAN. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Cor. 16th & Oaetro Streets, 
Oakland. Oal. 

A choic* (election of Brahmai, 

Cochins, Hoadans, Games, Leghorns, 
BKutams, Bronie Turkeys, and Ducks 
■vmatantij on hand and for sale" 
at reasonable A ^«8_ Eggs guaranteed 
to be fresh, true to u,_„g ^nd to reach 
customers safely. Also t»„ TumorteJ Bronze Gobblers 
foriale; weight SSlbs; price Jfio e»ch. Send tor Il- 
lustrated Circular containing a full aeiicription of all 
the best known and most profitable fowls ia tto world, to 

OEO. B. BATLEY, 

20T8-*f P. O. Box 669, San Francisco. 




NEW CROP OF 



BLUE GUJM IMEED. 



CLOVER 



FLOWER A.Tsrr> 
VEGETA.JBLE 



TREE A.'PiJy 
F RXJIT 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS..: 
SEEDS. 



or EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OF THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED AT WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

SEEr>!!*M: AN , 



■24v8-tf 



No. 317 Wasblngrton Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



1874. GUIDE AND CATALOGUE 1875. 

Jj 1^ XC JtLj • 
To persons contemplating purchasing I will send 

my ILLOSTBATED, DESCRIPTIVK CATALOGUE and GtJIDE 

to the Vegetable and Flower Garden wrrHotrr 
CHARGE. It contains the most extensire and valuable 
list of 




~a 



SANBORN 



BYRNES. 





Flowering' Bulbs, Boots and Plants, Semi- 
Tropical Trees, Ornatnental Shrabs, Fruit 
and Shade Trees, etc.. ever offered In this market. 
It tells how to successfully grow the Australian 
Blue Gum, the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., and the proper method ot Cultivating- To- 
bacco on this Coast. 

a^My stock of Seeds is in part my own raising 
•nd in part direct importations from the best EUro- 
ptan and Eastern growers, and is unsurpas.sed in all 
respects by that offered by any other establishment. 

lCiO,000 Australian Blue Gums and Mon- 
1"B?)'C) "rilWess in boxes at from $30 to $50 per 

' ' ~' my own Nursery at han Rafael. 

" J. TBTJHBTTLL, 

Grower, Importer, ■Wholesale - , „ ^ ., „ , , 
Seeds, Shrnbs, Trees, ?<'t'"l Dealer in 

20y8-em-16p 427 Sansome strebv. g. ^, 

M. Ef JRE, Xapa,l Cal. ~~ 



M. FALLON, 



Cor, Seventh & Oak sts. 



OAKLAND, CAL. 

Light & Dark Brahmas, 
Buff, White and Par- 
tridge Cochins, 

Spangled, Golden and Silver Polish, 

Spangled, Galden and Silvfir Hamburgs, 
Pure White-faced B'jick Spanish, 
White and Brown Leghorns, 

Silver Grey Dorkiojrs, 
Houdans, Silkies, Black. Bed Games, 
Bronze Turkeys, Bouen and Aylesbiry Ducks. 

All from Premium Stock of Best Strains 

fnwlo of »bov« v:irieties for sile; aUo, Chicks \« their 
season. Eggs packed with care and sent i» rotattot. as 
orders are received. Ivy-lBp-tt 



Bronze Turkeys, 

Erabnas, 



LEGHORNS. 




Emden Geese, 
Eoudaiui 

OAUES. 



EEDEI^S' OlI^ECTOI^Y' 



Pasties desiring to purchase Livb-8tock will tind 
n. this dikectort the names of some of the most 
reliable breeders. 



OnR Rates.- Cards of six lines or leu will be Inserted 
in this directory at the rate of SO cenl« s line per month. 
Payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



W. L. OVERHISEB, Stockton, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal., breeder of Bbort-Hom Cattle and Berkshire 
Swine. 



J. D. CABR, Gabilan, Monterey Co., Oal., breeder 
of Trotting Horses, Short-Horn Cattle, Thoroughbred 
Spanigli Marino Sheep and Swine. 



J. BRE'WSTER, Gait Station, Sacrunento Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Ca ttle. 

HOSES "WICK, Oroville, Butte Co., Cal., breeder 
of Short-Horn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 



A. MAILLAIRD, San Rafael. Uarin Co., Oal., 
breeder of Jerseys. OalveB for sale. 

STANTON & POWERS, Sacramento, Cal. 
Choice Jersey Heifers at reasonable rates. Address 
L. C. Powers, Sacramento, Cal. 



R. ASHBURNER, Baden Station, San Uateo Co., 
Oal., breeder ot Short-horn cattle. Bulls for sale, 
from cows of choice milking strains. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



THOS. BXTTTERFIELD & SONS., Hollister, 
San Benito, Cal. Importers and breeders of Angora 
Goats and Sheep. 



N. GILM ORE, El Dorado, Ei Dorado Co., Oal., im- 
porter and breeder of Angora Ooata. 



SEVERANCE & PEET, NUes, Alameda Co., 
Oai. , breeders of ThorouKhbred Spauish Merino 
Sheep. 

MRS. ROBERT BXiACOW, Centervllle, near 

Niles Station, Alameda Co., Cal. Pore-Blooded 
French Merino Sheep for sale. 



A. Q. 

Cal., 



STONESIFER, Hill's Feny, Stanislaus Co., 
breeder of Pure-Blooded Fretch Merino Sheep. 



LANDRT7U & RODGERS. Watsonvllle, Banta 
Cruz County. Pure-Bred Angora Ooata and Cotawold 
Sheep for sale. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Castro reets, 
Oakland, Cal. Import<!d Brahmas and other boice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BITRBANK, 43 and 44 Califomia 
Market, San Francisco, importsr and breeder of 
Fari'' ^ ''^*"'"*ig. P igeons. Ral^ liita ^*'. 

M. EYRE, Nap*. Bronse Turkeys, Bmden Oeese and 

other Fancy Poivtry. E ggs in season. 

Mrs. L. J. ■»" ATKINS, SaiitI Clara. Premium 
Fowls. ■Wli'e Leghorn, S. 8. Hamburg, Game Ban- 
tarns. anc^-Vfsbury Ducks. Also, Eggs. 2:v8 3t 



Black Cayuga and Aylesbui-^ Ducks 



Bantams, etc. 

V.irirB fresh, pure, true to name; „bU- 
•^^packed so as to hatcblafter arriv?' 

il:.tjbteated oikcttlab and price-list F«e 

14T»-16p-tf. __^__ 



Mrs. I- 2- McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co Cal 
Broi-e Turkeys now ready for sale from the best 
imported stock: also eight varieties of choice Chick- 
en»: Egg&in season can be purchased very reasonably 



^\y^\ ^i^^O*?! ^^ Francisco. The largest and 
heaviest Bron.-e Turkeys the world ever saw One 
pair, 19 monthfcola. over 72 pounds now. I offer for 
sale extra large Toms, olu ,„ young; also Eggs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. Address c w Wii^n p n 
Box, 1874, San Franc'.sco. wnson, p. o. 



SWINE. 



A. T. HATCH, Suisoa Oity. Cal.. breeder of Poln.^ 

China Bwlne. 



SAW80N Jt BANCROFT, U. 8. Lire Stock 

I IwchnngB, S. E. Corner 6th and Bryant jtreeta, San 
Frai-.jBco. All kinds of Common and Thoroughbred 
stock -Tvaya o» exhibition and for sale. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Fraucifco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended t.). All kiuds uf stair 
MatoTial lumisbed to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 25v8-8m-bp 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of 

savings have declared a Dividend for the half year 
ending December 31, 1874, at the rate of ten per cent. 
per annum on term, eight percent, per annum on class 
one ordinary, and six per cent per annum on class two 
ordinary deposits, payable on and after January 15th, 
18TS. By order G. M. CONDEB, Cashier. 

3»9-lm-bp 



NINE FINE 

FARMS FOR SALE. 

Near Middletown, Lake county, containing respect- 
ively 1600, 1100. 600,300,200,200,130 and 80 acres. The 
most of these places contain as fine land as there is in 
California, and the home market averages twenty per 
rent, higher than San Francisco. When we take into 
con.iideration the quality of the soil, certainty of crops, 
the market caused by the development of mines and the 
Mineral Springs, the climate and privileges of schools 
and relicious society, we are satisfted that no such ia- 
ducements can be oflered iu any other part <jf the State, 
to those desiring to purchase land. 

Having examined all these places personally, we can 
give a minute description of each. Apply to 

JOSEPH PETTIT, 
or WM. GORDON, No. 21S Kearny Street, Vp Stairs. 
Ring the Bell. 3v9-tf 

KING'S ^UJRSERY, 

Twenty-fifth St., bet. Telegrraph &. Broadway 
OAKLAND, CAL. 

Fniit, Shade and Evergreen Trees, Shrubs, Roses. 
Etc. Persons laying out new grounds would do well 
to call and examine our stock before purchasing else- 
where. A large stock of EUCALYPTUS, Including 
BLUE GUM Piues and 0YPHE8S from six inches to 
twelve feet high. Acacias in Variety; Young Stock for 
Nurserymen; Pines and Cypress; Three Thousand 
Magnolia Grandiflora from six inches to live feet high; 
Camelia Japonicas; Gardenia Cape Jessamine; Ar«u- 
cariae in Variety, at Lowest Rates. Ordera attended to. 

Address, M. KING, Nurseryman, 

3v9-8m Oakland, Cal. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 

GRASS AND CLOvSt 8E§>. KEOTU^^Y BLUE 
aniaq TirrNGARIAN OBCHABD, ITALIAN Kit, 

^Id^top^'^imoth?; mesquit, sweet vernal. 

CHOICE OALlroHNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 

"A?so'',''RlMVSbTE A.TD TOBACCO 8EED8; to- 
eether with a fine and compi.te collection of IKEt 
IfEDS AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAN- 
TEA, PINUS IN8IGNIS, Etc 
For Bale, wholesale or retail, by 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Successor to a. K. Moore) . 
425 Washington St., San Francisco. 22v7-ly 



D. Yost, S«a . 



-anclsoo. H. S. CaocSEB, Sacramento 



l.S.^IlOCKtT.&CO., 

import\to stationers 



-AND- 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

No. 24 Post Street, San Pranoisco. 

The largest and best ISusiness College In America. 
Its teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils 
are from the best class of young men in the State. 
It is under the very \>e-it disi-ipline. Its scholarships 
arc good in the Thiutv-Six Bryant & Stratton Colleges. 
It empUiys fourol the best penmen in the State It has 
the largest rooms, the largest attendance, and the most 
complete system of business training of any commer- 
cial school in the country. „ . . . „ 

For information, call at the oflice, 24 Post street, or 
address, for circulars, e. P. HEALD. 

President Business College, San Francisco. 



12 Short-Horn Bulls, 

fat and sleek, thoroughbred. Just from 
Kentu-^ky, at SAXE'S Stables, 36 Ritch Street, between 
Folsom and Harriaon, two blocks from Grand 
Hotel. Inquire at SAXE'S Stables, or Boom 32 Buss 
House. 3v9-8m | 



General ;,b Printers. 

401 anA, Sansome St , S.!P. 

\ 



PABTIOULAB ATTB 



N PAID TO 



Manufacture of Bj^ Books. 



BANK AND INSURANT ^qRK 



A SPEOIALTT. 



<lSyg.8m.iep 



3HI 




Volume IX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 23, 1875. 



[Number 4. 



The School Book Question. 

It is well known to most of our readers, and 
was published by us last weekj that the State 
Board of Education, at their recent session in 
Sacramento, ordered the following changes iit 
the text books used in the public schools 
■ throughout the State : 

First — The Pacific Coast Series of Readers, 
to be adopted in place of McGuffey's Series. 

Second — The Spencerian System of Penman- 
ship, in place of the Payson, Dunton & Scrib- 
ner's Series. 

Third — Oornell's Geographies in place of 
Monteith's. 

This action of the Board has excited much 
adverse comment in the papers of the State; 
and some journals have gone so far as to advise 
the people to resist the action of the Board, 
and refuse to introduce the changes proposed. 
Many of the Subordinate Granges of the 
Patrons of Husbandry have also joined in this 
opposition, and passed resolutions expressive 
of their disapprobation of the change. So far, 
according to the best of our recollection, the 
pubishers of this journal have been silent upon 
the matter, and chiefly for the reason that they 
have not bad the opportunity, or taken the 
time to look into the merits of the controversy. 
Within the past few days, however, so much 
interest has been awakened on the subject that 
we have felt called upon to express our 
opinion; and not wishing to join in the almost 
universal condemnation of the Board, without 
first inquiring into the matter, we have taken 
occasion to examine somewhat carefully into 
the merits of the controversy. 

This inquiry has primarily resulted in the 
conclusion that the objection to the proposed 
change has culminated mainly in 
The Expense Involved. 

It is asserted that the change will coat the 
people of the State from $250,000 to $500,000. 
This, if it was a fact, would be a heavy tax 
indeed, and one which should be carefully in- 
quired into. But let us figure a little. Careful 
estimates with regard to the series of renders — 
the first change ordered — based upon past 
sales show, if the change should be made at 
once, there would be called for during the year: 

First Readers, 40,000, at 20 cents each $8,000 

Second " 20,000, •' 35 '• " 7,000 

Third " 16,000," 65 " " 8.260 

Fourth •' 10,000," 60 " " . 6,000 

Fifth " 5,000, $1.00 " " 6,000 

These figures present a total of $34,250, in- 
stead of the assumed sum of $250,000 or $500,- 
000. Even $34,250 would be a large tax to 
impose upon the people. But when we exam- 
ine the matter stjH more closely, we find that 
even that sum, as a matter of actual cost, 
is greatly too large. The real cost is 
reduced in fact to quite or almost nothing 
by the proposition of the publishers of the 
Pacific Coast Series to make an even exchange 
with all such as now have the old series ; that 
firm agreeing to furnish a new and perfect copy 
of each one of the new series for every copy of 
the McGuflfey Series which shall be found in 
the hands of a pupil, serviceable for use in the 
school — the teacher, local agent, or even the 
parent being the judge of what shall be con- 
sidered serviceable. Some little caviling hav- 
ing been indul(;ed in by some of our contempo- 
raries to the effect that such exchanges will be 
hampered with impracticable conditions, we 
will say in reply that we have satisfied ourselves 
by personal inquiry that every reasonable 
facility will be offered for making the proposed 
exchanges. 

Assuming that the cost of the readers now in 
the hands of pupils was $34,000, we must 
admit that a depreciation has occurred of at 
least one-third — say $11,01)0 — which, when the 
exchanges are effected, will be just so much 
saved to the pupils. This is an important 
item to be taken into account, and one which 
will change the aggregate loss on books which 
might possibly be made to answer a few weeks 
longer, but which neither teacher nor parent 
could reasonably pronounce serviceable, to a 
positive aggregate gain. 

Another important point involved] in the 
change will be the fact that we are thereby 



carrying out the favorite policy of this State, to 
support — as far as practicable— our home in 
dufitries; for, as per contract, these books must 
all be printed and bound in California, and by 
their adoption we are keeping incur own State 
the large sum of money which has heretofore 
been sent East every year for the purchase of 
this class of books. This is a point that in 
deference to a growing public opinion would 
necessarily have to be made at an early day. 
What better time to make it than the present 
when it can be done at little or no extra expense 
to the people? 
So much for the item of cost. But there is 



men waiting for Bomething to turn up. This small 
army of retainers was sent all through the Northwest- 
ern States. * * * A few thousand dollars judicious- 
ly spent in feeing school boards liiiished the business, 
and the McGuffey Series was triumphant. * * * 
After a lapse of more than a quarter of a century these 
books are duR up and brought out to California; and, 
strange enough, we are assured that a majority of the 
Board of Education having been seen are on the point 
of adopting this series to the exclusion of other and 
better books. 
The AUa of July 12th, 1870, said: 

* * * On the question of the substitution of Mc- 
Gufifey's antiquated elocutionary rubbish for Wilson's 
improved and excellent series of readers, public opinion 
is all one way. 

The Sacramento Union, Sept. 14th, 1871, 




A LATE PLUM-BEIN CLAUDE DE BAVAY. 



another matter which has been overlooked, or 
rather which appears to have been studiously 
kept out of sight during this controversy. We 
refer to the 

Relative Value of the Books as Educational Aids. 

With regard to this, which, after all, should 
be the main point to be considered, the journals 
which have been most active and loud in their 
denunciations of the action of tne Board have 
been entirely silent; for the reason, we pre- 
sume, that they are all strongly committed to 
an opinion against the McGuffey Series, as will 
be shown by the following extracts: 

The Bulletin of July 11th, 1870, said: 

What can be the object, for instance, of digging up 
out of the rubbish of the past the McQnffey Series of 
Reading Books. These books were introduced into 
the public schools of the West more than a quarter of 
a century ago. Prof. McGuflfey, of the Missouri Uni- 
versity, at the Bolicitation of W. B. Smith & Co., a 
publishing house In Cincinnati, employed the paste- 
pot and scissors for a few weeks, and produced what 
In those days was considered a tolerable series of read- 
ing books. They employed a large number of young 
men of good address — law students, medical students, 
tekchers, tlerks out of employment, and profflsslonal 



referring to the McGuffey Eeaders, says: 

* * * An old series, originating in Virginia, in the 
brain of a babbler about the revolution of '98, that had 
gone into desuetude long ago, has been substituted to 
the great delight of certain bookmakers. 

The CaH of July 14th, 1870, speaking of the 
same readers, says: 

* * * This body of men elected by the people, has 
gone back thirty years along the path of progress, and 
resurrected an old set of books which has been buried 
out of Bight under the dead leaves and debris, which the 
ages, in theironward march, pile upon things which have 
served out their period of usefulness and given place 
to others better adapted to the pure and more advanced 
conditions. 

We might continue such extracts almost in- 
definitely, and introduce many other papers 
published in different parts of the State, that 
are now loud in their denunciations of the ex- 
clusion of the McGuffey Readers; but the above 
is amply stifflsieiit to show the opinion of these 
papers with regard to the inferiority of this 
Scries as school text-books, while next to 
nothing has been uttered deprecatory of the 
Pacific Coast Readers. 

This series has been carefully compiled. 



with all the light and experience gained up to 
the present day; and with special reference, 
moreover, to its use on the Pacific Slope. We 
shall dismiss this part of the subject by merely 
referring to the fact that the Pacific Coast Seriep 
has been fully endorsed by 37 out of the 47 
County Superintendents in the State who are 
not upon the State Board; which expression of 
sentiment was do doubt one important induce- 
ment which prompted the Board to vote for 
their substitution. 

The Changs in Penmanship and Geographies. 

The second change made by the Board was 
in the matter of Penmanship. We profess to 
no knowledge as to the respective merits of the 
two systems in question; but as this change 
does not involve any cost— every pupil being 
obliged to open the year with a new book of 
some kind, this matter does not seem to enter 
into the controversy at all. 

In regard to the change made in Geogra- 
phies, we understand that the Monteith Series, 
which has been in use for three or four years 
past, has been revised during the past year, 
which revision will call for a very early and 
general change in this book, even if no other 
series is adopted. Under these circumstances 
no extra expense is incurred; for this and for 
the further season that a large majority of the 
State Board considered the Cornell Geography 
the superior of the two; a change was ordtred 
by a vote of seven to two. The change in Pen- 
manship was made by the same majority. Mr. 
Bolander, who has been the most active of any 
member of the Board in opposition to the 
change in the Readers, voted for the change in 
both these instances. 

Under ordinary circumstances, and on general 
principles, we are opposed to changes in text 
books for the public schools; but in the light" 
under which this matter appears to us, on a 
careful examination into its merits, and for the 
reasons given above, we are forced to the con- 
clusion that the State Board has acted wisely 
in the matter; that the press of the .State has 
made an unjust and unwarranted attack upon 
them, and that the second, sober judgment of 
the people, formed from a correct understand- 
ing of the whole subject, will sustain the act of 
the Board in making the change. 

If our readers will make a careful examina- 
tion of the question at issue, we are fully per- 
suaded they will arrive at the same conclusion 
to which we have come. We may here remark 
that we have entered into this examination 
without any suggestion fronS any member of 
the Board or any other party, and solely from 
a desire to know the full merits of the question, 
and to spread the same before our readers and 
the public generally. If we have arrived at a 
wrong conclusion we are willing to listen to 
any facts which may tend to put us right, and 
our columns are open to both sides, provided 
correspondents will write briefly and to the 
point. 

A Late Plum. 

The accompanying illustration represents the 
late ripening plum. Rein Claude de Bahay. 
The fruit is of large size, roundish, oval, ob- 
long. Color, greenish yellow, with stripes and 
splashes of green, covered with a thin blossom. 
Suture, medium; apex, dimpled; stem, short 
and stout, planted in a rather deep cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, sugary, juicy, rich, excellent. 
Stone, small, from which the flesh separates 
freely. Season, late. 

The tree is a vigorous grower, with smooth 
branches, large, broad, ovate, rounded, pointed 
leaves, with rounded, irregular serratures; very 
productive, of foreign origin, and a valuable 
acquisition to late ripening varieties. 



To S. A. H., OP Borden. — The item to 
which you allude found its way into our col- 
umns through inadvertence. It has been the 
purpose of the publishers of this journal to 
avoid the discussion in its columns of all par- 
tisan or sectional matters. A reference to our 
columns from the very starting of the Prkss to 
the present time, will fully bear us out in the 
above assertion. We believe that we have 
other interests quite snfScient and of ample 
importance to occupy all our time and spac* 



50 



^s^twm BMWLSJ^ w'Tmm* 



[January 23, 1875. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



[The Rttral Pbksh, in npoaina tho oolurann of thia de- 

Etment to ita corresDondenta. does not desire to lay be- 
» its readera anything which is not in keeping with ,it8 
ractor and position ao an agrioultaral and family paper. 
Faote are always thankfully feoeived : and auggestions and 
mat ers •! fpinioa on subjoots connected with agriculture 
are also aeoeptable ; though correHpondents are to be uti- 
deratood as speaking for themselves and not for the PRKt^t^. J 



The Season at Sacramento. 

state of the Westher. 

Editors Peess: — Onr valley has been Bhroiul- 
ed with thick fog for a mouth past, which is 
one of the peculiar foatares of our climate as 
well as her variety of soil. Frost, too, has 
nipped the tender blade, but not enough to 
destroy the pasture. Glancing over the valley 
can be seen at every space the tiny spear of 
grain springing forth over thousands of acres. 
For no year since its first Fettlement hns the 
earth received so much cultivation. It has not 
yet suffered for want of rain, for it has been 
moistened by the dews of heaven; and with 
what rain we shall yet receive, the harvest will 
be great if the laborers are few. 
The Orchard. 

In the orchard the husbandman has entered, 
and the wayward branches has felt the keen 
edge of his knife— prutiiig here and there to 
give it symmetry and form. 'Where there is a 
dead trunk found a living one is placed. The 
old way of pruning high, leaving tho trunk ex- 
posed to the sun's rays in summer, is discarded 
by many who see the folly of it. Leaving the 
branches low and of uniform hight is recom- 
mended by those who have proved it. We 
should not forget to mulch our trees, and have 
the bark washed in strong soap-suds, giving it 
a clean appearance. X mixture of salt and 
ashes, lightly thrown around the trunks, will 
act as a fertilizer, and make them vigorous and 
strong. Many of the trees, when dug up out 
of the nurseries, are left with too short roots. 
Many complain that they are also trimmed too 
high. This is a good t me to plant, and many 
are improving the opportunity, planting new 
California seedlings of peaches, almond, 
American rhestnuts, walnuts, with other nuts, 
beside shade trees of many varieties. 

In the Vineyard 
Many are busy with their pruning shears, care- 
fully cutting the vines, and leaving a amouth 
surface dressed for the coming vintage. Oth- 
ers, with different opinions, will delay until 
another month, as the location and soil makes 
a difference in the growth and quantity in 
bearing. Some have a new idea in disposing 
of the surplus vines: Ait the.growtb is not so 
rank as in deeper soils, they are being clipped 
off short, and cover them by plowing — holding 
that |time is saved; then by picking and 
hauling them away — aUo in fertilizing 
the soil; for fear the ground will dry 
too much they have put the plows at work, 
doing what work they can, so that time can be 
saved in summer fallow in the spring. Some, 
I notice, are plowing and clipping afterward, 
or plowing them in the spring. Some hold 
that the plow should never enter the vineyard, 
and that it should be worked only by cultiva- 
tors, for fear of cutting off the surface feeders. 
This is true to some extent. I find still anoth- 
er method doing away with the single plow that 
comes in contact with the feeders— l)y using a 
double shovel plow. Plow first in the center 
two or three furrows with the large plow, then 
cross it with the double shovel plow with single 
horse; then, by cutting up the center core near 
the vines, and leveling the ground, and keep 
working it both ways by the same plow, until 
the vines get too long to cultivate them. I 
work also my small fruit with it, and orchard 
also. As the foreign wine variety bears lightef 
than the native long stem, pruning is resorted 
to — such as the Ileislins — others are grafted 
with the native, as they both take the same ex- 
pense in cultivating, and will bear more in 
quantity to make up the difference in price. 
The native, with the exception of Orleans, 
Keisling and Zinfludal, stand foremost in the 
eye of the vintager. 

Tropical Fruils 
Are being agitated to some extent in this section 
of the State and are grown with some success, 
for with the vine, and fig, the orange and 
lemon are coming in for their share of honor; 
but whether we will succeed to rival the south- 
ern portion of the State, time itself will de- 
velop. There are within the limits of the city 
many oranges growing, and in bearing; so too 
on a number of farms adjacent to the city, 
which has been by way of experiment more 
than anything else. True, our climate is favor- 
able for the growth of the orange, and the frosts 
of winter do not kill it. Our own soils promote 
its growth. Still, there is something lacking 
that gives it the flavor, and its natural adaptive- 
ness that is only found in a portion of the 

onth to make it a success. 

Scale Bug. 
As this bug has been found among the 

branches of the orange trees in many orchards 
of the State, on examining mine I lound them 
thick. There are three remedies: wash with 

strong soap suds, tobacco infusion and whale 



oil. I experimented with the first, took a scrub 
brush and washed with the first remedy with 
good result, without purchasing a Babcock fire 
extinguisher. 

Small Fruit. 

The strawberry bed must come in for its cul- 
ture and care. The work is principally done 
by a single horse with cultivator and double 
shovel plow, finishing with a hoe, thus work- 
ing up the soil between the rows; leaving it 
open so that li^ht and air may permeate 
throughout, warming the soil bj' so doing till 
spring opens, while the flowers will sot and 
fruit will mature earlier. The dead foliage 
that is left on its surface is sufficient mulch- 
ing, as they do not require highly manuring. 
If too rich the growth will increase in foliage, 
and is less in fruit. There is, perhaps, 30 acres 
in cultivation within the radius of seven miles 
of the city. A large portion is consumed in 
the city, the balance shipped to various points 
of the mountnius. 

The blackberry and raspberry are free from 
thoir old stocks. By summer plowing the new 
shoots are kept from spreading, and the stalks 
grow strong stanfiiugby their own weight, there- 
by doing away with stakes. A good dressing of 
hen droppings mixed with stable rotted manure 
s-cittered over the surface of the btds forms a 
rich compost, the rains of winter washing its 
contents around the thick clustered roots and 
a sufficient moisture, when in bearing seat^on, 
will yield a large crop, and pay the cultivator 
for his pains. The blackberry is cultivated to 
a largo extent. The Early Wilson and Kitta- 
kinny come in first, but the Lawlon is more ex- 
tensively raised. But few ra.spberries are being 
cultivated, but the number is increasing. 

The Flower Gardctt 
Should not be overlooked ; it too is being shorn 
of its surplus branches and stems, thereby 
giving it a finer appearance for the New Year. 
Already the bulbs are bursting, the tulip.s, cro- 
cus and hyacinth are sending forth their blades 
from their hiding places and here and there 
are roses in mid winter with buds and blossoms. 
The yew, cyprus and juniper decorate the 
ground. The palm, with its broad fan leaves, 
and the orange and hmon with their golden 
fruit. The pomegranate in its bursted form 
showing its rows of reden seed. The eunony- 
mus with its green, silver and golden tinged 
foliage, and the myrtle hedge are found in 
many garden? in our dried plains. 
The Kitchen Garden, 
The last, but not the least, is an indifpeusible 
article to the housewife, who watches its growth 
of vegetables as keenly as the lord of the man- 
sion. Already the peas, turnips, onions and 
many other vegetables are up and watched 
daily. These will save many a dime in the 
farmer's purse, beside enjoying them more as 
they come fresh and crisp. Asparagus beds 
can easily be made sufficiently for family use; 
once made will last for years; each year work 
in a dressing of rich compost. A few rows of 
early potatoes put in now, and corn, in the 
spring; sets of tomatoes and cabbage, and you 
will find it a luxury after a hard days' work. 
Gkokoe Rich. 

Sacramento, .Ian. 13th, 1875. 



From the Sierras. 



Eds. Fbkss: — Long and earnesily have I 
tried to find time, and a fitting theme, to write 
to you. Solitary life in this Alpine retreat 
gives the time at last, and epolosed is the 
theme. I have written not so much because I 
had time, but because I owe you somethint/ for 
the valuable favor of your excellent paper. In 
fact I am very busy, and grudge every minute's 
infringement upon my time, which is devoted 
to studying natural history— botany in partic- 
ular. With no neighbor within eight miles, 
down in Sierra valley, molesting no one and in 
no one's way, I spread my flowers in their re- 
spective families on the many dining tables 
and floors of Dr. Webber's large hotel here — 
deserted now but thronged in summer— and ex- 
amine and distribute at will. My mail is 
brought up by trappers on snow-shoes occas- 
ionally, so I still hear from the pulsating 
world. A few friends have bravely visited me, 
and more would visit but for fear of that man 
killing grizzly bear, whose haunt crosses the 
direct trail from Sierra valley to Webber lake, 
near which he killed Mr. Berry, and not in 
Surprise valley, 70 miles distant, as a printer's 
mistake at Downieville led you to repeat, with 
your illustration, December 26th. " Old 
Bruin, "or "Club Foot, "is often seen by and well 
known to the habitues of Webber lake. A 
steel trap, weighing 80 pounds, has been made 
for him, but he seems to throw it off with the 
ease of smaller ones, but suffering the injury 
once that names him "Club Foot." He has 
been so often tho target of hunters that Dr. 
Webber declares he must carry an oyster can 
full of bullets in bis shaggy hide. Generally 
he quietly holds whatever position he assumes, 
the liuman intruder at sight of the monster, 
being quite willing to retire, thankful that he 
is considered too insignificant for pursuit; but 
now the bear has killed bis man, atid the taste 
of human blood may induce a change in his 
appetite. The citizens of the vicinity are de- 
termined to hunt him to the death when next 
his locality is betrayed. 



I enclose a few specimens of the Alpine flora, 
some illustrating the enclosed article. Keaily 
all my collections of tho season were sent to 
Dr. Gray, who at great personal sacrifice of 
time and attention is naming and distributing 
them. My deepest gratitude is due him and 
others for their great kindness to one so un- 
deserving. 

If yon publish my article and mt^ke any edi- 
torial notes from this letter, I will fell grate- 
ful, and enclose a few stamps for extra copies. 
My business is distinctly selected. I am an ama- 
teur botanist and collector. I believe in adver- 
tising. No advertisement is. better than a 
short, distinct, editorial notice, exactly defining 
one's business and telling where he may be 
found. Be sure to put me up as residing in 
Sierra valley, California. Webber lake is only 
my winter retreat. AVith the earliest flowers I 
shall be down, in the valley and on the moun- 
tains east and north — the seeming terra iticog- 
vita of California. 

Thanking you for the liberal favors tendered 
me in the past, I pledge you a little more at- 
tention in future, and wish you a happy and 
prosperous New Year with as many more better 
and richer ones as you care to see. 

Yours very sincerely, J. G Lemmon. 

[The contribution alluded to in the above 
will appear in next week's issue. The readers 
of the Press will certainly join with us in of- 
fering thanks to the writer for the highly inter- 
esting and agreeable article. The accompany- 
ing floral specimens arrived in excellent condi- 
tion; and for these, also, Mr. Lemmon will 
please accept our hearty thanks. — Eds. Fbess.] 

Tuolumne County. 

Editoes Pbess.— Our roof is musical with 
the dripping rain. After a long dnught the 
gentle rain begins to fall amongst the foot-hills. 
And it is to be hoped will reach far down and 
over the vast plains which so much need t he 
refreshing shower. It comes at this time with 
the richest blessing for the whole country. 
The dry weather had almost discouraged the 
husbandman, but heaven forsakes not man, 
and does all things for the best. If we had 
only faith in the Disposer of eTents, doing our 
duty in the premises, we might be satisfied to 
leave God's duty in his onvn hand, without 
grumbling. In 25 years I have not seen a bet- 
ter prospect, or a better season for stock 
amongi^t the foot-hills. For the last six weeks 
cattle have thrived on the young, green grass, 
something never.known since 1850. In riding 
round among the foot-hills, it is surprising to 
see so many settlements, and so much broken 
and sowed ground. Homes are being erected 
in places never dreamed of as being of value, 
except as good pasture land for herds of stock. 
It is really surprising to see the difference of 
appearance after a year or two's location and 
improvement. Good fences, houses, natural 
springs, small gardens, barns, corrals, cows, 
horses, with here and there a herd of sheep 
lazily nibbling the green- herbage. 

Good for the propagation of healthy ideas, 
T stroll amidst a forest of foot-hill ranches and 
witness the energy of pioneer farmers estab- 
lishing homes amidst considerable up-hill 
work. I could not help contrasting the present 
outlook of the different settlements in all sorts 
of angular corners with the health and wealth 
of such places, a century hence. The same 
places in Europe would be worth a fortune; 
and I asked myself the question — what hinders 
the fortune from coming here as time weaves 
her web ol progress. The oak timber amongst 
the foothills is even now a source of wealth, 
and will increase as the timber becomes 
scarce. 

I started out to give you some news and won- 
der why fate removed us so far from our native 
home on the banks of Tay, Scotland ! The 
space between — a mere frog-leap — a stretch of 
thought only. The present seems so much 
like the past that our present fireside seems 
still in Kight of the old Feudal castle, and the 
city of Ferth, within an hours' walk. Let us 
examine the bridge between. Ah ! it was oft 
— almost — the bridge of sighs 1 We will 
draw a vail over the abyss, and lift our 
gaze to the proud and lofiy Sierras, whose 
white summit speaks of strength and 
purity, to the green vales all around us, to 
the smile of our better half, and the kisses 
from Tuolumne county, and only touched upon 
its lower borders. It is a wonderful county in 
more ways than one, and has a sort of fasci- 
nation in creating a home feeling oi venera- 
tion in those who have made homes amidst her 
glens and those who have left her for other 
scenes. No other county in the State main- 
tains such a fraternal feeling as "Old Tuo- 
lumne." She is prolific in everything she 
undertakes. Her fruit bears the palm; her 
vines never give out; her marble is inexhaust- 
ible; her trees are tall and useful, and her 
rivers clean and rich in gold. I think of my- 
self, sitting here in one ol Tuolumne's glens — 
of rosy-cheeked Californians; and then thank 
God that I am a dweller among the foothills of 
"Old Tuolumne," John Tatlor. 

January 13, 1875. 



Tree-Planting, Under-Draining, Etc. 

Editobs Pkess: — We have finished planting 
an orchard. The trees were set in holes 42 
inches wide and 36 inches deep. About one- 
fourth of the loose dirt was first shoveled back, 
then a bushel of bones, to serve as an nnder- 
draiu, and to furnish nourishment for the 
roots; whin more soil was added, and the tree 
carefully planted. Too much care and labor 
cannot well be expended in the planting of a 
tree, the larger the excavation, the more room 
furnished for the young rootlets to draw sup- 
plies, the greater the rapidity of growth. 
Farmers expecting returns from young orchards 
must not get in a hurry and stick the trees 
down in narrow holes where every attempt of 
the roots to branch is met by a hard pan that 
also holds water in the rainy weather like a 
basin. I prefer to plant fewer trees, and to do 
it thoroughly. 

Our tile factory is in a prosperous condition. 
Many farmers are layine them. It is an im- 
portant agent of enlightenment in matters of 
husbandry. Men who read the papers, par- 
ticularly agricultural papers, appreciate the 
undertaking by patronizing it, and do them- 
selves good also. Wheat after -wheat for a 
generation will impoverish even a California 
farm. The fertility of the soil must be kept 
up, and uiiderdraining is one of the cheapest 
methods of doing it. 

The wheat crop is looking splendidly in the 
Santa Rosa valley. More than the usual 
bread' h of land has been planted, and morejis 
going in. The frost and drouth have, not, as 
yet, unfavorably affected the pastures; ^rass is 
from six to eight inches high and luxuriant. A 
lot of alfalfa on the Torrence farm, attbe cross- 
ing of Russian river, is in fine condition. It 
is growing in the rich alluvial soil onee covered 
by a redwood forest, where its roots have am- 
ple room to forag" for sustenance. If anywhere 
in the Stae one acre can be found to sustain 
five head of horses the ye^r round with its pro- 
duct, this is the acre to do it. 

It is 47 days since the November rains; only 
two light showers have fallen since. The 
ground is in fine condition for agricultural 
purposes — not dry — just right to work. The 
clear days and frosty nights make bracing 
weather for all out-door employments. Old res- 
idents claim that this valley will make a large 
crop without more rain; still, we think a few 
showers in the spring will be acceptable. We 
have ha^ over 13 inches. 

This is a region comparatively little written 
up until the local newspapers began to do so 
from a new born appreciation of their surround- 
ings. Unlike some other portions of the coast, 
there are no real estate S'-sociations to adver- 
tise it; nor were there, until lately, interior 
lines ot communication opened up for routes 
of travel. Tourists hardly ever came, and lit- 
tle was heard of the second, if not the first, ag- 
ricultural and fruit county in the State. The 
magnificent beauty of its scenery, and the fer- 
tility of its soil will furnish th'emes yet on their 
own merits. J. B Abmstbono. 

Santa Rosa, January 11th, 1875. 



How to Destroy the Alfalfa Parasite. 

Editobs Fbess: — While reading the very in- 
teresting article on alfalfa parasite in this 
week's Fbe^s, I had brought to my mind the 
manner in which I removed — or think I have 
removed — from my little field the objectionable 
evil. Noiv, dodder, or alfalfa parasite, is a very 
tender plant, and cannot stand frost i. e., 
its appearance indicates as much. I, therefore, 
acting upon this latter conclusion, kept my clo- 
ver closely fed, thus retarding the ripening of 
the dodder seeds which had not occured on the 
appearance of the recent heavy frosts; and now 
I fail to discover any traces of parasite. Wheth- 
er or not, it wjll again appear with warm 
weather, is a question to be dttermined when 
springs comes; of which I will advise jour 
readers fully. A. Kamp. 

San Jose, Jan. 15, 1873. 



Why not Eat Otsteks in Summbb? — Ac- 
cording to the popular notion; which, in the 
main, is correct, the Spawning season of the 
oyster embraces tho.'-e months which have nor 
in their spelling, namely: May, June, July and 
August, the four warm months in the year. 
The fact is, that oysters generally, do their 
spawning during these four months; but a few 
are liable to spawn whenever the water is warm 
enough, and large numbers pass through the 
year without spawning; and these, were it not 
lor the difficulty of assorting them, would be 
available for food at any time. But the preju- 
dice is universal against their use during the 
r-less months. That they are not in as good 
condition theu as during the cooler months, is 
reasonable to suppose; but that they are all 
necessarily unwholesome in the warm months, 
is far from being proved. In business phrase, 
oys'ter-i in spawning time are said to be 'milky.' 
Ihis means the presence of an opaline fluid in 
considerable abundance, and whi> h has to do 
with the wants of its young — perhaps, remote- 
ly, a sort of fluid of amnion.— Po/iti/ar Science 
Monthly. 



January 23, 1875.] 



{^^ 



Brooks' Improved Process of Distillation. 

We take pleasure in laying before our read- 
ers an improvement in distillation, which the 
inventor, Mr. Bobert 0. Brooks, of this city, 
has just patented through the Mining and 
Scientific Pbkss Patent Agency. Before de- 
scribing the 'process we will state that Mr. 
Brooks is a practical distiller, of about thirty 
years' experience, the last ten years of that 
time having been expended in completing the 
improvements which he has just secured by 
patent. By the new process and improved ap- 
paratus the inventor claims to produce alcoholic 
spirits directly from the still, and by a single 
distillation, which are absolutely free from fusi 
oil. We have seen the reports of several of 
our best chemists, who have analyzed the pro- 
ducts of Mr. Brooks' process and which verified 
his claims to purity and the absence of fusil 
oil. It is held by many persona that whiskey 
without fusil oil would be of no value, in fact 
that it would not be whiskey, but alcohol. 
This error of opinion arises from the fact that 
fusil oil, or amylic acid, as it ia chemically 
known, is erroneously supposed by many per- 
sons, and even in some of our standard books, 
is defined as the oil of grain, oil of potato, etc. 
Mr. Brooks has discovered, and his experiments 
have proven, that the essential oil of grain is an 
entirely separate product, which vaporizes 
below, or at about the boiling point of water, 
2120 Fahr., while fusil oil requires a tempera- 
ture of 280° to- be converted into a vapor. This 
would therefore spoil such an argument. All 
the volatile products which are obtained from 
wort, volatilize below the boiling point of 
water, except fusil oil, and between the boiling 
point of these two products there is a difference 
or space of temperature of about 70 degrees. 
Mr. Brooks takes advantage of this diff'erence 
or space of temperature to prevent the volatil- 
ization of the fusil oil and leave it in the spent 
wort, and to do this he has invented an im- 
proved distilling apparatus which he has also 
secured by letters patent. This apparatus is 
so c nstructed that it is impossible to obtain a 
temperature in the upper chamber of the still 
exceeding the boiling point of water or ■2120 
Fahr. Consequently we can only convert to 
vapor those products of the wort which volatil- 
ize at a point below that temperature, thus 
leaving the fusil oil and a large portion of the 
water in the wort. The ether which is first 
volatilized, is condensed and withdrawn eatirely 
from the still before the alcoholic product 
begins to vaporize so that the subsequent op- 
eration proceeds without hindrance. 

Mr. Brooks calls his still an automatic pul- 
sating still, because when it is at work its 
operation is automatically intermittent, thus 
producing a ptrlsation as the products of differ- 
ent specific gravities pass up into the conden- 
ser. 

We cannot spare the space in which to de- 
scribe the complete construction and operation 
of this improved apparatus, and to attempt to 
give the reader a full understanding of the 
claims of the inventor, without such descrip- 
tion would be folly. We will, however, at- 
tempt to show the importance of the invention 
and explain the theory upon which it is based. 

Wort, which is the fermented solution from 
which spirits are obtained contains four volatil- 
izable products which vaporize as follows, 
{Fah):ether,1730; alcohol, 188°; water, 212° 
and fusil oil. 2G90. It will be seen that the 
water product stands between the alcohol and 
fusil oil, giving a clear space of 81° Fah. of 
temperature between the desirable and unde- 
sirable products. 

In Mr. Brooks' apparatus he employs a con- 
densing and separating vessel between the 
upper chamber of the still and the main con- 
denser through which a constant stream of 
cold water is made to pass, and this vessel re- 
ceiving the -vapors of ether which first pass 
from the still condenses them without allowing 
them to pass into the worm of the still. The 
condensed ether is then withdrawn entirely 
from the still before the next product (alcohol) 
enters the vessel. The condensation of the 
ether raises the temperature of the vessel so 
that the alcoholic vapors will pass over into the 
worm and to the main condenser before it is 
condensed. 

Messrs. Van Winkle & Brooks the proprie- 
tors of this patent have a large still in practical 
operation at School House station, near this 
city, with which they have proven beyond a 
doubt that the result of their process is all that 
is claimed for it. 

As is usually remarked in such cases the 
greatest wonder is that distillers have been so 
long seeking for some method or process for 
freeing spirits from fusil oil without discover- 
ing this simple common-sense plan. Fre- 
quently the very thing we seek for lies just at 
our doors while we explore the country in a 
vain search for it. The rationale of the process 
comprises nothing that is not familiar to the 
chemist. It only required that this and that be 
put together and a practical means of carrying 
out the plan devised to produce the long 
looked for result. We shall speak again of this 
invention as it is developed. 

Castob Oil Among the Chinese. — A writer 
in the Journal of Applied Science states that 
castor oil has bo little effect on Chinse intes- 
tines that the Oelestials use it habitually in 
cookery. 



Piling Wood on a Side Hill. 

We have received the following letter from a 
correspondent in Auburn : "Will you please 
answer this question: — a man buys a quantity 
of wood, and the seller hauls and piles it on a 
smooth, steep side hill. The wood is piled be- 
tween two stakes, just eight feet apart, and 
four feet high. The stakes stand perpendicular, 
but one is raised high above the other, as the 
hill side raises, the pile of wocd lying up and 
down the hill. The hill rises at an angle of 45 
degrees. The wood was piled up to the full 
hight of the stakes in a satisfactory manner. 
Now, the wood man claims that there is a 
cord of wood in the pile while the other party 
says there is not a cord. Admitting that the 
stakes are eight feet apart, and this space 
filled up to the full hight with wood of the 
Fiq. IV. 



Fh/. If. 





proper length, the question is — is there, or is 
there not, a cord of wood in the pile on the 
side hill. The subject has become one for 
general discussion here, and many of us are 
interested to know who is right." 

A cord of wood measures eight feet in length, 
four feet in hight, and four feet in width. 
Piled on level ground, it viontains 128 cubic 
feet of wood. But when piled on a hill at an 
angle of 45 degrees with the same measure- 
ments, in the way it is usually piled, there 
would be only 90.56 cubic feet in the pile. 
Therefore when piled o.i a hill rising at an 
angle of 45 degrees, the buyer would lose 37.44 
cubic feet of wood. 

This does not seem apparent at first glance, 
we have heard some warm arguments over the 
question, but a little investigation shows it to 
be true. We have prepared a few diagrams to 
illustrate the decrease in cubical contents in a 
simple way. Figure 1 shows a cord of wood 
eight feet long, four feet high and four feet 
wide. Figure 2 shows how it, would appear at 



an angle of 22^, representing the true cord by 
dotted lines and what is usually considered a 
cord by wood-choppers, by the straight black 
lines, n L. is & horizontal line. Figure 3 
shows it piled at an angle of 45 degrees, and 
the loss of wood may be easily seen to be more 
than a quarter. Figure 4 shows it piled at 60 
degrees, in which instance, although the out- 
side measurements are the same, more than a 
half cord is lost. The usual method of meas- 
uring the wood is the same in each case. The 
stakes are perpendicular and the pile measures 
four feet in hight by the stakes and eight feet 
in length. Nevertheless, as the angle in- 
creases the cubical contents decrease in pro- 
portion. While the stakes would not decrease 
in length and the measurements would remain 
the same, by increasing the angle, there would 
not be any wood at all. 

Any one can illustrate this for himself by ta- 
king a small piece of board and inserting two 
pieces of wire, each say four inches long and 
two inches high. 'These can be placed upright 
in the board as if enclosing a pile of wood of 
certain dimensions. Now cut a number of 
small pieces of wood of equal length and fit 
them in between the wires. After that remove 
the pieces of wood, set the board at an angle of 
45 degrees, and bend the wires so as to stind 
perfectly upright. Then pile the pieces in 
again and you will find that you have more 
wood than you can get in between the wires. 
This will illustrate the question practically to 
those who fail to see it themselves. 

Although people do not always buy wood 
piled on hills of 45 degrees, they often buy it 
on hills nearly as steep, and perhaps few have 
thought It made any difference as long as the 
pile measured the same at both ends and was 
of proper length and width.' Our diagrams 
will show that they do not got as much wood as 
is coming to them. Our wood-choppers may 
not relish the idea of always having to cord 
the wood on level ground, but if purchasers de- 
sire full measure they ought to insist upon it. 
The "practical man" who is skeptical and does 
not believe "but that there is as much in each 
piles, had better pile a cord upon a level and 
then pile it between his stakes as usually set on 
a side hill, and he will find that his wood goes 
up over the top of the stakes. 

The People's Banks. 

The following financial article has been sent 
to us for publication. The writer is a practical 
dairyman; and as a practical financier, he is 
rather noted for having conducted his business 
through its different stages without running 
into debt. He prides himself on this, as a 
farmer should: 

let— To a trafficking people like us of the United 
States a circulating uiedium Is » necessity, in order to 
fuclUtate the transaction of business. 

2d— This circulating medium should be something 
that is current in all parts of the country among all of 
the people, and It will be proper to call It currency or 
money. 

3d— This currency should be made of some material 
that is of little value in itself, so that, if It is sunk in 
the ocean or lost in any other way, there will be a min- 
imum quantity of human labor wasted; and it must be 
light and easily transported from place to place with 
facility and little expense. 

4th— The value of this currency must depend upon 
the honor and ability of the party issuing it. 

5th — Paper properly executed will answer the first 
three of these demands. 

6th— The people of the United States are able to ful- 
fill the conditions of the fourth demand, and be great 
gainers individually and collectively; but the question 
is, how shall it be done ? 

7th— The Government shall make one uniform cur- 
rency of convenient denominations for business, and 
establish banks in every State and territory, according 
to the wants of the people, where this currency can be 
obtained by those who give the proper security. 

8th — This currency shall be loaned to every one who 
will give the proper security; and the interest shall not 
be over four per cent, per annum to begin with, and be 
frradually reduced after a few years, when the Govern- 
ment is out of debt, to two per cent. 

9th — This currency shall net be called in until the 
borrowers wish to pay it, provided the security is good 
and the interest promptly paid. 

10th— This currency shall be lawful money after the 
banking bill Is passed, to pay all debts, salaries, taxes, 
fees, Custom House duties, etc., except our gold debts 
and bonds, which shall be paid in gold if demanded. 

11th — We will dispense with all of our mints except 
one, which we will keep to coin some gold, if it is neces- 
sary, to pay our debts that call for gold coin; and when 
the gold debts already contracted are paid, we will ■con- 
tract no more; then, of course, we will have no more 
use for mints. 

12th — Any person can change this currency into Uni- 
ted States bonds, which shall draw about a less per 
cent. Interest than the Government receives for cur- 
rency. 

Bemarks — This plan, if adopted, will work 
against monopolies; it will give every person a 
fair chance; help theGovernment pay its debts; 
help many a family in moderate circumstances 
to give their children a superior education at 
the proper age without burdening themselves 
with too much labor or encumbering their prop- 
erty with exhorbitant interest or sudden pay- 
ment. It will put an end to money crisis; will 
place interest on such a basis that there will be 
no need of usury laws in any of the States. It 
will induce many private bankers to invest their 
money in such manufacturing establishments 
as we stand in neeed of. Then we can export 
more manufactured articles and import less. 
It will place the country and the people on the 
high road to a prosperity greater and more per- 
ma nent than most of us ever imagined possi- 
ble, even for the people of this flourishing 
nation . Let the laws for the punishment of 
all kinds of thieving be ten times more severe 
than they are at present, and in a few years 
the Government will be out of debt, and the 
people will bless their financial system. 
Fbbbm*.;, Pabkbb, 

Seo'y Petaluma Grange, 
Pelalam», Cal. 



UsEfjL l[4fOii\fii^JIOM. 



A New "Ratsbane." — And now the flowering 
plant "asphodel," is to drive away the rats 
wherever they may be. This is a perennial, 
but where it is to be obtained we know not. 
Perhaps at some of our seed-stores. We, how- 
ever, would not advise the destruction of all the 
cats until after a thorough trial and proof of 
the efScacy of the new "exterminator." 

[The asphodel is a fine garden bulbous plant 
much cultivated in Europe. It has a stem 
about three feet high, thickly covered with 
thee-oornered yellow leaves. Its flowers are 
of a yellow color, reaching from near the base 
to the top of the seam. The ancients were in 
the habit of planting the flowers in burial 
places, to afford nouiishment for the Manes of 
the dead. It is said that the bulbs of some 
varieties of this plant, when dried and ground 
to powder, make an excellent glue.— Eds. 
Pkess.] 



Artificial Fuks.— M. Tussaud, of London, 
suggests an ingenious way of preparing the 
hair or fur of animals for use without employ- 
ing the skin. The process consisits in first 
soaking the fur in lime water to loosen the ad- 
hesion of the hairs. After washing and drying, 
the piece is stretched upon a board, fur side 
up, and a solution of glue Itid over it, care be- 
ing taken not to disturb the natural position of 
the hairs. After the glue has hardened, the 
skin may be pulled off, leaving the- ends of the 
hair exposed. The latter are then washed with 
proper substances to remove fat, bulbs, etc. 
An artificial skin of gutta percha, or other wa- 
terproof substance, is next laid on top of the 
glue and allowed to dry, so as to form a con- 
tinuous membrane, when the glue is washed 
out with warm water. These artificial skins 
are entirely free from any animal odor, and are 
more durable, lighter, and more pliable than 
the natural ones. 



Cement for Attaching Labels to Metal. — 
Many of our lady readers have no doubt been 
much troubled in putting up fruit, to m ik^ the 
labels stick to the tin cans. The Medical 
Journal says that a paste made as follows will 
meet the case: Ten parts tragacauth mucilage, 
ten parts honey, and one part flour. The flour 
appears to hasten the drying, and renders it 
less susceptible to damp. Another cement 
that will resist the damp sti.l better, but will 
not adhere if the surface is greasy, is made by 
boiling together two parts of shellac, one part 
cf borax, and sixteen parts water. Flour paste, 
to which a certain proportion of sulphuric acid 
has been added, makes a lasting cement, but 
the acid often acts upon the metals. 



Weather Obsebvations. — When you wish 
to know what the wi^ather is to be, go out and 
select the smallest cloud you can see. Keep 
your eyes upon it, .ind if it decreases and dis- 
appears, it shows the state of the air which will 
be sure to be followed by fine weather; but if 
it increases in size, take your great coat with 
you if you are going from home, for falling 
weather is not far off. The reason is this: 
When the air is becoming charged with elec- 
tricity yon will see every cloud attractino all 
lesser ones towards it, until it gathers into a 
shower; and, on the contrary, when the fluid 
is passing off or diffusing itself, then a large 
cloud will be seen breaking to pieces and dis- 
solving. 



The First Patent. — It is said that the first 
patent issued by the United States was granted 
to Samuel Hopkins on July 30, 1790, for the 
manufacture of pot and pearl ashes. The 
third was to Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, so 
famous for inventions in high pressure engines, 
of whose inventions President Jefferson re- 
marked that "it was too valuable to be covered 
by a patent, and there should be no patent for a 
thing no one could afford to do without after it 
was known." This was in December of the 
same year in which Hopkins obtained his 
patent. For many years after this date the 
Patent oflSce was but a clerkship in the State 
department. 

PAiNtiNG Old Buildings — An inexpensive 
but durable method of painting old buildings 
is as follow: First give them a coat of crude 
jjetroleum, which is the oil as it oomfes from 
the wells, and which can be procured for four or 
five dollars per barrel. Then mix one pound 
of ' 'metallic paint, " which is brown or red hema- 
tite iron and finely ground, to one quart of 
linseed oil, and apply this over the petroleum 
coat. The petroleum sinks into the wood, and 
makes a groundwork for the iron and oil paint. 
The color of the iron paint is a dark reddish 
brown, and is not at all disagreeable; it is a 
color not easily soiled, very durable, and ia 
fire-proof. 

Minuteness of Fuchsia Seeds. — A gentle- 
man recently visiting a fuchsia house (hot 
house) in Europe was asked to guess the 
amount of fuchsia seed gathered in one year 
from the house — 10 by 30 feet in size. Twenty, 
ten, and even as little as one pound were sug- 
gested, but the fact proved that the entire pro- 
duct was only one quarter of an ounce. The 
Garden aays that Mr. Cannell's specimen 
fuchsia-house, 30 feet by 20 feet has not yet 
afforded him a quarter of an ounce in one sea- 
son. One may infer from these facts how fine 
the seed is. 



52 



[January 23, 1875. 



jR&f R@]vji %t 




From Brother Wright in the Regions 
of Snow. 



STATE aRANOE HEADaTJARTERS. 

I. ». Oamotb, State Agent: Executive Committee 
Rooms: Fniit Growers' ABBOciatioiiH, »nd FsrmerB' 
Matual Life Ineurance Company, all at No. 6 Lledes- 
ilorf street. W. H. Baxtkb, State Secretary, at 
•rangers' Bank. 416 CaUfomU street, 8. F. 

Secretaries will be supplied with a printed list of 
BUBcribers for this paper upon sending a list of poBt 
offlceB within the ranije of their ftrange. Also with 
klank report-, etc., for clubs. 

Orange Directory.— A full list of ofBcers of the 
State Orange. Deputies, names of Councils, Bubo rdi 
nate Oranges, MasterB and Secretaries will appear in 
his department ou the first Saturday of each month. 



The Patrons of Oregon and Their Repre- 
sentatives. 

We had the pleasure of several interviews 
with Daniel Clark, Master of the State Grange 
of Oregon, while stopping a few days in this 
city the past week, on his way to attend the 
meeting of the National Grange at Charleston, 
South Carolina. We have given sketches of 
several of our representative California Patrons, 
and doubt not our readers would also like to 
know more of the man who stands at the head 
of the Order in Oregon: Bro. Clark is a native 
of Missouri, and, we should suppose, not far 
from fifty years of afje. He w,4S formerly 
Sheriflf ol Marion county, Oregon; was one of 
the first to take an active part in the organiza- 
tion of the Patrons of Husbandry in Ort>gon, 
was electfd the first Muster of the State 
Grange, and represented ihat body at the Na- 
tional Granee, which met at St. Louis one 
year ago. He was unanimously elected to the 
same office in September last, and left this city 
on Monday of this week to again represent bis 
adopted State at the meeting of the National 
Grange in Charleston, and on business matters 
at other places. 

Bro. Clark has devoted much time and per- 
sonal attention to the organization and building 
up of the Order in various parts of Oregon, 
and it is no doubt largely due to his (-fforts 
that constant success has attended the Order. 
Oregon now numbers 243 Granges to Califor- 
nia's 23'2. By the vigilance of Bro. Clark and 
hia leading associates, the disaster consfquent 
upon the failure of Morgan's Sons fell lightly 
upon the farmers of Oregon. From all we can 
learn the business and commercial relations of 
the State Grange of Oregon have been estab- 
lished upon a basis from which substantial re- 
sults are already being realizpd, while the 
promise for the future is even still more flat- 
tening. 

Sister Katie Clark accompanies her hnsband 
on his present journey. That she has a goodly 
share of the energy and fortitude of our repre- 
sentative pioneer ladies, it is only necessary to 
state that she goes with her youngest child — 
Daniel Garretson Clark — an infant of 13 
months. The interest she manifests in the good 
of the Order, to undertake a journey of 3,000 
miles, in mid-winter, presents a noble example 
to her Sister Patrons thronehout the Uuion. 
She will be the first Matron Representative for 
the Pacific Coast to the National Grange. We 
bespeak for our brother and sister a pleasant 
journey and safe return. 



The National Grange. 

The National Grange, P. of H., meets at 
Charleston, S. C, on Tuesday the 3d of Feb- 
ruary. The delegates from this State are 3. M. 
Hamilton, Master, and .J. W. A. Wright, Past 
Master of the California State Grange, both of 
whom are now on their way East. These 
brothers also represented this State at the 
meeting of the National Grange at St. 
Louis, Missouri, a year ago. Brother Daniel 
Clark, of Oregon, and his wife, represent that 
State. It will thus be seen that the Pacific 
coast will be representf d by four delegates. The 
National Grange is composed, as many of our 
readers are aware, of tbe Masters and Past 
Masters of the State Granges and their wives, 
who are Matrons, and meets annually at such 
places as that body sees fit to designate from 
year to year. Two years ago only ten States 
were represented; last year that number was 
more than doubled, and will be still further in- 
creased the present year. 

The coming segg on will be one of much import- 
ance, not only to the Order, but to the entire 
industrial interests of the country. It will be 
the most import;nt agricultural as.semblage 
which was ever called together in any country, 
and its deliberations will be awaited with much 
interest by every class of tho community. 
May its councils be guided by true wisdom to 
the end that its iufluence shall be only for 
good— not only to the Order in whose especial 
interest it meets, but for all whose hearts are 
true to humanity and in sympathy with the 
solid interesta of the country at large. 

Open the Gbanoe Pbomptly. — Don't wait for 
numbers. Let those who come late be made 
aware that the Grange will work without them, 
and tbat they mu^t work their way in, and you 
will soon have a more prompt attendance. If 
tbe meeting is opened half an hoar late at one 
time, members will indulge the thought thai it 
may open still later the next time. 



Editoks Press:— Snow, snow, snow, nothing 
but snow and sage brush, as far as the eye can 
reach. A fresh snow storm set in at 10 o'clock 
this morning, so it gets deeper and deeper, the 
farther we go. Last night we crossed tbe 
Sierras without difficulty. The snow on the 
summit is as yet only four feet deep. When 
we reached Truckee at 3 o'clock this morning 
the mercury was at zero. Yet that was lees 
than a hundred miles from where we left tbe 
balmy, spring-like air of California— there the 
fields and hill sides clothed with cheering ver- 
dure, here the entire scene is 

Bleak and Cold. 
The ground and trees and houses clad in white, 
and Truckee river rolling down massrs of snow 
and ice, and in places frozen over. 

What a contrast! and how sudden tbe 
change ! 

If any of the readers of tbe Bubal fail to 
appreciate our California climate, and are dis- 
posed to find fault sometimes with our fogs 
and frosts, and chilly night air, just let their 
friends send them on a short pleasure trip in 
mid-winter across these mountains of ours, if 
they wish to see them return the best contented 
people in the world, as far as climate is con- 
cerned, and thankful that their lots have been 
cast to the westward of the Sierra Nevadas. 

Old Boreas is doing his best here at pre- 
sent. We are just in time to get the full 
benefit of his work, as they tell us most of the 
anow we see fell yesterday. If we don't enjoy 
the adventure, not to say luxury, of being 
snow-bound, as we got farther east, we shall be 
truly fortunate. 

But our car is warm and fully armed and 
equipped with wood and 

Well-Filled Lunch Baskets. 

Our force consists of 17 passengers, one of 
those irrepressible news boys, Feven train 
hands, including two engineers, and two "iron 
horses," all told. Much to our comfort, no 
three card monte sharps have yet developed 
themselves in our midst, although we are now 
beyond Wadsworth. 

We hope these "light fingered gentry" are 
pretty well "froze out" on this route, for a 
while at least. I enjoyed an unexpected 
pleasure to-day in greeting an old friend that 
came aboard at Reno— a friend whose fau^iliar 
face has for so many years been welcome to the 
farmers of our coast, as well as in many a 
home circle. 

It was the RuEAt, Press of this date. While 
enjoying its pages, one hope was constantly 
uppermost in my thoughts, and with your per- 
mission, I shall here record it. as a New Year's 
wish for my old friend. 

As broad conservatism and modenite expres- 
sion have distinguished the Rdbal in past 
years, so may they ever characterize its future 
utterances. None of its many good qualities 
have more than these endeared it to hosts of 
earnest friends whoso political, religious and 
individual opinions are as divergent as the 
poles. 

It now is, beyond question, and will long be 
the leading exponent on this coast of the prin- 
ciples and acts of our noble Grange move- 
ment. 

Perhaps no three words will more fully ex- 
press the great work of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry in all its bearings, when properly 
understood, than 

True Conservatism Crystallized. 

The work is still in its formative period. As 
men and women should be earnest students all 
their lives, so we, ns members of our great 
Order are, or should be, m -iking its work a 
study. We are, or should be, in every way, 
striving to find the "golden mean" and then 
pursue it. So may the Rural in all its words, 
as our leading journal, continue to be an exem- 
plar of the conservatism we are seeking to 
attain. 

I shall close this letter on the wing, by a 
brief allusion to my last Grange work, while 
preparing for this journey. It was the 

Installations in three Granges, 
Of the officers for 1875. Stockton No. 70, Jan. 
2d; Borden No. 144, Jan. 9ch; Vallejo No. 113, 
Jan. l'2th. 

As the Stockton Grange was the first that fell 
to my lot to organize, it was a sperixl pleasure 
to learn from the closing report of its worthy 
Secretary how flourishing its condition is. 
They had at the close of the year 184 members. 
Their material is of the best. Their zeal is 
strong, as it has ever been. Their beautiful 
hall was well filled. Tbeir lady membership is 
large and earnest; and, God bless them, where 
this is the CHse, the vitality and worth of any 
Grange is more than doubled. 

They told me that harmony prevails there, 
and I saw every evidence of it — hence they are 
strong. They attempt to do nothing unless 
they can agree well about it. Hence what they 
try to do, they do. 

They are preparing under tbe special 
supervision of the sisters to have a Grange 
library and reading room in Stockton, and they 
are going to have it. Brother Wolf assisted 
me to install, and you know he is a host withiu 
himself. Three new members were initiated in 



the first degree. It was altogether a most 
agreeable occasion. 

At Borden, we have but a smnll band, but I 
believe a faithful one. We would like these to 
make up for lack of numbers by zeal for our 
cause. Our Secretary promised to prepare 
and send you a list of the newly installed 
officers. 

Until tho installation of the 12th, I had never 
before met with our friends of Vallejo Grange. 
We bad a delightful time. The attendance was 
large. We began work at 11 a. m., and con- 
ferred the second degree on two members. 
Then we enjoyed to the full one of those sump- 
tuous, imfiroviptu feasts which our sisters in 
the Grange are justly becoming so noted for 
preparing. 

After a short rest we proceeded with our in- 
stallation ceremony, which is impressive and 
instructive. Theirs is a live, harmonious work- 
ing Grange, and I have no hesitancy in saying 
it IS one of the best Granges in our jurisdic- 
tion. It will always be pleasant to remember 
the meeting with Vallejo Grange, as my last 
official act before leaving for the approaching 
session of our National Grange. 

For want of time I had to decline several 
invitations to install in other Granges, much 
to my regret. 

Allow me in cloaing to correct an error of 
reference in my allusion to the substitution of 
7.25 inches of rain, instead of 2 25 for Mode-*to, 
(or San Joaquin valley in general; in 1870-71. 
It occurs on page 105 instead of 40 in Mr. 
Hittell's Resources of California. On the same 
page the amount for tbe same year is given for 
Sacramento 8 inches, for Stockton 6, Los An- 
geles 7, and Santa Barbara 8. So yon see 
Modesto compares favorably with other points 
for that dry year. Still snowing— 6:30 p m. 
J. W. A. Wrioht, 

C. P. R. R., Jan. 16, 1875. ' 



" An Occasion" at Yountville. 

Editors Press: — The second day of our in- 
fant year dawned upon this sinful^world, bright 
and glorious, as though no trouble or sorrow 
had ever invaded this mundane sphere.or aught 
but happiness and joy ever attended the march 
through life of mortals here below. I arose 
betimes; tho ground, the trees, the bushes, 
fences, all — everything tbcit was "left out in tbe 
cold," was frozen stiflf during New Years' 
night. It was terrible cold for California; the 
frost appeared like a fall of snow. Upon in- 
vitation I remained over night at the home of 
Sister Thompson, at Napa, (wife of the Worthy 
Master of Napa Grange, who, by the way, was 
absent on a visit out of the State). I felt like 
getting out early, and did so, because I was to 
go to Yountville on the up train tbat morning, 
to attend one of these occasions — aye, one of 
these "funeral occasions," such as have been 
predicted ever since the very first day it was 
discovered that the organization of Patrons 
intended to enlighten and help the farmer out 
of the clutches of the merciless vampires who 
have fattened upon their "hearts' blood"— the 
millions of wealth produced by the labor of 
their hands. Yes, another occa ion was about 
to transpire, and oh, how it would have delight- 
ed my soul to have had every one of our 
"friends," (I mean those friends who are and 
ever have been the "best friends the farm- 
ers ever had in California;" everybody knows 
who^, present, as friends should always be on 
hand on such occasions. 

Well, at the appointed hour, along come 
the cars, and away I go, up Napa valley 
to the place aforesaid, meeting, as I stepped 
upon tbe ' platform, Bro. Mayfield, Master of 
Yountville Grange, with several brothers, and 
Bro. Nash, of Napa Gr mge, who is ev*r on the 
qui vive when there is an "occasion," and 
always at his post to do, whether at home or 
aaVrosd. 'Tis near mid-day, the frosts of the 
night before have disappeared, and the light 
and warmth of tbe second sun of 1875 is per- 
meating and warming everything animate and 
inanimate on the face of the earth — even the 
hearts of those known as the Grans^ers— and 
as we turn to leave the depot, what do we see? 
Some three hundred feet or more from the depot 
is a two-story building, 30x60 about, nicely 
finished, or being fini-^hed, with flagstaff erect, 
from which shall float the star spangled ban- 
ner whenever an occasion may require; and 
this is the Grangers' Hall of Yountville. Oh, 
ye poor, benighted, deluded creatures! Why 
will ye waste your substance on such trifling 
toys. Know ye not that the hour is at hand 
when none shall know ye, Grangers; and ye 
shall be ashamed to acknowledge that ever ye 
knew a Granger? Yes, I tbink so. Things 
loek very much lik* it up at Yountville, Santa 
Rosa and Bennet valley, where I have been— 
and from what I see, and can learn from those 
who come from near and far, the same state of 
affairs exist. Well, now, it woud have done 
your soul good to have seen what ^a good time 
we did have then at Yountville Grange that 
day. Public installation, fine attendance, bar- 
vest feast; everybody happy; everybodv alive 
and wide awake, everybody means business; 
there ''ain't" the first one of 'em dead, nor 
is there a dead beat or drone among them In 



that hive of workfrs; as, for instance, every 
member of that Grange has taken stock in the 
"Grangers' Business Association of California." 
There's a Grange for yon. Patrons of Calilor- 
nia! They not only go to work and build them 
a fine brick hall, bat take hold of everything 
they should take bold of, like business men. 
The sisters keep up their end, too; and tbe 
Worthy Master, Bro. Mayfield, informed me 
that Yountville Grange is composed of mate- 
rial that will never sav die; and I believe him, 
notwithstHudiug the amusing incident that oc- 
curred at the time. 

I organized the Grange. I had been invited, 
and appointed the time to organize. On ar- 
riving there I saw in the village st' re some two 
or three persons, and, as the time had passed, 
I thought that no Grange could be organized 
there hen; but I made myself known, as I 
usually do in some mysterious way, and after 
drumming np the forces some eight men and 
a couipUment of women were gotten together. 
But the trouble was to get the ninth man. A. 
self constituted committie of one, in the per- 
son of Bro. Mayfield, who was equal to the 
emergency, proceeded down the main street of 
the "city" with lariat in band, and lassoed 
the first man who passed by, and forthwith 
bro't him up, and we just made him ride that 
"buoken billy goat" right then and there, to 
the satisfaction of even the National Grange. 
And now, what have we? A Grange among 
the Granges of the land, th'it we may all he 
proud of; one that has proven herself to be, 
first, last, and all the time, one whose lustre is 
not dimmed by any luminary in the bright 
galaxy of Granges throughout the land; one 
that shall continue, and when those who ad- 
minister her affairs now shall have gone to 
reap the reward of honest toil in the harvest 
field above, her children shall rise up and call 
her blessed — and many such we have. 

One word more, and I have done: The fun- 
damental principles of truth and justice lie at 
the foundation of our Order, and it must and 
will prevail. Our youth and inexperience is 
naturally attended by some mistakes — naught 
less than a miracle could obviate them — but 
will not the experience we gain by these mis- 
takes prepare us for tbe greater responsibilities 
which are sure to result from and upon the 
growth of our Order? The time has passed when 
tbe croakings of our oppone-nts, who have 
prophesied the total annihilation of our Order, 
from first to last, upon any and every occasion, 
shall create any fear in the minds of tbe most 
timid. And what supreme folly and weakness on 
the part of any to endeavor to create the im- 
pression that all is discouraging, when we have 
such living evidences of vitality every day of 
our lives. Let any who doubt visit Yountville 
on a similar ocoasion, and they will bear in 
tbeir hearts, as they wend their homeward 
way, the feeling that it is a blessed thin:.' to 
have the people of Napa valley for your friends, 
and you devoutly invoke God's blessing on the 
sisters and brothers of Yountville Grange. 

Yours fraternally, W. H. Baxteb. 

Election of Officers. 

Cache Creek Grange. No. 82. — S. A. How- 
ard, M ; S. B HoJton, O.; H. C. Thompson, 
S.; J. H. Norton, A. S.; Mrs. Gertrude Corbin, 
L.; N. Corbin, C; R B Butler, ?ec'y; D. Q. 
Adams. L.; E. R. Howard, G. K.; Miss M. E. 
Tucker, Ceres; Mis. L. Dale, Pomona; Miss 
Mollie Stephens, Flora; Miss P. E. Butler, L. 
A. S. 

Los Banos Oban'ob, No. 79.— S. A. Smith. 
M.; W. W. Reynolds, O.; Harrison Price. L., 
G Shafer, 8.; H. Acker, A. S.; A. M Glashen, 
T. ; John H. Braver, Sec'y; John Shafer, G. 
K. ; Mrs. John Siiafer, Ceres; Mrs. John H. 
Beaver, Flora. Chaplain, Pomona and Lady 
sistant Steward were absent. 

Pilot Hill Gbanoe, No. 1, P. of H.— John 
Bishop, M ; I. E. Terry, O.; Mrs M. F. Stod- 
dird. L.; John W. Dhvis, 8.; P. D Brown. A. 
S ; Silas Hayes, C; Hiram Stoddard L.; A. 
J. Bavley, Sec'y; A. J. Wilton, G. K : Mrs. 
Lizzie' Wardwell. Ceres; Mrs. 8. G. Orr, Po- 
mona; Miss Sadie Stegeman, Flora; Mrs. 
Adelia J. Terry, L. A. S. 

New Castle Gbanoe— J. C. Boggs, M.; J. 
H. Mitchell, O.; Wm. H. Puffer, L.; T. F. 
Tabor. S.; L. E. Plantz, A. 8 ; Mr. J. A. 
Griffith. C; Wm. Smith, T.; B. P. Tabor, 
Sec'y; G. PerVins, G. K ; Mrs L. C. Boggs, 
Cerfs; Mrs. H. R. Perkins. Pomona; Mrs. G. 
A. Mitchell, Flora; Miss Isabella A. Boggs, 
L. A. 8. 

Snelling and Hopeton Granoss Consoli- 
D.VTED — Erastns Kelsey, M.; John Ruddle, O.; 
J. M. Strong, L.; Peter Fee, 8.; 8. W. Hotiler, 
A. S.; L. E. Smyres, C ; J. C. Grimes, T.; P. 
LarVin, Sec'y; G. W. Thomson, G. K. ; Mrs. 
M. E. Geiser, Ceres; Mrs. M. Kelsey, Pom na; 
Miss Laura Hockeid, Flora; Mrs. Maria Hobler, 
L. A. S. 

Los Angeles Grange. — Thos. A. Garey, M.; 
J. Q A. Stanley. O.; J. S. Thompson, L.; N. 
8. Montague, S.; A. T. Garey, A. 8.; J. M. 
Stewart, C ; C. H. Haas, T.; 8. A. Waldron, 
Sec'y; M. M. Dalton, G. K.; Mrs. J. Q. A. 
Stanlev, Ceies; Miss Bell Lewis, Pomona; 
Miss E. A. Graves, Flora; Mrs. 8. S. Haas, 
L. A. S. 

American River Grange, No. 172. — J. A. 
Evans. M.; D. W. Taylor. O.; W. Kane. L; M. 
Smith, S ; W. Kilgore, A. 8.; J. W. Kilgore, 
C; Wm. Detterding, T ; E. G. Morton, Sec'y; 
J. Stout, G. K.; Mrs. Monon, Ceres; Mrs. A. 
White, Pomona; Miss Addie Morton, Flora; 
Miss Alice Criswell, L. A. S. 



January 23, 1875.] 



From the Granges. 

La Honda Grange— Installation of Officers. 

On the occasion of the inatallation of the 
officers of La Honda Grange, January 2nd, 
Sister Julia E. Woodbams, delivered a very 
able address, from which we make the follow- 
ing extracts, regretting that our space will not 
permit its publication entire : 

Pitrons, our Grange numbers but few mem- 
bers; it is in the mpantains, where we have al- 
ways been taught that ignorance and supersti- 
tion went hand in band, with lawlessness and 
inefficiency. Shall this be true of us? Or shall 
we rise in our might and prove to the world, 
that, although our Grunge is in the mountains, 
we will go on from good to better, until we help 
conquer the prejudices existing against our 
Order. If not willing to do this, we had better 
quit calling ourselves Grangers, and leave the 
honorable name to others. I know we can do 
this if we try ; all the doubting Thomases to 
the contrary, notwithstanding. Nor need we 
be ashamed of our mountain home; for the 
mountains have been a refuge for the oppressed 
and persecuted of all ages. 

It is a mistaken notion that man alone is to 
labor for the common good of the family. I 
have found no place in the bible where wo- 
man is exempt trom the curse of labor; but we 
are told that "a virtuous woman riseth while it 
is yet night and giveth meat to her household, 
and a portion to her maidens. She iayeth her 
bands to the spindle, and her bands take hold 
of the distafif. She openeth her mouth with 
wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kind- 
ness. She looketh well to the wavs of her house- 
hold; and eateth not the bread of idleness." 
The reward or promise given to such a woman 
is that "her children arise up and call her 
blessed; her husbund also praiseth her." Is 
not this more than gold or silver, or to be 
known by the world ? 

To those who think farmers' wives are to be 
pittied, I would say, "Give her of the fruit of 
her bands, and let her works praise her in the 
gates." This the Grange has done. Then do 
you wonder ihat women are willing to work 
for its principles. Some of you have labored 
for other's emancipation, now labor for your 
own. Let us be vigilant to eradicate the evils 
which have surrounded us, from the time when 
the first man and woman was turned out of their 
earthly paradise to become tillers of the soil. 

We have the promise that the seed of woman 
should crush the serpent's head. There are 
serpents in our day more potent for evil than 
the one that entetred the garden of Eden. Then 
claim the promise and crush oppression out of 
oar land. 

Enterprise Grange. 

Editors Pbess: — Thinking tiiat perhaps some 
of yotir many readers might like to hear from 
this locality, I take the liberty to send you a 
lew items. Our Grange is prospering finely, 
we had a harvest feast January 1st, when a 
class of ten was taken in as fourth degree mem- 
bers. We now ntimber 88, with a fair percent- 
age of good working members, and are about 
ready to move on the enemy's works, as we 
have nearly all within our boundary lines al- 
ready in the fleM. The day was fine and we 
were honored with the presence of many visi- 
tors from sister Granges; and, to express my- 
self in as few words as possible,' I will say we 
had a glorious time. Nearly every available 
foot of land in this section of country is sown 
and if we have a favorable season from this on 
we expect a bountiful harvest. Albkrt Root, 

Brighton, January 14, 1875. 
Antioch Grange. 

Eds. Press: — Your piper has been coming 
to me for one year, and I have no fault to find 
with it. It is just what it claims to be. I 
have also been taking the Oranger, and it has 
been worth all it cost me and more. I wish 
Bro. Henning success with all my heart, and 
am glad you have united your papers, and 
hope it may prove well for all parties. Our 
Grange is getting along very well. Farmers 
have been looking discouraged for some 
time in consequence of the long, dry spell; but 
yesterday it clouded and last night and to-day 
we have had light rains. We hope it will rain 
till their faces get back to their proper length* 
again. We are in a dry county, but if it rains 
enough to make crops this year, we will have 
the largest crop that has ever been grown 
around Antioch, for there has been more good 
farming done this year than ever before for the 
last SIX years. Wishing you all the success, 
and hoping I will not fail to get every copy of 
your paper. James D. Dabby. 

Antioch, Jan. U, 1875. 

Ukiah Grange. 

Ukiah Grange, No. 114, P. of H., had its of- 
ficers for the ensuing >ettr installed Saturday, 
the 2d inst. Past Master, W. D. White, acted 
as installing officer. Quite a number of invited 
guests were present. After the ceremony, all 
partook of a bountiful repast, furnished by the 
lady Patrons. Worthy Master Lucas, return- 
ing home in the evening from the above in- 
• stallation, found htsbarn, containing his winter 
supply of hay and grain, burned to the ground. 
He is unable to account for the origin of the 
fire. If you find the above items of interest 
they are at your service. Yours fraternally. 
Geo. W. McCowen, Ukiah. 
Los Banos Grange. 

Editors Press. — Qur Grange is in fine work- 
ing order, at present, although we have lost 
some of our members, that have withdrawn to 
join Granges nearer their homes, Those that 



remain are earnest and diligent laborers. We 
are determined not to have our Grange classed 
among'the list of "dead" Granges. We do not 
expect to reap the benefits immediately, that 
await us in the future. The farmers in this 
vicinity are becoming very disheartened, ovring 
to the long spell of dry weather. The grain 
that is growing, (that portion which has been 
sown), looks very well so far, although if we 
do not have rain in a short time there will be a 
poor show for crops iu this vicinity. 

John H. Beaver, Sec'y. 
Temescal Grange— Interesting Meeting. 

In spite of the inclemency of the weather 
there was a fair representa'ion of Temescal 
Grangers at their regular meeting on Saturday. 
An informal discussion was held on various 
subjects of interest to farmers, more especially 
tree planting and the destruction of squirrels 
Worthy Master Webster called out the opinions 
of the members on the subject of alfalfa sow- 
ing; the best time; preparation of ground; 
amount of seed to the acre, etc. Several mem- 
bers would not plant the locust because of the 
sprouts, they are as diffitiult to get rid of a« 
the wild morning glory. Brother Bagge would 
give much to know if any one .had ever suc- 
ceeded in getting rid of the latter pest. He 
once hired a man to follow up a root, the head of 
which had already been repeatedly attacked. 
They drifted in all directions after sinking the 
first shaft and made various cross-cuts, but the 
root kept ahead of them growing larger and 
stouter all the while; at last they gave up in dis- 
pair. The morning glory seed is in nearly all the 
alfalfa offered for sale, but did not injure the 
hay. But it was one of the worst plagues in 
corn and other fields requiring clean cultiva- 
tion. Brother John Kelsey reported a sure 
thing, he thought, on squirrels. A Contra 
Costa friend had come to his nursery for euca- 
lyptus trees, and he felt in duty bound to tell 
him that squirrels were almo.st fatal to the 
hopes of eucalyptus planters. The gentleman 
replied he was not afraid of squirrels, his wife 
had a remedy against their depredations, and 
Brother Kelsey had given the recipe a most sat- 
isfactory trial. It is this: 

To half a pint of molasses or syrnp; add 
from half to a teacup of water. Put in an 
iron kettle an<$ let it come to a boil. White boil- 
ing add two and a half sticks of phosphorus 
(it will not take fire) stir tnoroughly until it is 
perfectly mixed. Then stir in four quarts of 
wheat, and stir enough to have the whole mass 
of wheat well poisoned and glazed. Brother 
Kelsey had found only two squirrels on his 
place after the second trial. He thinks the 
prenaration equally destructive to gophers. 

The Lecturer read from a very interesting ad- 
dress given by Professor A. L. Perry, of Wil- 
liams College, before the last Nebraska State 
Fair, the following excellent summary: 

1. Farmers are really most everybody, but 
have been, heretofore, pohiically, nobody, and 
have now wisely made up their minds to become 
somebody. 

2. Nature is a friend to the tillers of the 
soil. 

3. Farmers will do well to have one, two, 
three or more crops to sell subsidary to their 
main crop. 

4 The best legislation for farmers is to " let 
alone," but actual legislation is almost always 
against them. 

5. When dollars begin to dance up and 
down in value, farmers begin to dance to a dole- 
ful tune. 

6. Greenback-grasshoppers are worse than 
any other kind of grasshoppers for the farmers. 

i. Protection is to industry what a choking 
collar is to a man, it stops healthful circula- 
tion in both ways. 

8 Permanent parties, and especially the 
parties with the principles dropped out of them, 
are of doubtful utility. Farmers are the best 
men to abolish them. 

9. Vote only for good men, who believe sub- 
stantially as you do, without the slightest refer- 
ence to worn out names and shibboleths. 

10. Keep the eyes open, look into the nature 
of things; " watch and pray," and hate a debt 
as you do the devil. 

Oristimba Grange. 

Editors Press: — We are suffering on the 
west side of the San Joaquin with our yearly 
complaint— lack of rain fall It has been nearly 
a month since we have had a sprinkle and if it 
does not come soon we will witness another '71 
We were at that time firm in the belief that ere 
this we would have a canal through this valley, 
but "e have not. On the 23d of the present 
month we will hold open Grange, inviting all 
who have a plan or prospect for getting the 
canal through to come forward and exhibit and 
explain their various plans. The farmers and 
land owners are now thorougbly in earnest to 
assist as far as they can, in any feasible 
scheme to supply this valley with water inde- 
pendent of rain. 

The officers of Oristimba Grange were in- 
stalled to-day for the ensuing year, bv Brother 
Crittenden of Cottonwood Grange. There was 
a large attendance and judging from the tone of 
the remarks made neither the Cottonwood or 
Oristimba Granges are losing interest in the 
Order, but are becoming more firm believers. 
E. H. RoBiKsoN, Sec'y. 

Roseville Grange. 
Editors Press:— It is with regret that I an- 
nounce to you the resignation of H. F. Davis 
as Worthy Ma.ster of thia Grange. The office 
was declared vacant and A. D Neher was re- 
elected to serve for the ensuing year. H. F. 
Davis resigned on accoitnt of ill health. 

J. D. Gould, Sec'y, 



New Castle Grange. 

Ed.s. Press: — Vou have no doubt before this 
received notice of the organization of a flour- 
ishing Grange in this place. We begin with 
twenty-eight members. You may expect good 
work from us. I add a list of officers elected 
January 9th, 1875. B. P. Taylor, Sec'y. 

New Castle, Jan. 16, 1875. 

Owing to a press of matter, the following 
items were unavoidably omitted last week: 
Lower Lake Grange. 

Ediors Press:— Below is a list of officers of 
Lower Lake Grange, No 77, as furnished by 
our Secretary and published in your valuable 
paper of the 7th of November last, which we 
suppose will appear in the next monthly di- 
rectory. Our Grange is prospering nicely. A 
large number of the members manifesting a 
deep interest in its welfare. The social fea- 
tures of our Order are necessarily neglected to 
some extent in consequence of having "degree 
work" at every meeting since our organization. 
We are contemplating holding monthly meet- 
ings in the future, to be devoted exclusively to 
the discussion of topics strictly connected 
with the best interests of our noble Order. 
The dry weather of the past few weeks is being 
used to advantage by the farmers of this local- 
ity, much low land being cultivated this season 
for the first time. The eighty-one pound beet 
on exhibition at Lower Lake, was raised by 
Bro. C. O. Gieene, my nearest neighbor. Sis 
ter Wilson, our very efficient Secretary, is en- 
gaged getting up a club for the Rural; you 
will hear from her soon. J. W. Howard. 

Lower Lake, Lake county, Jan. 8, 1875. 

[The notice of election of officers will be 
found in its appropriate place. The above is 
just such a message as we like to receive 
"From the Granges," evincing a sufficiency of 
zeal for the Order, giving assurance of the 
healthy condition of the Grange from whence 
it comes; conveying a little local and agricu- 
tural information, and being entirely free from 
the gossipy, critical element which, we are 
sorry to say, is perceptible in some of these 
messages. — Eds. Press.] 

Sacramento Grange. 

Editors Press:- After a lapse of some 
months of silence on my part, and as the year 
is drawing to a close, I will state something iu 
behalf of the above Grange. In aking a retro- 
spective glance over its field of usefulness, I 
can see signs of steady progress issuing out of 
its workings, auspices of brighter events at the 
opening of the new year. Our membership is 
gradually increasing and embracing many 
heads of families that encourage the growth 
and welfare— not only of the Order — but cul- 
ture of the soil and interest for their brother 
farmers of the valley. The social relation is a 
pleasing feature of the Order, and is generally 
so regarded. Situated at the capital and center 
of the State, it should stand foremost in the 
State. Our meetings are regular every second 
and fourth Saturday of the month, and some- 
times an extra session is held. As many reside 
from one to 15 miles away, they have time to 
do their shopping and attend to the Grange 
the same day. Finding our time has mostly 
been employed in initiating members which 
leaves but little time in consideration of mat- 
ters of importance for the Grange. A resolu- 
tion was passed lately that we devote all regular 
meetings to the interest of the Order, and have 
special meetioes for initiating, and I think the 
Order will be benefited thereby. It is expected 
that at the first regular meeting of January, 
the new officers will be installed for 1875. 
We will commence the first extra meetings 
Jan. 2d, with a new class and take up mem- 
bers as they have passed in order, hoping the 
new year as it opens may awaken new life and 
spirit in us all, and enable us to accomplish 
whatever we undert ke. ' G. E. 

Sacramento, Doc. 28th, 1874. 

Installation at Haywards. 

Although last Saturday was cold and foggy, 
we had a pleasant installation of officers of 
Eden Grange. We found new faces among the 
earnest and hopeful members, making progress 
since a previous visit. Let Eden Grange do 
its best, and it must stand as one of the 
strongholds of the Order. The sisters of this 
Grange deserve praise for their active efibrts. 
After adjournment, a little harvest fea?t was 
set iu the hall as if by magic, no collation 
having been anticipated save by three or four 
ladies who seem to have a way of their own in 
performing good deeds. It was a hit that adds 
a bright spot in the pleasure field of the 
Grange. 

Petaluma Grange. 

Past Master Walker informs us that things 
went merry as usual at their installation last 
Saturday. A good feature of this Grange is 
the accommodation it has for the members 
during the day of their visit to town, ere the 
Grange is opened. The rooms are used for 
reading, consulting and visiting among mem- 
bers and their friends. 

Centerville. 

Worthy Master Hellar, of Eden Grange, as 
Deputy of Alameda county, installed the offi- 
cers of Centerville Grange. Jan. 2d, after which 
he says they had a good time generally. 
Sunol, Alameda Co. 

The officers of this Grange are to be installed 
by Doputj Hellar, Saturday, Jan. 16. 
Gilroy. 

The installation of officers of this Grange is 
to take place on Saturday of next week. 



General News Items. 

A Social Science Association for Califob" 
NiA. — A meeting was held on Saturday last at 
the Chamber of Commerce, with the object of 
initiating steps to found a Social Science Asso- 
ciation for California. There were present 
President Oilman of the State Universitv, Bev- 
H. Stebbins, Dr. G. A. Shurtleflf, W. W. Crane, 
Rev. A Williams, C. T. Hopkins, Rev. J Eels, 
Rev. O. Gibson, Dr. Gibbons and J. T. Doyle. 
A committee was appointed to prepare a con- 
stitution. The objects of a similar movement 
in Oakland are thus defined: "To investigate 
questions of social science, and collect and pub- 
lish mature views regarding such subject with 
reference to a determination of the true and 
safe principles which underlie the industrial, 
economical and administrative interests of the 
commonwealth." These are arranged under 
the following sections: 1. Production and 
commerce. 2. Jurisprudence and legislation. 
3. Crime and its treatment. 4. Education 
and health. 5. Municipal administration. 

Fearful Scene on the Scaffold. — Two 
negroes were hanged at Hemstead, Long Is- 
land, on Friday of last week, whose names 
were Jackson and Jarvis. The former died 
with but few struggles, but the rope by which 
Jarvis was suspended broke, and when another 
was procured and a second attempt made to 
hang him, the noose slipped out of the lateh- 
ring and the poor wretch still stood. He was 
understood to say, piteously, "For God's sake, 
gentleman, make sure work of it this time." 
He was then literally pulled up by hand and 
slowly strangled to death. 

Charley Ross. — The detectives searching for 
Charley Ross have expended more than $20,- 
000. Commissioners have searched from ocean 
to ocean and across; 700,000 circulars have been 
issued, printing and photographing have cost 
$8,000; a corps of clerks have been employed 
in the correspondence about the boy ; 200 bands 
of gypsies have been searched, one stray boy 
has been found and taken home to his mourn- 
ing parents; Charley Rosses have been reported, 
almost without number; and at least 500,000 
persons at one lime or another have been on 
the search. And yet no Charley Ross. 

Postal Changes on the Pacific Coast. — 
The following Postal changes have been order- 
ed for the Pacific coast: Names changed— Gar- 
rote, Tuolumne county, California, to Grove- 
land. Postmasters appointed — Marks Men- 
delson, at Capistrano, Los Angeles county, 
California, Gideon E. Thurmond, at Carpen- 
teria, Santa Barbara county, California; Allen 
H IJartlett, at Knight's Ferry, Stanislaus 
county, California; H. C. Pratt, at Soledad, 
Monterey county, California; Guy Hayues, at 
Walker's Prairie, Stevens county, W. "T. 

A British Crew Massacred. — The telepraph 
on Tuesday reported from New Zealand, via 
London, that the cutter "Lapwing" was re- 
cently attacked by the natives of Santa Cruz 
island, the crew overpowered and massacred, 
and the vessel burned. The savages afterward 
attacked the British war-ship "Sand Fly," but 
were driven off. ■ 

One of the Lick Mondments.— A design for 
a monument to the father and five relatives of 
James Lick, mentioned in his bequests, has 
been made by Dr. Horatio Stone. The figures 
are mounted on a pedestal seventeen feet high, 
and surmounting the monument is a bronze 
statue of William Lick as a revolutionary hero. 

Kino Kalakaua and suite arrived at St. 
Louis, on Monday evening, and were met by 
the city officials and General Sherman and a 
few members of his staff. His Majesty was es- 
corted to the Southern hotel, where he was wel- 
comed by the Mayor. 

Human Skeletons.— A bed of human skele- 
tons, twenty-five in number, was recently dis- 
covered between King's river and Kane slough, 
Tulare county. The discovery created quite an 
excitement; but, as yet, no definite conclusion 
has been arrived at. 

The "Alaska," which was recently driven 
ashore near Hong Kong, has been hauled off, 
She sailed for this port January 15th. The of- 
ficers and crew of the "Japan," lately burned, 
will probably return on the "Alaska." 

Vessel on Fire in the Bay. — A firebroke out 
on Saturday last in the hold of a British ship 
which had just arrived in this harbor, loadrfd 
with coal. She was towed to the flats and sunk 
in shoal water. 

A St. Cboix girl, in a recent fit of anger, be- 
cause she could not get her foot into a small 
shoe, seized a carving-knife and cut off^ her 
little toe. 

Cats and Tbichina.— A large number of oats 
in the vicinity of Richmond, Va., have recently 
died from what is supposed to be trichina. 

Steamer Wrecked.— The steamship "Alice," 
from Cardiff for Constantinople, was recently 
lost at sea, with twenty persons. 

The trial of Muybridge for the murder of 
Larkyns will commence at Napa on the first 
Monday of February. 

KiNQ Alfonso, of Spain, is to take the field 
in person against the Carlists. He is a boy of 
17 years. 

The cost of the expeditions for observing the 
transit of Venus is estimated at $1,500,000, 

White deer are common in Oregon, 




[January 23, 1875 



Kipe Wheat. 

Some few years since a lady friend of Eliza 
O. Crosby, in speaking of the death of a mutual 
acquaiutaDce, somewhat advanced in years, 
whose funeral she had recently attended, said; 
"Among the white flowers in her coffin was a 
bunch of ripe wheat, end I thought it most 
beauti'ul and appropriate." The next day 
Miss Crosby p°nned the following lines apd 
eeut them to Moore's Rural iVeio- Tbrfcer, where 
they were originally published: 

We bent to-day o'er a coffined form, 

And our tears fell softly down; 
We looktd our last on the aged fac«. 
With its look of peace, its patient grace, 

And hair like a silver crown. 

We tonched our own to the clay-cold hands. 

From life's lone labor at rest; 
And among the blossoms white and sweet. 
We noted a bonch of gcjlden wheat. 

Clasped cloee to the silent breast. 

The blossoms whispered of fadele-ss bloom. 

Of a land wkere fnW no tears; 
The ripe wheat told of toil an'l care. 
The patient waiting, the trusting prayer. 

The garnered good of the years. 

We knew not what work her hands had found. 

What rugged places her feet; 
Whnt cross wa» hers, what blackness of night; 
We saw but the peace, the blossoms white, 

And the bunch of ripened wheat. 

As each goes np from the field of earth. 

Bearing the treasures of life, 
Ood looks for some gathered grain of good. 
From the ripe harvest that shining stood, 

■But waiting the reaper's knife. 

Then labor well, that in death you go 

Not only with blossoms sweet — 
Not bent with doubt, and burdened with fearf , 
And dead, dry husks of the wasted years.— 

But laden with golden wheat. 



Rural Winter Evenings- 
Present. 



-Past and 



[Written for the Pbebs by John Taylor.] 
Musing to-night on the many inroads made 
by the march of time, on the way the winter 
evenings are disposed of, I found memory 
bridging a chaam of fifty years, and once more 
was a silent witness to the buzz of the spinning 
wheel and cranky jerkiugs of the fabled reel. 
How the fingers move with lightning speed as 
they run up and down the thread as it is fash- 
ioned from the lead of 'tow;' and then sent 
to the reel, to be again utilized by happy, 
patient fingers, in the warm stockings for 
family use. The spinning wheel was a nucleus 
around which the old and young maids and 
matrons congregated, and if nothing was being 
spoken worthy of note, it was a something to 
look at, the operator, being the observed of all 
observers. Many a long winter's night the 
spinning wheel was the only music heard in 
thousands of happy homes of the long ago. 
Many a love match has lighted under the in- 
spiring influences of the reel, and also lessons 
of thrift learned by its domestic use. I love to 
gaze through the haze of years, and weave the 
old web anew. lu the mind's eye the long lost 
loved ouea are marshalled in J^rajr colors, and 
living to perform cenic scenes in life, as if the 
curtain had only been newly dropped, and 
raised again for the second act, in the great 
drama of life — illusions, one would say. Can 
it be pobsible for the ghost of long ago to 
appear phantom like; and perform anew scenes 
long ago buried in the tomb of the past. Ah, 
but it is real to the inner man! 1 see the eye 
sparkle, fingers move the wheel, as a thing of 
life; and hear agiiu the tones of the loved 
ones, in friendly repartee, and mingling voices 
in the melody of good " Old Hundred." The 
memory of the past is one of God's grandest 
gilts 10 man. By this power he is enabled to 
weave the web of life, never loosing the thread. 
We come away down the age^, spinning a life's 
record to record a different mode of spending 
the long winter's evenings socially, inteilect- 
.ually and indnstrially. "Tbe spinning wheel 
and reel has given place to the sewing maohino 
and piano. It is really a marvel still, to those 
used to the slow coaches of the past. To wit- 
ness the fineness of touch and rapidity which 
seam after seam is united, the young lady, too, 
with her modern mode of dress and cultivated, 
airy appearance, seems at home with her silver 
mounted machine, as we take iu the all ensemble. 
We tbank God for the improvements, and im- 
proved condition of rural life. Compared with 
the long ago, it is only.a slight effort to leave 
the sewing machine and appear before the 
piano. Perfect with th« first perfection is 
nearly reached wiih the latter. Few well tried 
rural homes but what have their musical in- 
Btrnments. Music is a civilizerl and few homes 
should be without it. The sewing machine 
and piano, or parlor organ, is just as necessary 
to a well regulated houi-ehold as a bible and 
choir in a church. Perhaps in the great fuluie 
when the now young, will be old and gray, in- 
novations in social and iudnstrial life will be 
as distinct as the present from the past. From 
past experi«nce we may anticipate great im- 



provements in various outward and domestic 
arrangements. Young ladies will then propel 
their sewing machines by steam from invisible 
sources. Music will steal upon the senses 
sweet as .Eolian whisperings, without knowing 
from whence or where. And the sleep called 
death will be a translation. The music of the 
spheres commencing as the music of earth dies 
away. And the faces which haunt the memory 
from the long ago will be a pleasant reality. 
We would not wish to prolong his or her life, 
to enjoy the scenes of the peaceful, progressive 
future, a future which will take us beyond our 
present in proportion as the present takes us 
beyond the spinning wheel and reel of the 
past. 

Youth's Pleasures. 

(Written for the Pbbu.] 

A love of the beautiful, of flowers, music, the 
songs of birds, and all the enchantments of 
nature is a pleasure that peculiarly belongs to 
the years of youth, though many preserve it 
even as they journey down the sunset* slope of 
life. With the true heart I think it never dies 
though the rapturous thrill at the sound of 
sweet music or the sight of a fine sunset may 
be suppressed, toned down by the cares and 
sorrows of accumulating years, just as the dust 
of earth dims the luster of fine gold. Fame 
is a dream that lingers around the footsteps of 
youth and often leads him into forbidden ways. 
Wealth too is the goal of many a youthful 
heart's ambition, fame and wealth are supposed 
to bring happiness, which latter alter all is the 
grand end for which we all strive. With the 
advance of years the intensity of these dreams 
and passions and the anticipated pleasures of 
their attainment slowly fade out by repeated 
disappointments ond are often replaced by 
nonler thoughts and better ambitions. 

But is there not something of regret mingled 
with the thought of growing old? 

To sometimes list to the muffled sound 
Of the waves that die on the banner coast. 

And see the spot where our hopes went down 
With the beautiful things we loved and lost! 

We look on the backward track and see it 
strewn with our idols, our idols that we have 
cast away, one by one, or that fate has 
wrenched from us. Here a splendid dream, 
never realized, there the memory of a lost hope; 
again a fortune that vanished in onr very 
grasp, broken friendships, lost love and «11 the 
sorrowful train that make up life's miseries. 
We are going down to old age, shorn of most 
of the beautiful endowments that once crowned 
existence with roses. But happy are those 
who possess a hope that grows greener with age. 
If the light of faith burns in onr hearts we will 
see by its radiance the "gates ajar" of the 
Koyal City, whose maker and builder is God, 
within whose walls there is no disappointment 
and no blighted dreams. 

After all else has perished and we are 
crowned with gray hairs and we wander slowly 
toward the narrow sea that separates time 
from eternity, with the phantoms of past 
pleasures sinking back in the shadows of long 
forgotten years, the words of "Him who spoke 
as never man spoke" brings a light and a com- 
fort to the world-worn and weary heart. So 
brings a consolation and a sweet peace that 
all the restless dreams of earlier years could 
not give. At last we have found the true am- 
bition. To live so that we shall be worthy of 
an entrance into that higher and better exist- 
ence, eternal life. Pomoha. 



Thk ErFEOT op Imagination.— The Hamp- 
shire Gazette tells a good story of a good deacon 
of Northampton, well illustrating the power of 
the imagination over the mind. Said deacon 
boards at a hotel, and being near-sighted, 
wears spectacles. One morning he got up as 
usual, put. on his spectacles, but to his surprise 
could not see through them. Thinking that 
the dimness of vision was temporary, he went 
to his business, but his powers of seeing did 
not increase, and iu alarm he consulted the 
family physician, who assured him he was 
perfectly well. But the deacon knew he was 
sick, went home, and, with the aid of his wife, 
made elaborate preparations to take a sweat. 
At this juncture a lady who occupied an ad- 
joining room came in to look for her spectacles 
which she had left there the night before, ^nd 
claimed the pair the deacon had been wearing 
all the morning. As these spectacles were in- 
tended for a long-sighted person, whereas the 
deacon was short-sighted, the difficulty was 
explained at once, and the deacon did not take 
his sweat. 



Two Kinds of Gibls. — There are two kinds 
of girls. One is the kind that appears best 
abroad — the girls that are good for parties, 
rides, visits, balls, etc., whose chi^f delight is 
in all such thing. The other is the kind that 
appears best at home — the girls that are u^^eful 
and cheerful in the dining-room, the sick-room, 
and all the precincts of home. They differ 
widely in character. One is frequently a tor- 
ment at home; the other is a blessing. One is 
a moth, consuming everything about her; the 
other is a sunbeam, inspiring life and gladness 
all along the pathway. Now it does not neces- 
sarily follow that there shall be two classes of 
Kirls, The right modification would modify 
I hem both a little, and unite their characters 
in one. 



Keeping Up Appearances. 

The Interior, in an article on the "Art of Liv- 
ing," has some earnest words on a topic which 
it is to be feared, ia not altogether inappropri- 
ate to California. It says: Extravagance is 
the rock on which society is going to pieces. 
Let us face the danger before it is too late to 
avert it. Single people shrink from marriage 
because they see married people living iu a per- 
petual whirl of bills and competition and sooial 
hypocrisy. An air of common deception hangs 
around all of our houses. We are afraid to be 
poor. On one thousand a year how shall we 
keep up the appearance of three thousand. 
That is the stAnding social problem. In such 
a case luxury in the parlor necessitates mean- 
ness somewhere else. Our laoe curtains tell 
fearful lies. Let us have a reform and coma 
down to a specie basis. The well-to-do people 
ornament their houses with mortgages; the 
poor run bills; high pressure marks all life from 
the cottage to the mansion, and in three direc- 
tions is ruinous. 

First — It is finanbial ruin. Any man who 
puts a dollar into appearance is on the way to 
8ink a fortune. Living costs about twice what 
it ought — fully twice in California what it does 
in Europe. There is no reason for it. This ia a 
laud of grain and fruits and abundant work. 
The man who spends two thousand a year could 
live on one and be happier. Perhaps not, in- 
deed, by himself. The social level needs to 
sink from extravagance to thrifty eeonomy. Ii 
this is the way out of national trouble it is 
doubly the way out of family worries. Be brave, 
honest, straight through your domebtic arrange- 
ments, though the two-story must yield to the 
cottage, and the pudding to corn meal. 

Second— It is mental ruin. The money that 
is spent on horses and dress, and table un- 
necessaries, would fill all our homes with books. 
The expensive furniture would be well replaced 
by pictures to bo a constant refining and en- 
lightening influence. The money it costs many 
a family of moderate means to keep np four 
week's appearance at the sea shore would fill 
their home with treasures of knowledge and art. 
Instead of that, the glorious month at Long 
■Branch is followed by eleven months of scrimp- 
ing in the kitchen and general meanness all 
around. 

Third — It is moral ruin. People cannot sys- 
tematically deceive without the lines are velvet 
and silky. The penalty comes in the loss of 
self respect. The man who mortgages his 
property to keep up the family style thereby 
mortgages bis name to the devil. Instead of 
studying moral philosophy to find the cause of 
general social disorder, loosening of home 
bonds and losing of purity, let it come down to 
an honest way of living. Let it make our car- 
pets and our table and our cloths tell the truth, 
and then, perhaps, our children will. A blight 
will surely fall on all our social life unless we 
recover ourselves from that great American vice, 
truckling, and live honestly before men. The 
seeds of hypocrisy are in the heart of every 
child that goes out from a household whose 
whole life is a sham. In vain we preach honesty 
and sincerity from the pulp